2C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies South’s first successful cash crop –Plantations used to grow tobacco and other cash crops. Many laborers (mostly slaves) were used to cultivate crops for the landowners.WHAT is SUPPLY & DEMAND?When the demand for a product is greaterthan the supply, the price is higher.When the demand for a product is less thanthe supply, the price is lower.tobacco
3C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies – The demand for tobacco in Europe was greater than the supply.This kept the price HIGH.Chesapeake Bay was ideal for growing tobacco – rivers served as roads.Indentured Servants – people whose passage was paid to America by colonists, and who agreed to become servants for a specific number of years.VA and MD had large numbers of indentured servants to grow and harvest tobacco.
4C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies SOUTH CAROLINA –Sugarcane crops failed.Rice became the major cash crop.Later, indigo became a cash crop.Eliza Lucas, only 17, discovered the secret to growing indigo – it needed high ground and sandy soil.Indigo
5C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies The Southern Economy - Social Order in the South.= Wealthy Gentry= YeomenPlanter EliteBackcountryFarmersLandless Tenant FarmersServants and enslaved Africans
6C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies Planter Elite – wealthy landowners,gentry, had political and economicinfluence. Plantations werelike small towns.Most plantations were small, rough estates & the planters & their indentured servants worked side-by-side. Usually 30 or less people.In VA & MD, planters switched from indentured servants to slave labor which allowed them to grow larger. The gentrybecame real gentlemenand amused themselveswith hunting, fishing,gambling.
7C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies Backcountry Farmers – Most landowners in the colonial south were actually small farmers living in the “backcountry” farther inland and were called YEOMEN, to distinguish them from the gentry.They grew some tobacco, but practiced subsistence farming – enough to feed their families.
8C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies UNEVEN distribution of wealth & power led toREBELLION.BACON’S REBELLION –1. Sir William Berkeley – governor of VAwho controlled the colony.a. Exempted himself & his councilors from taxation.b. Restricted the vote to people who owned property.c. These actions & his Native American polices angeredthe backcountry & tenant farmers.
9C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies – war erupted between the backcountry farmers (who wanted Native American land) & Native Americans.Gov. Berkeley did not use military action but asked for money from the House of Burgesses to build forts for protection.BACON took up the backcountry farmers cause because his land was attacked by Natives; he & his men attacked the Natives.The newly elected House (1) authorized troops to attack theNatives, (2) restored the vote to all free men and (3) took awaythe tax exemption.Bacon was still not satisfied & returned in 1676 with troops andseized power. Then, he fled after being pursued and raised hisown army.He got sick and died; his army disintegrated.
10C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies IMPORTANCE OF BACON’S REBELLIONIt convinced many wealthy planters that the best way to keep Virginian society stable was to have land available for the backcountry farmers regardless of how it effected Native Americans.It also accelerated an existing trend in VA of using enslaved Africans instead of indentured servants to work the fields because they did not have to be freed & fewer people wanted to be indentured servants.Also, King Charles II granted a charter to theROYAL AFRICAN COMPANY for slave trade and, thus, it was easier to acquire slaves.
11C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies SLAVERY IN THE COLONIES1450 – 1870 – million Africans were forcibly transported to the Americas. Roughly 2 million died at sea.OLAUDAH EQUIANO – kidnapped by other Africans from his home in West Africa and traded to Europeans, then shipped to America. Later, he became a writer & described his journey across the Atlantic.
12C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies DID YOU KNOW?Of the 8-10 million Africans who came to the Americas, approximately 3.5 million went to Brazil, & another 1.5 million went to the Spanish colonies.The British, French, & Dutch colonies in the Caribbean imported nearly 4 million others to work on their sugar plantations.Approximately 500,000 Africans were transported to North America before the slave trade ended in the 1800s.
