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II. The Enlightenment After applying the new way of scientific thinking to their world, Enlightenment thinkers, or philosophers, reexamined all aspects.

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Presentation on theme: "II. The Enlightenment After applying the new way of scientific thinking to their world, Enlightenment thinkers, or philosophers, reexamined all aspects."— Presentation transcript:

1 II. The Enlightenment After applying the new way of scientific thinking to their world, Enlightenment thinkers, or philosophers, reexamined all aspects of life ( government, justice, and women’s rights). This section will focus on these changes.

2 Enlightenment 18th century intellectual movement which emphasized
reason and the scientific method as the means to perfect society thinkers during this "Age of Reason" challenged the established social A movement of 18th century intellectuals (17 hundreds) Focus was on reason ( application of the scientific method to understanding all life. They hoped that by doing this they would achieve a better society than the one they currently had. Main words of focus in achieving this goal were reason, natural law, hope, and progress. These words would lead to reform and eventual revolution through the world. order by calling for a just society based on reason

3 A. Path to the Enlightenment
Was an 18th century philosophical movement of intellectuals who were greatly impressed with the achievements of the Scientific Revolution.

4 Political Thinkers (1632-1704) JOHN LOCKE
People have natural rights no government can take away without consent of the people Purpose of government is to protect the rights of the people Citizens have the right to rebel against government that does not respect rights of the people The statement “No taxation without representation” was partly influenced by him

5 1. John Locke Argued that every person was born with a tabula rasa or blank mind. He suggested that people were mold by the experiences that came through their senses from the surrounding world. Believe that if environments were changed and people were exposed to the right influences, then people could be changed to create a new and better society. He believed that people were created with a blank mind that became filled through the experiences of life. This would fill their mind and create the person. If a person could be exposed to proper surroundings they would fill their mind with experiences that would make themselves better and society. Remember lock had originally believed people to be good and was against absolute monarchy. His idea was that government was important to protect property but if the government did not work for the people then it could be over thrown and a new one established by the people.

6 John Locke English empirical philosopher,
( ) English empirical philosopher, author of Two Treatises on Government - people have natural rights (life, personal liberty, property); government is a social contract between people and those who govern his ideas were used to justify the American and French Revolutions; words paraphrased by Jefferson in Declaration of Independence

7 2. Isaac Newton World machine operated according to natural laws, which could be uncovered through systematic investigation. If use scientific method would be able to discover the natural laws that governed human society. (Basically, if people question what is happening in society then they can discover new ways to correct it which makes a better society.) Isaac Newton, was a scientist as we read earlier but his ideas also applied to the social world which the philosophers of the time were trying to understand. The idea of believing the world was like a machine which was controlled by natural order that could be understood through systematic investigation. Thinkers believed that if Isaac could apply this scientific method to natural laws then they could discover the laws that governed human society. If everyone followed these laws than an ideal society could be established.

8 “Lovers of wisdom” Philosophe
member of a group of Enlightenment thinkers who tried to apply the methods of science to the improvement of society in the 1700s, scientific successes convinced educated Europeans of the power of human reason philosophes began to use reason to discover natural laws

9 B. Ideas of the Philosophies
Intellectuals of enlightenment called philosophe which means philosopher. Most leaders of the enlightenment were French. These philosophers followed five concepts that formed the core of their beliefs. If you were a philosophe you believed truth could be found through reason and logical thinking Nature was good and reasonable Happiness was not only found in the hereafter as people had been taught to strive towards. Instead it could be found now and that was what they should focus on. Progress- stressed that society and man kind could improve Liberty- called for the liberties the English people had won in the glorious revolution

10 1. The Role of Philosophy was to change the world.
The role of a scholar of philosophy is to study the world and try to change it for the better. A philosopher does this by using reason and proven facts Rational criticism is to be applied to everything including religion and politics. They often disagreed on their ideas of the world and would often go to place called salon ( think modern day star bucks) to discuss their ideas. Three men we will focus on who debated their ideas of what society should be are Montesquieu Voltaire Diderot

11 2. Montesquieu (French Noble)
Did a study of governments. Three basic kinds of government: 1. Republic for small states 2. Despotism for large states 3. Monarchies for moderate size states Used England as an example of a monarchy. England had 3 branches of government- Executive (king), legislative (parliament), the judicial (courts) Used separation of powers with a system of checks and balances. Used his principles in the U.S. Constitution. Was of French nobility and wrote the famous work The Spirit of the Laws Study of governments He tried to use a scientific method to find the natural laws that governed society and the political relationships of human beings He identified three basic forms of government Republic- for small states Despotism- ideal for large states Monarchies-ideal for moderate size states He focused on the English monarch as his main source of study Stated England's government had three branches: executive-monarch , legislative-Parliament, judicial-court of laws This allowed the government to function through a separation of powers- this eliminated one from having to much ( checks and balances)- this system provides the greatest security and freedom for the state. This political thought was his most lasting contribution to the world of politics.

