5Over 6000 schools have a solution: School-Wide PBIS!!
6Why are we here? Review of School-wide PBIS-Year 1 Sustaining and maintaining PBISContinued improvement & developmentExpanding school-wide PBISDeveloping Secondary &Tertiary Systems
7Workshop GoalsGoal 1: Review School-wide Systems and problem solve any issuesGoal 2: Identify Secondary level students, behaviors, and interventionsGoal 3: Identify Tertiary level students, behaviors, and interventions
8Review Year 1 What is PBIS? A systems approach to enhance the capacity of schools to educate all children by developing evidence-based school-wide discipline systemsSchools develop their own unique systemsA team-based process for systematic problem solving
9Keeping PBIS Alive School-wide PBIS is active and alive, not static! PBIS is not something we’ve done, it is something we’re doing!The team keeps PBIS alive & growing by planning, support, data based decision-making, & learning
10Fidelity of Implementation is Crucial!! 05%22%11%20%84%58%
11The Triangle Where does it come from and what does it mean?
12Primary (All) Secondary (Some) Public Health & Disease Prevention (Commission on Chronic Illness, 1957; Larson, 1994; Mrazek & Haggerty, 1994)Tertiary (Few)-Intensive intervention to reduce complications,severity, & intensity of current casesSecondary (Some)-Targeted intervention toreduce current casesPrimary (All)-A universal preventionsystem that reducesnew cases20
13Specialized & Individualized Tertiary Prevention:Specialized & IndividualizedSystems for Students with High-Risk Behavior~5%Secondary Prevention:Specialized GroupSystems for Students with At-Risk Behavior~15%Primary Prevention:School-/Classroom-Wide Systems forAll Students,Staff, & Settings~80% of Students
14The Triangle is Academics too! Academic SystemsBehavioral SystemsIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedHigh IntensityIntensive, Individual InterventionsIndividual StudentsAssessment-basedIntense, durable procedures1-5%1-5%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid response5-10%5-10%Targeted Group InterventionsSome students (at-risk)High efficiencyRapid responseUniversal InterventionsAll studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%Universal InterventionsAll settings, all studentsPreventive, proactive80-90%
15What is Primary Prevention? School-wide primary prevention consists of system-wide rules, routines, & physical arrangements that are developed and taught by the school staff to prevent problem behavior and increase learning.
16Research on SWPBIS tells us that Efforts to prevent problem behavior are more successful if the “host environment” (your school) supports the adoption and use of evidence-based practices
17Evidence-Based Features Administrative leadershipTeam implementationFocus on preventionDefine and teach positive social expectationsAcknowledge positive behaviorContinuum of consistent consequences for problem behaviorContinuum of increasingly intensive interventionsOn-going collection and use of data for decision-making
18School-wide PBS School environment is predictable common language common vision (understanding of expectations)common experience (everyone knows & does)
19School-wide PBS School environment is positive Systematic & frequent recognition of desired behaviorPositive school culture
20School-wide PBS School environment is safe violent and disruptive behavior is not toleratedDistinction between minor and major behavioral violationsClear & consistent consequences for undesirable behavior
21School-wide PBS School environment is consistent All staff, all settings, all timesAdults & students have the same expectations of the system
22Classroom Setting Systems Nonclassroom Individual Student School-wideSystems
23School-Wide System 1. Common purpose & approach to discipline 2. Clear set of positive expectations & behaviors3. Procedures for teaching expected behavior4. Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior5. Continuum of procedures for discouraging inappropriate behavior6. Procedures for on-going monitoring & evaluation
24Classroom SystemClassroom-wide positive expectations taught & encouragedTeaching classroom routines taught & encouragedRatio of 6-8 positive to 1 negative adult-student interactionActive supervisionRedirections for minor behavior errorsFrequent precorrections for chronic errorsEffective academic instruction & curriculum
25Non-Classroom Systems Positive expectations & routines taught & encouragedActive supervision by all staffScan, move, interactPrecorrections & remindersPositive reinforcement
