2Law of ContractThe law of contract is that branch of law which determines the circumstances in which promises made by the parties to a contract shall be legally binding on them In simple words, the purpose of law of contract is to ensure the parties who enter in to contract understand the terms of the contract
3OBJECT OF LAW OF CONTRACT The law of contract is intended to ensure that, ‘what a man has been led to expect shall come to pass, and that what has been promised to him shall be performed’ Sir William Anson
4‘JUS IN REM’ and ‘JUS IN PERSONAM’ Law of contract creates,‘jus in rem’ and ‘jus in personam’‘jus in rem’ rights against the world at large‘jus in personam’ rights against particular persons
5Definition of Contract ‘a written or spoken agreement, especially one concerning employment, sales, or tenancy, that is intended to be enforceable by law’ Oxford Dictionary
6Consensus ad idemMeeting of the minds - when the two parties to a contract, both have the same understanding of the terms of the agreement.There would not be a meeting of the minds if Bill Buyer said, "I'll buy all your stock," and he meant shares in a corporation, and Sam Seller said, "I'll sell all my stock to you," and meant his cattle.
7ObligationAn agreement, to become a contract, must give rise to a legal obligation or duty.An obligation is a legal tie which imposes upon a specific person or persons the necessity of doing or abstaining from doing a specific act or acts.
8AgreementAn agreement which gives rise to social obligation is not a contractAn agreement is a wider termAn agreement may be a social agreement or a legal agreementIf A invites B to a dinner and B accepts the invitation, it is a social agreement.
9Contracts vs Agreements All contracts are agreements, but not all agreements are necessarily contracts
10Essentials of a Valid Contract Offer and AcceptanceIntention to create legal relationshipLawful considerationCapacity of parties-CompetencyFree and genuine consentLawful objectAgreement not declared voidCertainty and possibility of performanceLegal formalities
11Offer and Acceptance At least two parties to an agreement one party making the offer and the other accepting itTerms of the offer must be definiteAcceptance must be absolute and unconditionalAcceptance must be as prescribed
12Intention to create legal relationship When two parties enter into an agreement, their intention must be to create legal relationship between them, otherwise there is no contract between them
13Lawful considerationTo be enforceable by law an agreement must be supported by consideration‘Consideration’ means advantage or benefit moving from one party to the otherConsideration need not be in cash or kindIt may be an act or abstinenceA promise to do something or getting nothing in return is usually not enforceable by law.
14Capacity of parties-Competency The parties to the agreement must be capable of entering in to a valid contractEvery person is competent to contract if they;are of the age of majorityare of sound mindare not disqualified from contracting by any law to which they are subject
15Free and genuine consent There must be free and genuine consent of the parties to the agreement.There is absence of free consent if the agreement is induced by coercion, undue influence, fraud, misrepresentation
16Lawful object The object of the agreement must be lawful In other words, it means that the object must not be;illegalimmoralopposed to public policy
17ESSENTIALS OF A VALID CONTRACT: 7. Agreement not declared void: The agreement must not have been expressly declared void by law in force in the country. A void agreement is one which is not enforceable by law.
18ESSENTIALS OF A VALID CONTRACT: 8. Certainty and possibility of performance: The agreement must be certain and not vague or indefinite (Sec.29). If it is vague and if it is not possible to ascertain it’s meaning, it cannot be enforced. Ex. ‘A’ agrees to sell to ‘B’ “a hundred tons of oil”. There is nothing whatever to show what kind of oil was intended. The agreement is void.
19ESSENTIALS OF A VALID CONTRACT: 9.Legal formalities:A contract may be made by words spoken or written.As regards the legal effects, there is no difference between a contract in writing and a contract made by word of mouth.It is however in the interest of the parties that the contract should be in writing.In some other cases, a contract, besides being a written one, has to be registered.
20Classification of Contracts Contracts may be classified according to, Validity 2.Formation, and 3.PerformanceVALIDITY FORMATION PERFORMANCE1.Voidable Contract [2(i)] 1.Express Contract  1.Executed Contract2.Void Agreement [2(g)] 2.Implied Contract  2.Executory Contract3.Void Contract [2(j)] 3.Quasi Contract Unilateral Contract4.Illegal Agreement Bilateral Contract5.Unenforceable Contract
211.Classification according to ‘Validity’ i] Voidable contract: An agreement which is enforceable by law at the option of one party but not at the option of the other or others is a voidable contract [Sec.2(i)].The party whose consent is not free may either rescind (avoid or repudiate) the contract, if he so desires, or elect to be bound by it.A voidable contract continues to be valid till it is avoided by the party entitled to do so.