12 BARON de MONTESQUIEU The separation of powers is the best
way to protect liberty. Each branch of government should serve as a check on the others. He believed the purpose of the separation of powers was to protect the rights of the people

13 Baron de Montesquieu 1689-1755 French noble, bishop and philosopher;
developed idea of separation of power in government in legislative, judicial and executive functions, each controlled by a different - and competing - group within society; author of The Spirit of the Laws

14 3. Voltaire Greatest figure was Francois Marie Arouet known as Voltaire. Especially known for his criticism of Christianity and his strong belief in religious toleration. He championed deism, 18th century religious philosophy based on reason and natural law. In this view a mechanic (God) had created the universe. The universe was like a clock. God had created it, set it in motion and allowed it to run without his interference and according to its own natural laws. From a prosperous middle class family and will gain wealth through his writings. Known for his criticism of Christianity and religious intolerance in France ( remember Louis the 14th- did not accept non Catholics the Huguenots) He supported Newton's idea that the world was like a clock and that go the maker had set it into motion to run without his interference. This idea was championed on the idea of deism – religious philosophy based on reason and natural law. This led to the idea that the world was to run on its own natural laws and that god did not interfere with it but just set it in motion.

15 Voltaire pen name of Francois Marie Arouet
best-known literary figure of the French Enlightenment said "Ecrasez l'infame" (Crush the infamous thing), Believed freedom, reason, natural law and progress would overcome the ignorance and intolerance of the Church and social authorities of his day

16 Philosophes VOLTAIRE (1694-1778) Defended the free market
and the principle of freedom of speech. Used wit to expose abuses and corruption Opposed the slave Was jailed in the Bastille by King Louis XV trade and religious prejudice “I may not agree with what you say, but I will defend to the death your right to say it”

17 4. Diderot (1713-1784) Denis Diderot, wrote the
Encyclopedia to collect all the new information being brought into the world. Was a 28 volume set of information. An amazing first large-scale synthesis of all knowledge He felt that the encyclopedia would change the thought of the world. The Encyclopedia would eventually become a weapon against old French society Many of the article attacked religious superstition and supported religious tolerance It was sold to doctors, clergymen, teachers, and lawyers. It helped to spread enlightenment ideas

18 C. New Social sciences During this time we will see the start of a new science called the social sciences ( economic and political science) In these areas of study the focus is on the how society itself functions and how people individual think and interact with each other

19 1. Smith on Economics Was a physiocrat, French Enlightenment thinkers, who searched for natural laws to explain economics. Rejected mercantilism(government regulation of trade) Physiocrat was interested in identifying the natural economic laws that governed human society. Maintained that if individuals were free to pursue their own economic self interest all society would benefit. The state should not interrupt the free play of natural economic forces by imposing regulations on the economy. Became known as laissez-faire. The founders of modern social science of economics are the Physiocrats and Adam Smith Physiocrats were interested in finding the natural economic laws that governed human society. They believed that if individuals were free to pursue their own economic self-interests all society would benefit. This is the idea that the state should not become involved in the natural economic forces and try to control it. This will become known as Laissez faire and is something that is still a source of argument today.

20 1st should protect society from invasion,
Adam Smith, in his work, The Wealth of Nations, he gave government 3 roles: 1st should protect society from invasion, 2nd should defend from injustices 3rd and final, should keep up certain public works that private individuals alone could not afford. (Roads, canals-used for social interaction and trade.) The best statement of laissez-faire is from Adam Smith He believed the government should not get involved in economic affairs Instead government should…. Protect society form invasion Defend citizens from injustice Provided certain public works that may help promote trade. (roads and canals)

21 Adam Smith Scottish economist and author of Wealth of Nations (1776);
Scottish economist and author of Wealth of Nations (1776); first to describe and support capitalism tried to show that the natural economic forces of supply and demand were linked to profit and economic growth Supported "laissez faire" market system (economy left alone by government to operate through the efforts of private Individuals motivated by desire for profit Opposed mercantilism and free trade among nations

22 2. Beccaria on Justice Cesare Beccaria believed that punishment should not be exercised in brutality. Was against capital punishment. Bec-car-ia 18th century many European states developed a system of courts which relied on harsh punishments for crimes to detour people from committing the crime. the primary reason for this was that state police forces were to weak to keep a cap on crime and capture criminals. Beccaria believed that punishments should not be exercises in brutality and opposed capital punishment. He did not believed that it stopped others from committing the crime It made society look barbaric