13C3, Sec 1 – The Southern Colonies DID YOU KNOW?The first Africans brought to VA & MD were treated like indentured servants & their children who were born were not always considered slaves.Some of the first enslaved Africans obtained their freedom by converting to Christianity.MARYLAND was the first colony to legalize slavery.In 1705, VA passed a SLAVE CODE.1. They could not own property.2. They could not testify against a white person.3. They could not assemble in large numbers.SLAVES PLAYED A VITAL ROLE IN PLANTATION GROWTH
14Chapter 3, Section 2 Why didn’t New England farmers grow wheat? What is plankton and where can you find it?How did most people in New England make a living?What is a fall line?What did every colony need?Why did the English buy ships made inAmerica?Why were towns important in New England?
15C 3, SECTION 2 – New England and the Middle Colonies Describe how resources affected economic development. NEW ENGLANDResources------IndustriesFishing & whalingLumber & ship buildingSubsistence farming ofcorn, vegetables,orchards, & livestockSeaForest & waterfalls-POOR FARM LAND
16Chapter 3, Section 2 – Continued Town Meetings developed into local town government. Selectmen managed the town’s affairs.Town meetings helped set the stage for the American Revolution & the emergence of democratic government.PURITAN’S’ houses were located close to the church so they could never have an excuse not to come to church.They did “Holy Watching.”But Puritans did drink rum,enjoyed music & liked to wearbright colors.
18C 3, SECTION 2Devout Puritans believed that Satan used witches to work evil in the world.In 1692, 20 residents of Salem, MA were executed for witchcraft.Teenage girls accused an African servant of being a witch, and then others.Sometimes accused witches were spared if they confessed or pointed a finger at other community members.Some people denied beingwitches and were hanged.Only after the Salem witchcrafttrials ended in 1692, did the originalaccusers admit that they had madeup the entire story.
19Cities grew because of trade. TRIANGULAR TRADE - Chapter 3, Sec 2 - TRADECities grew because of trade.TRIANGULAR TRADE -TriangularTradeNew EnglandFish, lumber & meatEnglandManufactured GoodsCaribbeanSugar/Rum
20Triangular Trade Other 3-way trade systems also existed. Example: New England traded rum toBritish merchants in exchange forBritish goods. British merchants thentraded the rum to West Africans inexchange for slaves, who were thentransported across the Atlantic to theCaribbean & traded for sugar.
21Artisans made up nearly C 3, Sec 2, NEW URBAN SOCIETYPhiladelphia – 1760 – largestcolonial cityCharles Town, SC –largest city in the SouthArtisans made up nearlyhalf of the urban populationPeople without skills or property – 30%Slaves – 20%City problems – overcrowding,crime, pollution,& epidemics.
22C 3, Sec 2 - MIDDLE COLONIES SOCIETY PA, NY, NJ & DE had rich soil & wheatwas the big cash crop.Philadelphia & New York were biggestcities in the British colonies.Middle colonies changed because of thewheat trade and the new settlers.Capitalists – made money on wheat &invested in new businesses.
23C 3, Sec 2 - Middle Colonies Society Wealthy entrepreneurs who ownedlarge farms and businesses were thetop class;in the middle were small farmers;& at the bottom were landless workers.
24Chapter 3, Section 3 THE IMPERIAL SYSTEM MERCANTILISM – set of ideas about the world economy. Mercantilists believed that to become wealthy & powerful, a country had to accumulate gold and silver.HOW DID THEY DO THIS?By selling more goods to other countries than it bought from them.(More gold & silver flows intothe country than out of the country.)
25Chapter 3, Section 3Mercantilist also believed that a country should be self-sufficient in raw materials; therefore, a country needed colonies so that it would not have to pay out gold and silver, but could sell products back to the colonies to make money.FOR COLONIES – it gave them a market for their raw materials & a supplier of the manufactured goods they needed; however, the colonies could not sell to other countries.NOTE: The only way the NewEngland colonies could get silver& gold was to smuggle throughtriangular trade.
