2The Nervous SystemIt starts with an individual nerve cell called a NEURON.
3Neuroanatomy Synapse Synapse Neurotransmitters (chemicals held in terminal buttons that travel through synaptic gap)
4How does a Neuron fire? Resting Potential: slightly negative charge. Reach the threshold when enough neurotransmitters reach dendrites.Go into Action Potential.All-or-none response.Transfer of ions across axon’s membrane causes electrical charge.
6Acetylcholine (ACH) Deals with learning, memory, & muscle movement At every junction b/w motor neurons & musclesWhen released to our muscles the muscle contractsWhen it is blocked muscles are paralyzed & cannot contractBlack widow spider?Is involved in autonomic nervous systemLack of has been linked to Alzheimer’s disease & ADD
7DopamineInvolved in movement & posture, alertness, & leveling out moodCocaine (and other drugs) blocks dopamine reuptake=highLack of dopamine has been linked to Parkinson’s diseaseToo much has been linked to schizophrenia (overstimulated brain)
8Serotonin Involved in mood, appetite, arousal Low levels have been linked to clinical depression, suicide, loss of appetite (anorexia)
9GABA (gamma amino-butyric acid) In Central Nervous SystemInduces relaxation & sleepBalances the brainToo little = insomnia, anxiety, epilepsy
10Glutamate Involved in memory & learning Low levels = interferes with memory & learning, sluggish, difficulty concentratingHigh levels = must be “reuptook?” or it can destroy neurons
11Endorphins Natural pain killers Feeling of euphoria, pleasurable emotionsOpiates (morphine, codeine…) bind to receptorsMany of our most addictive drugs deal with endorphinsProduced during exercise“gym rats”
12Drugs can be….. Agonists- make neuron fire Antagonists- stop neural firingReuptake Inhibitors- block reuptake
13Types of Neurons Efferent (Motor) Neurons Interneurons Afferent (Sensory) Neurons
15Central Nervous System The Brain and spinal cordCNS
16Peripheral Nervous System All nerves that are not encased in bone.Everything but the brain and spinal cord.Is divided into two categories….somatic and autonomic.
17Somatic Nervous System Controls voluntary muscle movement.Uses motor (efferent) neurons.
18Autonomic Nervous System Controls the automatic functions of the body.Divided into two categories…the sympathetic and the parasympathetic
19Sympathetic Nervous System Fight or Flight Response.Automatically accelerates heart rate, breathing, dilates pupils, slows down digestion.
20Parasympathetic Nervous System Automatically slows the body down after a stressful event.Heart rate and breathing slow down, pupils constrict and digestion speeds up.
21ReflexesNormally, sensory (afferent) neurons take info up through spine to the brain.Some reactions occur when sensory neurons reach just the spinal cord.Survival adaptation.
22The Brain Made up of neurons and glial cells. Glial cells support neural cells.My fiance is my glial cell. He takes care of me!!!
23Ways to study the Brain!!!Accidents: Phineas Gage.
24Lesions Cutting into the brain and looking for change. Brain tumors also lesion brain tissue.
25Less Invasive ways to study the Brain Electroencephalogram (EEG)Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT)Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)Positron Emission Tomography (PET)Functional MRI
26Brain Structures Some scientists divide the brain up into three parts. HindbrainMidbrainForebrainLet’s talk first about the brainstem
27Medulla Oblongata “Central Office”=keeps your whole body working Located where spinal cord enters the skullControls heart rate, breathing & blood pressure
28Pons Connects hindbrain, midbrain & forebrain together Involved in facial expressions
29SPINAL CORD (the nerves) interneurons that carry signals protected by vertebrae & spinal fluid (cushions the nerves)
30Cerebellum means “little brain” located in the back of our head Coordinates muscle movements & emotions
31Thalamus Located in Forebrain “Brain’s Sensory Switchboard” 2 egg shaped structuresreceives information from all the senses (except smell) & routes it to the brain regions that deal with vision, hearing, taste & touchit’s the main traffic hub en route to other destinations
32Reticular Formation (reticular activating system) Located between your earsFinger-shaped network of neurons that relays info to other areas of the braincontrols arousal & ability to focus attention
33Limbic System EMOTIONAL CONTROL CENTER of the brain Linked to emotions (fear, anger…) & basic motives (food, sex…)The 4 “F”sFeedingFightingFearF (sex)Made up of Hypothalamus, Amygdala, Hippocampus & Cingulate Gyrus
34Hypothalamus “the brain’s thermostat” perform specific bodily maintenance duties (eating, drinking, body temperature, sex drive…), takes orders from the other parts of the brainOrchestrates the sympathetic nervous & endocrine systemsinterplay b/w endocrine & nervous systems, both influence each otherEX: thinking about sex can trigger your body to secrete hormones
35Hippocampus and Amygdala Hippocampus is involved in memory processing (creating new memories)Think lost on campus as a freshmen on first dayShaped like a seahorseDamage to this area will prevent you from forming new memoriesAmygdala is vital for our basic emotionsExpressions of Fear & Aggression/Frustration
36Cingulate Gyrus Latin for “belt” Helps regulate emotion & pain Monitors and guides behaviorHelps predict negative consequences
37Cerebral Cortex The wrinkled outer layer of our brain Laid out it would be about the size of a large pizza (yum!)YOUR BODY’S ULTIMATE CONTROL & INFO PROCESSING CENTERThinking, perceiving, speakingThis part of our brain separates us from all other animals
38Areas of the Cerebral Cortex Divided into eight lobes, four in each hemisphere (frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal)Any area not dealing with our senses or muscle movements are called association areasDeal with higher mental functions like learning, remembering, thinking & speaking
39Frontal Lobe Deals with higher level thought & reasoning Making plans, forming judgments, performing movementsMotor Cortex: controls voluntary movementsPrefrontal Cortex: problem solving & emotionBroca’s Area: left hemisphere in frontal lobe, controls ability to speak (muscles)Broca’s Aphasia: damage to Broca’s area will impair speaking
40Parietal Lobes Located at the top of our head Receives sensory info about temperature, pressure, texture, & painSomato-sensory cortex: registers and processes touch and movement sensations
41Temporal Lobes Located above the ears Process sound sensed by ears Wernicke’s area: processes the words we hear spokenWernicke’s Aphasia: impairs your ability to understand wordsAngular Gyrus: responsible for understanding written language
42Occipital Lobes Located in the back of our head Handles visual input from eyesRight half of each retina goes to left occipital lobe and vice versa (seriously!!!)
43Corpus Callosum & Basil Ganglia Corpus Callosum: a large band of neural fibers that connect the 2 hemispheres of the brain (we’ll talk about what happens when you cut this this soon)Basil Ganglia: group of neurons that learns, remembers, & coordinates voluntary movement (Williams in Zumba!!!!)
44Hemispheres Divided into a left and right hemisphere. Contralateral controlled- left controls right side of body and vice versa.Brain Lateralization.Lefties are better at spatial and creative tasks.Righties are better at logic.
45Split-Brain PatientsCorpus Collosum attaches the two hemispheres of cerebral cortex.When removed you have a split-brain patient.
46Brain PlasticityThe ability for our brains to form new connections after the neurons are damaged.The younger you are, the more plastic your brain is.
47Endocrine System System of glands that secrete hormones. Controlled by the hypothalamus.Ovaries and Testes.Adrenal Gland