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C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 19.

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Presentation on theme: "C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 19."— Presentation transcript:

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2 C.W. Shelmerdine Introduction to Greek 2 nd edition (Newburyport, MA: Focus, 2008) Chapter 19

3 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 1.Contract verbs 2.Contract verbs in –εω 3.Impersonal δε 4.Contract verbs in –αω 5.Contract verbs in –οω 6.Contract nouns and adjectives

4 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 1.Contract verbs 2.Contract verbs in –εω 3.Impersonal δε 4.Contract verbs in –αω 5.Contract verbs in –οω 6.Contract nouns and adjectives

5 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 1. Contract verbs Contract verbs are verbs which have a stem ending in the vowels α, ε, or ο. In Attic Greek (and hence in koine), these final vowels in the stems contract with the endings added to the verbs. In writings by authors in other dialects (e.g., Homer or Herodotus), these contractions do not occur and the regular full forms appear. This chapter presents the very straightforward rules for contracting these vowels and gives examples of each type of contract verb.

6 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 1. Contract verbs Vowels in contract verbs, and in Greek in general, usually combine in stable, predictable ways. Contract verbs use the same stems and endings as any regular verb. The fact that a verb has this contraction does not affect its meaning or translation in any way.

7 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 1. Contract verbs The contraction of vowels can affect the accent of the verb. To accent a contract verb: –Accent the uncontracted form just like any regular verb. –If the accent appears on the first of the two vowels which contract, then the resulting contraction has a circumflex accent. φιλω φιλ –Otherwise, the accent is unchanged. φιλεμην φιλομην φλεον φλουν

8 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 1.Contract verbs 2.Contract verbs in –εω 3.Impersonal δε 4.Contract verbs in –αω 5.Contract verbs in –οω 6.Contract nouns and adjectives

9 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 2. Contract verbs in –εω The most common contract verbs are those with stems ending in - ε. The rules for contracting an ε are: –ε + α η –ε + ε or ει ει –ε + ο or ου ου –ε + ω ω Remember that ε + ι = the dipthong ει and ε + υ = the diphthong ευ.

10 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 2. Contract verbs in –εω Pages 121-122 show an example of these contracted forms (with the uncontracted forms in parentheses) using the verb φιλω. For example: –ε + ε ει φλεε φλει –ε + ει ει φιλει φιλε –ε + ο ου φλεον φλουν –ε + ου ου φιλουσι φιλοσι –ε + ω ω φιλω φιλ

11 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 2. Contract verbs in –εω You have seen these ε –contractions in several other contexts. For example, the second person singular middle/passive: –ε + α η –ε + ε ει –ε + ει ει –ε + ο ου –ε + ου ου –ε + ω ω λεσο λε(σ)ο λου 2 nd sg imp. indic middle/passive λβεσο λβε(σ)ο λβου 2 nd sg aor. indic middle

12 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 2. Contract verbs in –εω You have seen these ε –contractions in several other contexts. Chapter 13: τριρης, τριρους trireme singular Nom. τριρης Gen. τριρους (εος) Dat. τριρει Acc. τριρη (εα) Voc. τριρες plural Nom. τριρεις (εες) Gen. τριηρν (ων) Dat. τριρεσι Acc. = nom. Voc. = nom.

13 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 2. Contract verbs in –εω You have seen these ε –contractions in several other contexts. Chapter 13 : τεχος, τεχους τ wall singular Nom. τεχος Gen. τεχους (εος) Dat. τεχει Acc. = nom. Voc. = nom. plural Nom. τεχη (εα) Gen. τειχν (ων) Dat. τεχεσι Acc. = nom. Voc. = nom.

14 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 2. Contract verbs in –εω You have seen these ε –contractions in several other contexts. Chapter 13 : Σωκρτης, Σωκρτους Socrates singular Nom. Σωκρτης Gen. Σωκρτους (εος) Dat. Σωκρτει Acc. Σωκρτη (εα) Voc. Σκρατες

15 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 1.Contract verbs 2.Contract verbs in –εω 3.Impersonal δε 4.Contract verbs in –αω 5.Contract verbs in –οω 6.Contract nouns and adjectives

16 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 3. Impersonal δε A very common ε -contract verb is δε which exists only in the 3 rd person singular and means it is necessary. –δε μς φεύγειν. It is necessary for us to flee. We have to (must) flee. –δεήσει μς φεύγειν. It will be necessary for us to flee. We will have to flee. –δει μς φεύγειν. It was necessary for us to flee. We had to flee.