26Individual Student Systems Behavioral competence at school & district levelsFunction-based behavior support planningTeam- & data-based decision makingComprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processesTargeted social skills & self-management instructionIndividualized instructional & curricular accommodations
27More School-wide Strategies PRIDE Card Program (handout)Criteria each 6 weeksNo missed assignmentsNo more than 1 absenceNo discipline referralsBenefitsYou decide what is feasible
28More School-wide Strategies Advisor/Advisee ProgramApprox twenty minute class each day or 3 X wk led by a faculty advisor with about 15 studentsConfidentiality: Build trusting relationship with a least one adult in school
29Advisor/Advisee Program Set goals/curriculum to enhance values such as citizenship and relationship building (birthdays…)Assist students in social and academic growthEvaluate the program each 9 wksAdvisors and advisees
30Team Exercise Check on your SWPBIS implementation Report on your SWPBIS implementation
31What does your triangle look like? 6+ referrals: Red2-5 referrals: Yellow0-1 referrals: Green
43Is there a better way? Yes!! The better way is to… Expand SWPBIS by developing and implementing secondary & tertiary interventions into your school, andDevelop a continuum of effective interventions to support ALL studentsMatch students with problem behavior to the appropriate intensity of intervention
44Secondary & Tertiary Systems ~80% of Students~15%~5%~5%
45Secondary PreventionSecondary interventions are used with individuals or small numbers of students who are not responding to primary or universal interventionsSecondary interventions are more intensive because there is a smaller number of students at risk for engaging in more serious problem behavior and need more supportSocial skills training teach specific skills using effective instructionBehaviorally based intervention effective use of reinforcement/punishment to facilitate successAcademic curricular restructuring intensive instruction in reading
46What are secondary interventions? Interventions that involve small groups of students or individual studentsThese students exhibit problem behavior but do not need the high intensity tertiary interventions
47When are schools ready to implement? When we have:The SWPBIS system functioning wellStaff buy-in & participation of 80%Set scores of 80 or moreSWPBIS has been in place for one year
48Who receives these interventions? At risk studentsAccount for 20% of 25% of student populationTypically account for 60% of a school’s discipline referrals (“frequent flyers”)Consume significant amounts of time & resources
50How do you find these students? The team examines ODRs & suspensionsTeacher referralParent referralUnder the radar studentsHigh absenteeismAcademic problemsSocially isolated
51In most cases they will find you!! In other words…In most cases they will find you!!
52Identification Option: A Multiple Gate Approach (Walker & Severson, 1990) An efficient method for quickly identifying students who might be in need of additional academic and social supports.Usually consists of three “gates”1. Teacher rating of externalizing and internalizing behaviors.2. Records review, including attendance, academic performance, behavior reports.3. Direct observations of class by trained professional (e.g. school psych, social worker, counselor, etc..)
53A Multiple Gate Approach Parent Interview & Discussion1. Discuss opportunity for their child to a participate in a program that will offer additional supports.2. Support may include academic tutoring, study skills, social development, organizational support, etc..
54Major Secondary Intervention Features Direct student orientation, training, practice, & reviewLink to School-wide expectations, routines, etc.Link to academic programming & expectationsLow effort by teachers
55Secondary Characteristics Daily-weekly monitoring, review, & evaluations with adultRegular, overt, & frequent opportunities for positive reinforcementIndividualized academic & behavioral targets, & accommodationsStudent chooses to participate
56More Secondary Features Daily-weekly home-school communicationsBehavioral contractingSelf-management strategiesContinuous monitoring for decision-making
58Why Do Targeted Interventions Work? Improved structurePrompts are provided throughout the day for correct behavior.System for linking student with at least one positive adult.Student chooses to participate.Student is “set up for success”First contact each morning is positive.“Blow-out” days are pre-empted.First contact each class period (or activity period) is positive.