22Classification of Contract……… Example of Voidable Contract: A promises to sell his car to B for Rs His consent is obtained by use of force.The contract is voidable at the option of A .He may avoid the contract or elect to be bound by it.
23Classification of Contract……… ii] Void Agreement: An agreement not enforceable by law is said to be void [Sec.2(g)].E.g., An agreement with a minor or an agreement without consideration.
24Cont’d…..iii] Void Contract:A contract which ceases to be enforceable by law is a void contract. [2 (j)].E.g., A contract to import goods becomes void, when war breaks out between the countries.
25Cont’d…..iv] Illegal Agreement: An illegal agreement is one which transgresses the public policy or which is criminal in nature or which is immoral.E g.,An agreement to import prohibited goods.All illegal agreements are void but all void agreements are not necessarily illegal.
26………….Illegal Agreement: Cont’d…………….Illegal Agreement:An illegal agreement is not only void as between the parties but has this further effect that even the collateral transactions to it become tainted with illegality.A collateral transaction is one which is subsidiary, incidental or auxiliary to the principal or original contract.
27v] Unenforceable Contract: Cont’d……..v] Unenforceable Contract:An unenforceable Contract is one which cannot be enforced in a Court of law because of some technical defect such as absence of writing or where the remedy has been barred by lapse of time.The contract may be carried out by the parties concerned; but in the event of breach or repudiation of such a contract, the aggrieved party will not be entitled to the legal remedies.
282.Classification according to ‘Formation’ A contract may be (a) made in writing or by word of mouth, or (b) inferred from the conduct of the parties or circumstances of the cases.These are the modes of formation of contract.On the basis of ‘ Formation’ Contract can be classified as,(i) Express Contract, (ii) Implied Contract, &(iii) Quasi Contract.
29An implied contract is one which is not an express contract. Cont’d…….(i) EXPRESS CONTRACT: If the terms and conditions of contracts are expressly agreed upon (whether words spoken or written) at the time of formation of contract, the contract is said to be ‘Express Contract ’.(ii) IMPLIED CONTRACT: One which is inferred from the acts or conduct of the parties or course of dealings between them.An implied contract is one which is not an express contract.
30Contracts ………classified. (iii)QUASI CONTRACT: Strictly speaking Quasi Contract is not a contract at all.A contract is intentionally entered in to by the parties.A quasi contract, on the other hand is created by law. It rests on the ground of equity that, “ a person shall not be allowed to enrich himself unjustly at the expense of another ”.
31III. Classification according to ‘Performance’ (i) Executed Contract(ii) Executory Contract-Unilateral or One-sided Contract-Bilateral Contract
32….. Classification according to ‘Performance’ (I) EXECUTED CONTRACT:‘Executed’ means that which is done.An executed contract is one in which both the parties have performed their respective obligations.(ii) EXECUTORY CONTRACT:‘Executory’ means that which remains to be carried in to effect. A contract may be partly executed and partly executory.ONE-SIDED OR UNILATERAL CONTRACTPerformance of only one party is outstanding.BILATERAL CONTRACT.Performance of both the parties remains outstanding.
33CASE 1.Over a cup of tea in a restaurant, A invites B for a dinner at his house on a Sunday. B hires a taxi and reaches A’s house at the appointed time, but A fails to perform his promise.Can B recover any damage …???
34VERDICT OF CASE 1. No. [Balfour V. Balfour,1919] A husband promised o pay his wife a household allowance of 30 sterling pounds every month.Later the parties separated and the husband failed to pay the amount. The wife sued for the allowance.Held, agreement such as these were outside the realm of contract altogether.
35CASE 2.(a) A engages B for a certain work and promises to pay such remuneration as shall be fixed by C.B does the work.(b) A and B promise to marry each other.(c) A takes a seat in public vehicle.(d) A invites B for a card party
36VERDICT OF CASE 2.(a) There is a contract between A and B and A is bound to pay the remuneration as shall be fixed by C.If C does not fix , or refuses to fix the remuneration, A is bound to pay a reasonable remuneration.(b) There is a contract between A and B(c) There is a contract between A and B(D) There is no contract
37CASE 3. A forced B to enter in to a contract at the point of pistol. What remedy is available to B.If he (B) does not want to be bound by the contract ..??
38VERDICT OF CASE 3.He (B) can repudiate the contract as his consent is not free.
39CASE 4.M mows L’s lawn without being asked by L to do so.L watches M do the work but does not attempt to stop him.Is ‘L’ bound to pay any charges to ‘M’ ?
40VERDICT OF CASE 4.Yes, L is bound to pay M a reasonable remuneration.