17 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 1.Contract verbs 2.Contract verbs in –εω 3.Impersonal δε 4.Contract verbs in –αω 5.Contract verbs in –οω 6.Contract nouns and adjectives

18 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 4. Contract verbs in –αω The next most common contract verbs are those with stems ending in - α. The rules for contracting an α are: –α + ε –α + ει –α + ο or ου or ω ω Remember that α + ι = the dipthong αι and α + υ = the diphthong αυ.

19 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 4. Contract verbs in –αω Pages 123-124 show an example of these contracted forms (with the uncontracted forms in parentheses) using the verb τιμω. For example: –α + ε τμαε τμα –α + ει τιμει τιμ –α + ο ω τμαον τμων –α + ου ω τιμουσι τιμσι –α + ω ω τιμω τιμ

20 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 4. Contract verbs in –αω Notice there is one form which seems to be an exception: –α + ε –α + ει –but τιμειν τιμν (present infinitive active) This happens because, historically, the –ειν ending of the infinitive is itself a contraction, so the full contraction runs τιμεεν τιμεν τιμν

21 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 4. Contract verbs in –αω You have seen these α–contractions in another context. For example, second person singular aorist middle: –α + ε –α + ει –α + ο ω τιμσασο τιμσα(σ)ο τιμσω –α + ου ω –α + ω ω

22 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 4. Contract verbs in –αω These α–contractions appear in several other contexts. Α very few nouns, most importantly γρας, γρως τ prize and γρας, γρως τ old age, have stems ending in -ασ, which then contract. This textbook does not use any of these nouns.

23 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 1.Contract verbs 2.Contract verbs in –εω 3.Impersonal δε 4.Contract verbs in –αω 5.Contract verbs in –οω 6.Contract nouns and adjectives

24 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 5. Contract verbs in –οω The least common contract verbs are those with stems ending in - ο. The rules for contracting an ο are: –ο + ει οι –ο + ω ω –ο + ε or ο or ου ου Remember that ο + ι = the dipthong οι and ο + υ = the diphthong ου.

25 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 5. Contract verbs in –οω Page 125 shows an example of these contracted forms (with the uncontracted forms in parentheses) using the verb δηλω. For example: –ο + ε ου δλοε δλου –ο + ει οι δηλει δηλο –ο + ο ου δλοον δλουν –ο + ου ου δηλουσι δηλοσι –ο + ω ω δηλω δηλ

26 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 5. Contract verbs in –οω Notice there is one form which seems to be an exception: –ο + ε ου –ο + ει οι –but δηλειν δηλον (present infinitive active) This happens because, historically, the –ειν ending of the infinitive is itself a contraction, so the full contraction runs δηλεεν δηλοεν δηλον

27 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 5. Contract verbs in –οω These ο –contractions are less common but do appear in other contexts. One noun in Greek has a stem ending in -οσ: αδς, αδος shame, which then contracts. It has only singular forms.

28 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 5. Contract verbs in –οω These ο –contractions are less common but do appear in other contexts. There are rare adjectives with ο and ε contraction: –ο + ει οι –ο + ω ω –ο + ε or ο or ου ου πλος –α –ον πλος – –ον simple

29 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 Looking up a Greek verb A contract verb is always listed in a vocabulary or lexicon in its uncontracted form, so you can see the vowel ending the stem. –φιλω love –τιμω honor –δηλω show

30 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 Looking up a Greek verb Contract verbs normally lengthen their vowel in the other principal parts: –φιλω, φιλσω, φλησα, πεφληκα, πεφλημαι, φιλθν –τιμω, τιμσω, τμησα, τετμηκα, τετμημαι, τιμθν –δηλω, δηλσω, δλωσα, δεδλωκα, δεδλωμαι, δηλθν

31 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 Looking up a Greek verb Verbs whose stems end in – υ are very stable and regular: λω, λσω, λυσα, λλυκα, λλυμαι, λθην The stems of Greek verbs never end in any vowel but α, ε, ο, or υ.