59Why Do Targeted Interventions Work? Increase in contingent feedbackFeedback occurs more often.Feedback is tied to student behavior.Inappropriate behavior is less likely to be ignored or rewarded.Program can be applied in all school locationsClassroom, playground, cafeteria (anywhere there is a supervisor)
60Why Do Targeted Interventions Work? Elevated reward for appropriate behaviorAdult and peer attention delivered each target periodAdult attention (and tangible) delivered at end of dayLinking behavior support & academic supportFor academic-based, escape-maintained problem behavior incorporate academic supportLinking school and home supportProvide format for positive student/parent contactProgram is organized to morph into a self-management systemIncreased options for making choicesIncreased ability to self-monitor performance/progress
61Examples of Secondary Interventions The Behavior Education Program (BEP)Check and ConnectThink TimeAcademic Support (adult & peer tutoring)Family Support & Parent Management TrainingBehavioral ContractingSocial Skills TrainingMentoring* Secondary prevention involves interventions that provide behavioral or academic support, mentoring, skill development, and assistance to more severely at-risk students. Students who do not respond to universal interventions become candidates for intensive, individually tailored interventions that are more expensive. Interventions for achieving secondary prevention goals are often referred to as “selected.”
62Behavior Education Program (BEP) Responding to Problem Behavior in Schools: The Behavior Education ProgrambyDeanne Crone, Robert Horner, and Leanne Hawken(2003) Guilford Publishing, Inc.ISBNList Price: $25.00
63BEP Daily Cycle *BEP coordinator greets student Step 1: Student checks in with BEP coordinator when he/she arrives at school*BEP coordinator greets student*Student turns in previous days signed BEP form*BEP coordinator gives precorrections*Student picks-up new BEP form*Together they review daily goals
64Morning Contact Greeted (positive, personal, “glad to see you”) Prompted (ready to go to class?)Readiness check (books, pencils, etc?)Gets BEP form (prompt for positive interaction)
65BEP Daily CycleStep 2: Student gives BEP form to each teacher prior to each period*teacher completes card*teacher initials cardStep 3: At the end of day student checks-out with BEP coordinator*review days points & goals*receive reinforcer if goal met*take card home
66BEP Daily CycleStep 4: Student takes BEP form home and gives to his/her parents*receives reinforcer from parent*parents sign cardStep 5: Student returns signed BEP next day, Reinforcement by BEP coordinatorStep 6: Weekly BEP meeting with data graphing
67System Issues BEP Coordinator PBIS meeting Conducts check in/check out with studentsChairs BEP meetings,Frequent faculty contactsCollects student data on student improvementPBIS meetingBEP coordinator meets with PBIS team to report on program
68Referral to BEP Coordinator Multiple office disciplinary referralsRecommendation by teacherRecommendation by parentTime to action: 1 week (maximum)
69The BEP ContractThe establishment of a written behavioral agreement between a student, the BEP coordinator, teachers & student regarding the performance of specific target behaviors
70Elements of the BEP Contract Behaviors must be observableBehaviors must be measurableClearly specify rewards or privilegesBonuses may be includedReliable means of record keeping
71Rules of Contracting Contract reward should be immediate Initially reward small approximationsTerms must be clearContract must be honest, & positiveContract must be used systematicallyHomme, 1970
72Developing the BEP Contract Select target behavior(s)Define target behaviorObservable & measurableIdentify rewards & consequencesDefine the criteria for rewardBonus clause?Establish record keepingWrite & sign the contractImplement & continuously monitor
73BEP Process Daily Morning Check-in Daily Teacher Home Evaluation AfternoonCheck-in
79Check and Connect Outcomes in Junior High School in Palatine, IL
80Check and Connect Outcomes in Junior High School in Palatine, IL
81Check and Connect Outcomes (Palatine, IL) Bowers
