Presentation on theme: "18th century intellectual Enlightenment movement which emphasized reason and the scientific method as the means to perfect society thinkers during this."— Presentation transcript:
18th century intellectual Enlightenment movement which emphasized reason and the scientific method as the means to perfect society thinkers during this "Age of Reason" challenged the established social order by calling for a just society based on reason
Was an 18 th century philosophical movement of intellectuals who were greatly impressed with the achievements of the Scientific Revolution.
POLITICAL THINKERS JOHN LOCKE People have natural rights no government can take away without consent of the people Purpose of government is to protect the rights of the people Citizens have the right to rebel against government that does not respect rights of the people The statement No taxation without representation was partly influenced by him (1632-1704)
Argued that every person was born with a tabula rasa or blank mind. He suggested that people were mold by the experiences that came through their senses from the surrounding world. Believe that if environments were changed and people were exposed to the right influences, then people could be changed to create a new and better society.
English empirical philosopher, author of Two Treatises on Government - people have natural rights (life, personal liberty, property); government is a social contract between people and those who govern his ideas were used to justify the American and French Revolutions; words paraphrased by Jefferson in Declaration of Independence (1632- 1704)
World machine operated according to natural laws, which could be uncovered through systematic investigation. If use scientific method would be able to discover the natural laws that governed human society. (Basically, if people question what is happening in society then they can discover new ways to correct it which makes a better society.)
Philosophe member of a group of Enlightenment thinkers who tried to apply the methods of science to the improvement of society in the 1700s, scientific successes convinced educated Europeans of the power of human reason philosophes began to use reason to discover natural laws Lovers of wisdom
Intellectuals of enlightenment called philosophe which means philosopher. Most leaders of the enlightenment were French.
1.The Role of Philosophy was to change the world.
Did a study of governments. Three basic kinds of government: 1. Republic for small states 2. Despotism for large states 3. Monarchies for moderate size states Used England as an example of a monarchy. England had 3 branches of government- Executive (king), legislative (parliament), the judicial (courts) Used separation of powers with a system of checks and balances. Used his principles in the U.S. Constitution.
BARON de MONTESQUIEU The separation of powers is the best way to protect liberty. Each branch of government should serve as a check on the others. He believed the purpose of the separation of powers was to protect the rights of the people
Baron de Montesquieu 1689-1755 French noble, bishop and philosopher; developed idea of separation of power in government in legislative, judicial and executive functions, each controlled by a different - and competing - group within society ; author of The Spirit of the Laws
Greatest figure was Francois Marie Arouet known as Voltaire. Especially known for his criticism of Christianity and his strong belief in religious toleration. He championed deism, 18 th century religious philosophy based on reason and natural law. In this view a mechanic (God) had created the universe. The universe was like a clock. God had created it, set it in motion and allowed it to run without his interference and according to its own natural laws.
Voltaire pen name of Francois Marie Arouet best-known literary figure of the French Enlightenment said "Ecrasez l'infame" (Crush the infamous thing), Believed freedom, reason, natural law and progress would overcome the ignorance and intolerance of the Church and social authorities of his day
PHILOSOPHES Defended the free market VOLTAIRE and the principle of freedom of speech. Used wit to expose abuses and corruption Opposed the slave trade and religious prejudice (1694-1778) I may not agree with what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it Was jailed in the Bastille by King Louis XV
Denis Diderot, wrote the Encyclopedia to collect all the new information being brought into the world. Was a 28 volume set of information. An amazing first large-scale synthesis of all knowledge
Was a physiocrat, French Enlightenment thinkers, who searched for natural laws to explain economics. Rejected mercantilism(government regulation of trade) Physiocrat was interested in identifying the natural economic laws that governed human society. Maintained that if individuals were free to pursue their own economic self interest all society would benefit. The state should not interrupt the free play of natural economic forces by imposing regulations on the economy. Became known as laissez-faire.
Adam Smith, in his work, The Wealth of Nations, he gave government 3 roles: 1 st should protect society from invasion, 2 nd should defend from injustices 3 rd and final, should keep up certain public works that private individuals alone could not afford. (Roads, canals-used for social interaction and trade.)
Adam Smith 1723-1790 Scottish economist and author of Wealth of Nations (1776); first to describe and support capitalism tried to show that the natural economic forces of supply and demand were linked to profit and economic growth Supported "laissez faire" market system and free trade among nations Opposed mercantilism (economy left alone by government to operate through the efforts of private Individuals motivated by desire for profit
Cesare Beccaria believed that punishment should not be exercised in brutality. Was against capital punishment.
Jean Jacques Rousseau was one of the most famous of later enlightenment. Argued that people had adopted laws and government in order to preserve their private property. Rousseau presented his concept of the social contract. Through a social contract the entire society agrees to be governed by its general will. So liberty is achieved by being forced to followed what is best for the general will because the general will represents what is best for the entire community. He sought a balance between heart and mind, between emotions and reason.
Social contract agreement by which people trade freedom to a government in exchange for security (avoid chaos)
Mary Wollstonecraft advanced the strongest statement for the rights of women. She noted that the same people who argued that women must obey men also said that government based on arbitrary power of monarchs over their subjects, was wrong. She also argued that enlightenment was based on an idea of reason in all human beings. So women are entitled to same rights as men because women have reason.
Enlightenment slogan free and equal did not apply to women The most radical idea expressed by women in the Enlightenment was that women were not inferior to men
Great importance to enlightenment was the spread of ideas to the literate elite. Many new books were written and directed at the new reading middle class. London had the first daily newspapers.
Were the elegant drawing rooms of the wealthy upper classs great urban houses. Brought writers and artists together with aristocrats, government official, and wealthy middle class people. Marie Geoffrin was one of the greatest. Here they would sway political opinions and influence literacy and artistic taste.
Thinkers during the Age of Reason challenged the established social order by calling for a just society based on reason Government and church officials fought against these Enlightenment ideas through censorship
Attacked Christian Church yet most enlightened thinkers were still Christian. In England the most famous new religious and evangelical movement-Methodism was started by John Wesley. His sermons often caused people to have conversion experiences.
Philosphers, writers, economists, social reformers Philosophes To let (people) do (what they want) Laissez-faire Rousseau argued that society should be governed by what? Social contract
In The Wealth of Nations, ________ gave roles to the government. These roles included protection(army),public works (roads and canals), and defense(the police). Adam Smith Who believed in: balance of heart and mind, rule of the general will, and education fostering natural instincts? Rousseau
Diderots Encyclopedia was used to attack what? Religious superstition A system of political limits and controls Separation of powers Idea that God lets the universe run by its own laws deism
Allows for society to be governed by its general will. Social contract Montesquieus ideas were used in what? U.S. Constitution