32 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 1.Contract verbs 2.Contract verbs in –εω 3.Impersonal δε 4.Contract verbs in –αω 5.Contract verbs in –οω 6.Contract nouns and adjectives

33 Shelmerdine Chapter 16 6. Contract nouns and adjectives One important noun, earth, has a stem ending in –ε. This –ε– then contracts with the endings. The contractions is apparent from the circumflex accent on the endings. singular (γα) γ τς (γας) γς τ (γ) γ τν (γαν) γν (γα) γ

34 Shelmerdine Chapter 16 6. Contract nouns and adjectives One important noun, mind, has a stem ending in –ο. This –ο– then contracts with the endings. The contractions are apparent in two ways –Every form has a circumflex accent on the ending. –The endings –οος and –οον contract to –ους and –ουν. singular νος νο ν νον Voc. νο plural νον νος Voc. = nom.

35 Shelmerdine Chapter 16 6. Contract nouns and adjectives A few adjectives have stems ending in –ε. This –ε– then contracts with the adjective endings. The contractions are apparent in two ways –Every form has a circumflex accent on the ending. –The endings –εος and –εον contract to –ους and –ουν.

36 Shelmerdine Chapter 16 8. Contract nouns and adjectives Thus the masculine forms of the contract adjective ργυρος – –ον silver singular ργυρος ργυρο ργυρ ργυρον Voc. = nom. plural ργυρο ργυρν ργυρος Voc. = nom.

37 Shelmerdine Chapter 16 8. Contract nouns and adjectives Thus the feminine forms of the contract adjective χρυσος – –ον gold singular Nom. χρυσ Gen. χρυσς Dat. χρυσ Acc. χρυσν Voc. = Nom. plural Nom. χρυσα Gen. χρυσν Dat. χρυσας Acc. χρυσς Voc. = Nom.

38 Shelmerdine Chapter 16 8. Contract nouns and adjectives But, as with first declension nouns, if the stem of the adjective (before the ε) ends in ρ, then a long α replaces the η in the singular. Thus the feminine forms of the contract adjective ργυρος – –ον silver: singular Nom. ργυρ Gen. ργυρς Dat. ργυρ Acc. ργυρν Voc. = Nom.

39 Shelmerdine Chapter 16 8. Contract nouns and adjectives Thus the neuter forms of the contract adjective ργυρος – –ον silver singular ργυρον ργυρο ργυρ Acc. = nom. Voc. = nom. plural ργυρ ργυρν ργυρος Acc. = nom. Voc. = nom.

40 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 for tomorrow (Tuesday, February 1, 2011): Quiz: Write out the chart of vowel contractions on page 121. Prepare the reading Xerxes and the Helmsman for class.

41 February 3 Curse of the Faceless Man (1958) A gladiator buried in the lava of Pompeii returns to life in modern times to find his conveniently reincarnated beloved and in the process kills anyone he meets since they're in this movie he figures they deserve it. Come with a friend to this schlocky drive-in horror classic you won't want to go home alone! 67 minutes March 3 "The Death of Socrates" (1953) and "The Assassination of Julius Caesar" (1953) from the TV series You Are There The imaginative television series You Are There (1953-1957) recreated history as though a modern television news team was present to cover the events. The show was hosted by future television news legend Walter Cronkite. Our two episodes feature a number of future stage, television, and movie greats, including a very young Paul Newman. The Socrates episode was directed by television and movie legend Sidney Lumet. 60 minutes March 31 "Who Mourns for Adonais?" episode of Star Trek (1967) In this episode of the groundbreaking Sci-Fi series the god Apollo seizes the Enterprise and demands the worship of its crew. Will Captain Kirk support this? Will the captain's girdle support him? Come see. 50 minutes April 28 Romulus and Remus (1961) Our video series concludes by honoring Rome's birthdaya week late because of spring breakwith a cinematic retelling of the city's founding. This muscleman epic is noteworthy for the presence of the two most famous stars of the genre: Steve Reeves with his 17 ½-inch biceps, and Gordon Scott with his 19-inch biceps. One of them will out-pose the other and have an empire named for him. 89 thrilling minutes! Kwirky Klassics Video Series Relatively short films and episodes from classic television shows that treat the ancient world in a peculiar way All presentations start at 6:30 p.m. in the Foreign Language Lab, 234 Prescott Hall. Screenings are on Thursday evenings.