26Chapter 3, Section 3 NAVIGATION ACTS Navigation Act – Required all goods imported or exported to be carried on English ships, & stated that at least ¾ of the crew on each ship had to be English. Certain raw materials (major money products) could be sold ONLY to England or other English colonies.(SUGAR, TOBACCO, LUMBER, COTTON, WOOL, & INDIGO)EnglishShipsThe STAPLE Act – required everything the colonies imported had to come through England. (There were customs inspectors to enforce the act.)
27Chapter 3, Section 3 were smuggling through the Dutch King Charles II discovered that the colonieswere smuggling through the Dutchmerchants; then when MA did not obeythe Navigation Acts, he pulled theircharter & made it a royal colony.
28CHAPTER 3, Sec 3 4. James II merged MA, Plymouth, & RI together to create the royal province called the Dominion of New England.Then, he forced CN and NJ to join the province, and later NY.He abolished their colonial assemblies & placed a governor-general in charge –Sir Edmund Andros who strictly enforced theNavigation Acts & new land taxes offended thePuritans by declaring only Anglican Church marriageswere legal.5. Andros managed to anger nearly everyonein New England-landowners,church leaders,and merchants.James II
29Chapter 3, Section 3 MEANWHILE – back in England a GLORIOUS REVOLUTION occurred.James II was becoming a problem, but people felt that his daughter would become Queen soon.Then, James II had a son, so his daughter would not become Queen and something had to be done to keep the country from becoming Catholic again.Parliament asked Mary and her husband William to take the throne & James II fled.This was a bloodless change of power & so it was a Glorious Revolution.
30Chapter 3, Section 3ParliamentQueen Mary William of Orange
31Chapter 3, Section 3William and Mary did not allow the old system before the Dominion of England to go back in place.Rhode Island and Connecticut were allowed to resume their previous form of government.The king issued a new charter in 1691 for MA that combined MA, Maine, and Plymouth into a royal colony of MA. The king appointed a governor, but the colony could elect an assembly & the councilors.Under this system voters had to ownproperty, but did not have to be a memberof the Puritans.
32Chapter 3, Section 3 JOHN LOCKE – wrote Two Treatises of Government He argued that a monarch’s rightto rule came from the people.“All people are born with naturalrights” that includes the right tolife, liberty, & property. PeopleWrote on the were born in a natural state & tophilosophy of protect their rights, people camegovernment together & agreed to create agovernment – a contract People agreed to obey government’s laws & the government agreed to uphold their rights in return. *
33CHAPTER 3, SECTION 4 A Diverse Society Did you know?Ben Franklin was 1 of 17 children!Family Life in Colonial AmericaPopulation Growth: On average, women had7 children.,000more than 250,0001750s – more than 1,000,000– about 2,500,000
34CHAPTER 3, Section 4 Women in Colonial Society Married women had no legal status.Could not own anythingWhen she got married, her propertybecame her husband’sCould not make a contractCould not be a party to a lawsuitCould not make a willHUSBANDS were allowed to disciplinechildren and wives.SINGLE women & widows could own and manage property, file lawsuits, & run businesses.Despite their legal limitations, women worked outside the home in taverns, shops, managed plantations, ran print shops, and published newspapers.
35CHAPTER 3, Section 4 Health & Diseases Typhoid Fever – bacterial infectioncaused by SalmonellaTuberculosisCholeraDiphtheriaDiarrhea (fluxes)Malignant Fever (flu)TyphusScarlet Fever
36CHAPTER 3, Section 4 Smallpox Epidemic – Boston 1721 Rev. Cotton Mather (a Puritan leader)urged his friend, Dr. Boylston, to inoculate volunteers against the disease based on information from African slaves that the Turks had developed an inoculation for smallpox.**As a result, out of 6,000 people who were not inoculated, about 15% (900) died.BUT out of 241 inoculated people,only 6 died (less than 3%)Cotton MatherSmallpox Epidemic – Boston 1721Rev. Cotton Mather (a Puritan leader)urged his friend, Dr. Boylston, to inoculate volunteers against the disease based on information from African slaves that the Turks had developed an inoculation for smallpox.**As a result, out of 6,000 people who were not inoculated, about 15% (900) died.BUT out of 241 inoculated people,only 6 died (less than 3%)Cotton Mather
37CHAPTER 3, Section 4 IMMIGRANTS in Colonial America 1. German Immigrants – PennsylvaniaMennonites – settled Germantown in 1683In 1775: they made up 1/3 of the population(100,000)Called Pennsylvania Dutch(Deutsche means German)They were prosperous farmers.Introduced the Conestoga wagon that was used tocross America.Many Germans headed south - some to the Shenandoah River Valley of VA and spread down through the Carolinas.FAMOUS GERMAN – Peter Zenger wasarrested for printing libel against thegovernor, but was cleared by a jury.He led the way for freedom of press.