41CASE 5.C orally offered to pay A, an auto mechanic, Rs 50 for testing a used car which C was about to purchase from D.A agreed and tested the car. C paid A Rs 50 in cash for his services.Is the agreement between ‘C’ and ‘A’,(a) express or implied,…..???(b) executed or executory, …???(c) Valid,void, voidable or unenforceable…???
42VERDICT OF CASE 5. The agreement is, (a) express, (b)executed, and (c) valid.
43CASE 6. A promises to pay B Rs.500, if he(B) beats C. B beats C, but A refuses to pay.Can B recover the amount.. ???
44VERDICT OF CASE 6.No as the agreement is illegal.
45CASE 7.D lived as a paying boarder with a family. He agreed with the members of the family to share prize money of a newspaper competition.The entry sent by D won a prize 750 sterling pounds. He refused to share the amount won.Can the members of the family recover their share …….???
46VERDICT OF CASE 7.Yes, ‘as there was mutuality in the agreement between the parties’ and the parties had intended to be bound.
47OFFER & ACCEPTANCEAn offer is a proposal by one party to another to enter in to a legally binding agreement with him.
48Offer [Proposal]A person is said to have made a proposal, when, he,…….“signifies to another his willingness to do or to abstain from doing anything with a view to obtaining the assent of that other, to such act or abstinence” [Sec.2(a)]
49PROMISOR-PROMISEE proposer or promisor, and proposee. The person making the offer is known as the, offeror,proposer orpromisor, andthe person to whom it is made is called the,offeree orproposee.When the offeree accepts the offer, he is called the acceptor or promisee [Sec.2(c)].
50How an offer is madeE.g., An offer may be made by express words, spoken or written. This is known as Express offer.When A says to B, “will you purchase my house at Meerut for Rs.5,00,000” ?
51……How an offer is madeAn offer may be inferred from the conduct of the parties or the circumstances.This is known as Implied Offer.E.g., When a transport company runs a bus on a particular route, there is an implied offer by the transport company to carry passengers for a certain fare.
52‘Specific’ and ‘General’ Offer….. When an offer is made to a particular person, it is called specific offer.E.g. A offers to sell car to B [only] for Rs.1,00,000.When an offer is made to the world at large, it is called general offer.E.g., Mrs Carlill v. Carbolic Smoke Ball Co..
53What constitutes an offer….… 1.The offer must show an obvious intention on the part of the offeror to be bound by it.Thus, if A jokingly offers B Rs 10 for his typewriter and B knowing that A is not serious, says “I accept”, A’s proposal does not constitute an offer.
54What constitutes an offer… 2.The offeror must make the offer with a view to obtaining the assent of the offeree to such act or abstinence.3.The offer must be definite.4.It must be communicated to the offeree.
55LEGAL RULES AS TO OFFER1.Offer must be such in law is capable of being accepted and giving rise to legal relationship2..Terms of offer must be definite, unambiguous and certain not loose and vague.
56……LEGAL RULES AS TO OFFER 3.An offer must be distinguished from;(i) A declaration of intention and an announcement.(ii) An invitation to make an offer orto do business.Newspaper advertisements are not offers. A recognized exception to this is a general offer of reward to the public.
57……LEGAL RULES AS TO OFFER 4.Offer must be communicated..In Lalman Shukla vs. Gauri Dutt, A sent his servant A in search of missing nephew. Subsequently A issued hand bills offering a reward of Rs.501 to any one who might trace the boy. B brought the boy back. After some time, B was dismissed. He filed a suit claiming the reward.Held, there can be no acceptance without knowledge of the offer. Hence B was not entitled to the reward. 5.Offer must be made with a view to obtaining the assent.
58Legal rules as to offer…….. 6.A statement of price is not an offer.HARVEY Vs. FACEY,E.g., Three telegrams were exchanged between Harvey and Facey.1. “Will you sell your Bumper Hall Pen ? Telegraph lowest cash price-answer paid.” [Harvey to Facey]2. “Lowest price for Bumper Hall Pen 900 pounds.”[Facey to Harvey]
59…………..6.A statement of price is not an offer. HARVEY Vs. FACEY, 3. “We agree to buy Bumper Hall Pen for the sum of 900 pounds asked by you” [Harvey to Facey] Held, there was no concluded contract between Harvey and Facey The first telegram asked two questions; (i) the willingness of the Facey to sell, and (ii) the lowest price. Facey replied only to the second question and gave his lowest price, i.e., he supplied mere information and no offer had been made by him to sell.There could be contract only if he had accepted Harvey’s last telegram.