42 February 3 Curse of the Faceless Man (1958) A gladiator buried in the lava of Pompeii returns to life in modern times to find his conveniently reincarnated beloved and in the process kills anyone he meetssince they're in this movie he figures they deserve it. Come with a friend to this schlocky drive-in horror classic you won't want to go home alone! 67 minutes Kwirky Klassics Video Series Relatively short films and episodes from classic television shows that treat the ancient world in a peculiar way All presentations start at 6:30 p.m. in the Foreign Language Lab, 234 Prescott Hall. Screenings are on Thursday evenings.

43 Macedonia

44 Strymon River Hellespont

45 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 δ ον Ξέρξης νικήθη κα π τν θηνν πήλασεν· πε δ κεν π τν Στρυμνα, οκέτι κατ γν τν δν ποίει, λλ τν μν στρατιν τ στρατηγ πτρεψε πγειν ες τν λλσποντον, ατς δ π νες Φοινσσης πορεύετο ες τν σαν. μέγας δ νεμος τε κα χειμν κακς ποίουν τν ναν, μελλε καταδσεσθαι· πολλο γρ Πρσαι μετ βασιλως πορεύοντο κα π το καταστρματος πσαν.

46 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 δ ον Ξέρξης νικήθη κα π τν θηνν πήλασεν· πε δ κεν π τν Στρυμνα, οκέτι κατ γν τν δν ποίει, λλ τν μν στρατιν τ στρατηγ πτρεψε πγειν ες τν λλσποντον, ατς δ π νες Φοινσσης πορεύετο ες τν σαν. μέγας δ νεμος τε κα χειμν κακς ποίουν τν ναν, μελλε καταδσεσθαι· πολλο γρ Πρσαι μετ βασιλως πορεύοντο κα π το καταστρματος πσαν.

47 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 δ ον Ξέρξης νικήθη κα π τν θηνν πήλασεν· πε δ κεν π τν Στρυμνα, οκέτι κατ γν τν δν ποίει, λλ τν μν στρατιν τ στρατηγ πτρεψε πγειν ες τν λλσποντον, ατς δ π νες Φοινσσης πορεύετο ες τν σαν. μέγας δ νεμος τε κα χειμν κακς ποίουν τν ναν, μελλε καταδσεσθαι· πολλο γρ Πρσαι μετ βασιλως πορεύοντο κα π το καταστρματος πσαν.

48 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 ς ον εδον τν κίνδυνον βοντο, δ Ξρξης κα κυβερντης βουλεοντο· κα κυβερντης λγει· Δσποτα, ε βολει σζειν τν σν ψυχν, ναγκαν στιν λεύθερον τν ναν τν πολλν πιβατν. δ Ξρξης λγει τος Πρσαις, νδρες Πρσαι, νν καιρς στιν μν δηλον τν μετραν πρς μ φιλαν· ν μν γρ δοκε εναι μο σωτηρα. ο δ εθς ξλλονται ες τν θλατταν· κα οτως σωσαν βασιλα, πε ποίησαν τν ναν κουφοτραν.

49 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 ς ον εδον τν κίνδυνον βοντο, δ Ξρξης κα κυβερντης βουλεοντο· κα κυβερντης λγει· Δσποτα, ε βολει σζειν τν σν ψυχν, ναγκαν στιν λεύθερον τν ναν τν πολλν πιβατν. δ Ξρξης λγει τος Πρσαις, νδρες Πρσαι, νν καιρς στιν μν δηλον τν μετραν πρς μ φιλαν· ν μν γρ δοκε εναι μο σωτηρα. ο δ εθς ξλλονται ες τν θλατταν· κα οτως σωσαν βασιλα, πε ποίησαν τν ναν κουφοτραν.