82Next Steps Is the BEP (Check and Connect) system appropriate for you? Are there more than 10 students with chronic patterns of problem behavior?Is a school-wide system in place?Is there faculty commitment to work with tougher kids?Are in-school resources available to implement?Build Action PlanReview and present current dataAdministration/Faculty commitmentAction steps within a doable timeline
84H.U.G. ProgramThe H.U.G. Program consists of a plan and process that require students to:Check-in with a significant adult before schoolCarry a tracking formAsk their teacher to rate their behaviorCheck-out at the end of each dayTake the form home to parentsReturn the H.U.G. form the next morning
85Advantages of H.U.G.Responds positively to students needing additional supportStaff can teach appropriate behaviors & provide practice opportunitiesProvides opportunities for reinforcement & positive attentionEncourages daily communication between teachers and parentsData are collected to determine success of the program or whether changes are needed
86“Hello” - MorningThe student goes to the counselor’s office when he or she arrives at school. At that time they will receive following:Positive, sincere greetingCheck to see if they are prepared for day (lunch ticket, materials, etc.)Check to learn how they are feeling (any morning conflicts?)Collection of returned H.U.G. form signed by parentsVerbal reinforcement for returning signed form possibly accompanied by sticker or small rewardNew H.U.G. form
87(Hello, Update, Goodbye) H.U.G.(Hello, Update, Goodbye)Name: ____________________________ Date: ________________Please indicate whether the student has met the goal during the time period indicated:Meets = 2 pts So, so = 1 point Doesn’t meet = 0 ptsHUG Daily Goal _____/_____ HUG Daily Score _____/_____Teacher Comments: Please state briefly any specific behaviors or achievements that demonstrate the student’s progress.GoalsAM to RecessAM RecessAM Recess to LunchLunch RecessPMBe SafeJ K LBe KindBe ResponsibleTotal PointsTeacher InitialsParent’s Signature ___________________________________Parent’s Comments ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
88“Update” - During DayStudent: give H.U.G. form to his or her teacher on arrival to classTeacher will rate student’s behavior at times indicated on form & offer brief, positive comment to student about rating.Adults in other settings, such as PE, Music, & recess, etc., will complete ratings for time period they have students.
89“Goodbye” - End of DayStudents will return with their H.U.G. forms to counselor’s room at 2:25 each day:Students will again receive positive, sincere greetingCounselor or H.U.G. assistant will check to see whether student met his/her goal.If so, student will receive small reward.If not, student will receive encouragement to try again tomorrow along with problem-solving discussion of what they might do differently.Students take forms home to share with their parents.Parents give positive feedback to their children. Parents then sign form & put it in student’s backpack for return to school.
90H.U.G. Coordinator Signs H.U.G. Contract agreement Facilitates the check-in/check-out processProvides H.U.G. students with positive, constructive feedback and small tangible rewardsInstructs staff members on the use of the HUG formCollects, summarizes, and reports H.U.G. data to the PBIS team each week
91Teachers Sign H.U.G. Contract Agreement Accept H.U.G. Report Form daily from studentsEvaluate student behaviors and complete the formOffer constructive and positive feedback to students
92Students Follow all H.U.G. Program guidelines Sign H.U.G. Contract AgreementGIVE IT YOUR BEST!!!!
93Parents Sign H.U.G. Contract Agreement. Review H.U.G. Progress Report with child daily.Provide positive and constructive feedback.Communicate with the school when there are concerns or celebrations regarding their child’s behavior
94H.U.G Program Contract Agreement I have read the H.U.G. Team Members’ Responsibilities Form. I understand that my signature indicates that I am willing to participate in the H.U.G. Program and fulfill all my responsibilities.Student signature: ___________________ Date ______Parent(s) signature(s): _________________ Date ______Teacher signature: ____________________ Date ______Administrator signature: ________________ Date ______H.U.G. Coordinator signature: _____________Date ______Copies will be given to all H.U.G. participants. Thank you for your participation and support!!!