38CHAPTER 3, Section 42. Scotch-Irish – descendents of Scots who had helped England claim control of N. Ireland.Reasons for immigration –(1) rising taxes, (2) poor harvests,& (3) religious discrimination.150,000 came to American coloniesbetween 1717 and Many migratedwest to find land and some to the backcountry of the Southern colonies.
39CHAPTER 3, Section 43. JEWISH Community – Jews came fleeing from the Portuguese in Brazil to practice their religious freedom.15,000 lived in the colonies by 1776In Western Europe, Jews could not own property or participate in professions.In America they could live andwork with Christians.Most lived in cities andwere artisans or merchants.
40CHAPTER 3, Section 4 4. AFRICANS in Colonial America A New Culture 1. In SC, Africans worked & lived in largegroups isolated from the white planterswhich made them more independent.They developed a language calledGullah – a language that combinedEnglish and African words.2. In the Chesapeake region,Africans spoke English becausemost were born in the colonies.3. African Religion mixed withChristian faith.GULLAHCULTURE
41CHAPTER 3, Section 4 Oppression & Resistance beatings were common. In SC to maintain control, whippings &beatings were common.Some planters branded the disobedient; slit nosesor amputated fingers and toes to horrify othersas an example of what would happen if theydisobeyed. In VA planters used harshpunishment, but also used persuasion such asextra food or days off to get them to work.Resistance – Passive – staged deliberate work slowdowns, “lost” or broke tools, or refused to work hard. Some escaped; some bought freedom.Governor of Spanish Florida (to weaken the South Carolina colony) promised freedom & land to enslaved people who would come to Florida.
42CHAPTER 3, Section 4STONO REBELLION – 75 Africans attacked their white overseers near the Stono River, stole guns, & then went toward Florida. The local militia killed Africans and ended the rebellion.
43CHAPTER 3, Section 4THE ENLIGHTENMENT – challenged the authority of the church in science & philosophy while elevating the power of human reason. ** IMPORTANT**LOGIC & REASONING = rationalism **JOHN LOCKE – very influential with his contract.Also, in Essay on Human Understanding he arguedthat contrary to the Church, people were not born sinful.Their minds were blank & would be shaped by society &education.The Social Contract – he argued that a government should be formed by the consent of the people.BARON MONTESQUIEU –Spirit of the Laws – suggested three types of political power – executive, legislative, and judicial.Each branch would provide checks & balances.
44CHAPTER 3, Section 4 THE GREAT AWAKENING – religious movement that stressed dependenceon God. (religious feeling)PIETY – stressed an individualdevoutness. Ministers spread the word through revivals.Jonathan Edwards wanted to restore spirituality to New England. He preached that people had to repent and convert to be “born again.”George Whitfield –created tension by preachingthat some ministers had notbeen born again..
45Chapter 3, Section 4 New England churches split into factions – New Lights & Old LightsChurches embracing new ideas –Baptist, Presbyterians,Congregationalists and Methodists all grew.In the South Baptists welcomed enslaved Africans at revivals & condemned brutality.Equality before God was taught.Planters feared an uprising by the slaves & broke up Baptists meetings.** The Enlightenment provided arguments against British rule.The Great Awakening undermined allegiance totraditional authority