50 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 ς ον εδον τν κίνδυνον, βοντο, δ Ξρξης κα κυβερντης βουλεοντο· κα κυβερντης λγει· Δσποτα, ε βολει σζειν τν σν ψυχν, ναγκαν στιν λεύθερον τν ναν τν πολλν πιβατν. δ Ξρξης λγει τος Πρσαις, νδρες Πρσαι, νν καιρς στιν μν δηλον τν μετραν πρς μ φιλαν· ν μν γρ δοκε εναι μο σωτηρα. ο δ εθς ξλλονται ες τν θλατταν· κα οτως σωσαν βασιλα, πε ποίησαν τν ναν κουφοτραν.

51 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 δ Ξρξης, ς ν γ στίν, τι μν σωσε βασιλως τν ψυχν, παρχει τ κυβερντ στφανον χρυσον, τι δ πολλος Πρσας πώλεσε, ποτμνει τν κεφαλν ατο.

52 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 δ Ξρξης, ς ν γ στίν, τι μν σωσε βασιλως τν ψυχν, παρχει τ κυβερντ στφανον χρυσον, τι δ πολλος Πρσας πώλεσε, ποτμνει τν κεφαλν ατο.

53 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 δ Ξρξης, ς ν γ στίν, τι μν σωσε βασιλως τν ψυχν, παρχει τ κυβερντ στφανον χρυσον, τι δ πολλος Πρσας πώλεσε, ποτμνει τν κεφαλν ατο.

54 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 22 πολλο ροσν μοι ν κεν τ μρ, Κριε κριε, ο τ σ νματι προφητεσαμεν, κα τ σ νματι δαιμνια ξεβλομεν, κα τ σ νματι δυνμεις πολλς ποισαμεν; 23 κα ττε μολογσω ατος τι Οδποτε γνων μς· ποχωρετε π μο ο ργαζμενοι τν νομαν. ποχωρω go away δαμων –ονος demon δναμις –εως power γνων I knew κβλλω –βαλ -βαλον throw away κενος –η –ο that ο ργαζμενοι τν νομαν those who break the law ρ (ρω) future of λγω Κριος –ου Lord οδποτε never μολογω declare προφητεω prophesy

55 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 24 Πς ον στις κοει μου τος λγους τοτους κα ποιε ατος μοιωθσεται νδρ φρονμ, στις κοδμησεν ατο τν οκαν π τν πτραν. οκοδομω οκοδομσω οκωδμησα build a home μοιω resemble, be like στις (anyone) who πς (masc sg nom.) each πτρα –ας rock τοτους these φρνιμος –η –ον thoughtful, intelligent

56 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 25 κα κατβη βροχ κα λθον ο ποταμο κα πνευσαν ο νεμοι κα προσπεσαν τ οκ κεν, κα οκ πεσεν, τεθεμελωτο γρ π τν πτραν. νεμος –ου wind βροχ -ης rain λθον (3d pl aor.indic act) come τεθεμελωτο it has been established κατβη (3d sg aor.indic act) walk down, come πτρα –ας rock πνεω breathe, blow προσππτω –πεσομαι -πεσον fall on

57 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 26 κα πς κοων μου τος λγους τοτους κα μ ποιν ατος μοιωθσεται νδρ μωρ, στις κοδμησεν ατο τν οκαν π τν μμον. κοων who hears μμος –ου sand μωρς - -ν moronic, stupid, foolish οκοδομω οκοδομσω οκωδμησα build a home μοιω resemble, be like στις (anyone) who πς (masc sg nom.) each ποιν who does τοτους these

58 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 27 κα κατβη βροχ κα λθον ο ποταμο κα πνευσαν ο νεμοι κα προσκοψαν τ οκ κεν, κα πεσεν, κα ν πτσις ατς μεγλη. νεμος –ου wind βροχ -ης rain λθον (3d pl aor.indic act) come κατβη (3d sg aor.indic act) walk down, come πτρα –ας rock πνεω breathe, blow προσππτω –πεσομαι -πεσον fall on πτσις –εως fall, collapse

59 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 for tomorrow (Thursday February 3, 2011): Quiz: Chapter 19 Vocabulary. –omit βοάω, δουλόω, λευθερόω Read Chapter 20 and begin reading Polycrates and the Ring 1: Advice from Amasis.

60 Shelmerdine Chapter 19 for tomorrow (Wednesday February 2, 2011): Quiz: parsing on Xerxes and the Helmsman Read Chapter 20 and begin reading Polycrates and the Ring 1: Advice from Amasis.


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