23 The Spread of Ideas Since literacy was beginning to increase in society people of the literate classes were beginning to discuss more issues about liberty, education, and the condition of women

24 1. The Social Contract Jean Jacques Rousseau was one of the most famous of later enlightenment. Argued that people had adopted laws and government in order to preserve their private property. Rousseau presented his concept of the social contract. Through a social contract the entire society agrees to be governed by its general will. So liberty is achieved by being forced to followed what is best for the general will because the general will represents what is best for the entire community. He sought a balance between heart and mind, between emotions and reason. One of the most famous enlightenment thinkers Argued that people had created government to protect their rights (as argue by locke) but had now become enslaved to it. How does one get the lost freedom back His answer was the social contract- society agrees to be governed by its general will. those who choose not to follow the general will of society must be forced to because it is what is best for society (they will be forced to be free and therefore they won’t be free). Liberty is doing what is best for all, because the general will is best fro the entire community. He also believed that education should not restrict children's natural instinct and not restrict them. He believed that reason as well as emotion were important in human development. One needs a balance between the heart, mind, emotions and reason.

25 agreement by which people trade freedom
Social contract agreement by which people trade freedom to a government in exchange for security (avoid chaos)

26 2. Women’s rights Mary Wollstonecraft advanced the strongest statement for the rights of women. She noted that the same people who argued that women must obey men also said that government based on arbitrary power of monarchs over their subjects, was wrong. She also argued that enlightenment was based on an idea of reason in all human beings. So women are entitled to same rights as men because women have reason. For centuries male intellectuals had argues that the nature of women made them inferior to men and male domination necessary. Rousseau had argued that women needed a soft life to fulfill her roles. He believed that they needed to be educated to support their roles as mothers and wives. Many female thinkers disagreed with this thought process and expressed ideas of improving their lives. Mary Wollstonecraft pointed out that those who argued over against the absolute power of monarchs also supported that male domination was ok. She pointed out that the male domination over women was equally wrong. She argued the enlightenment was based on the reason of all human beings, therefore because women have reason they are entitled to the same rights as men. She argued women should equal educational, political, and economic rights as men.

27 Women and the Enlightenment
Enlightenment slogan “free and equal” did not apply to women The most radical idea expressed by women in the Enlightenment was that women were not inferior to men

28 London had the first daily newspapers.
3. The Growth of Reading Great importance to enlightenment was the spread of ideas to the literate elite. Many new books were written and directed at the new reading middle class. London had the first daily newspapers. Middle class and women began t become more educated. Works of literature and even magazines were directed to the new public.

29 4. The Salon Were the elegant drawing rooms of the wealthy upper
class’s great urban houses. Brought writers and artists together with aristocrats, government official, and wealthy middle class people. Marie Geoffrin was one of the greatest. Here they would sway political opinions and influence literacy and artistic taste. Salons elegant drawing rooms of the wealthy upper class in great urban houses. Brought the wealthy literate together to discuss the issues and new philosophies of the day. It help draw audiences to new ideas. Salon gatherings also helped give women a voice since they were usually the host and could give their impute and opinion on certain issues of the time.

30 The Roles of Censorship and Salons
Thinkers during the Age of Reason challenged the established social order by calling for a just society based on reason Government and church officials fought against these Enlightenment ideas through censorship

31 5 Religion in the Enlightenment
Attacked Christian Church yet most enlightened thinkers were still Christian. In England the most famous new religious and evangelical movement-Methodism was started by John Wesley. His sermons often caused people to have conversion experiences. Many philosophes attacked the church but were they themselves Christian and many wanted a deeper personal connection to god. Many protestants wanted greater depths of religious experience which led to new religious movements. One example of this is Methodism led by John Wesley He was banded from many protestant churches for his ideals so he preached his messages in fields for everyone to hear. he wanted to make religion appeal to the lowest of people which made him very popular among the poorer classes. Many joined the Methodist societies to do good works. Most notably the abolishment of the slave trade Methodism gave middle and lower classes a sense of purpose and community. They stressed the importance of hard work and spiritual contentment rather than political equality.

32 Section 2 Review Philosphers, writers, economists, social reformers
Philosophes To let (people) do (what they want) Laissez-faire Rousseau argued that society should be governed by what? Social contract

33 Section 2 Review In The Wealth of Nations, ________ gave roles to the government. These roles included protection(army),public works (roads and canals), and defense(the police). Adam Smith Who believed in: balance of heart and mind, rule of the general will, and education fostering natural instincts? Rousseau

34 Section 2 Review Diderot’s Encyclopedia was used to attack what?
Religious superstition A system of political limits and controls Separation of powers Idea that God lets the universe run by its own laws deism

35 Section 2 Review Allows for society to be governed by its general will. Social contract Montesquieu’s ideas were used in what? U.S. Constitution

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