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1 Lecture 45 Project Procurement, Contract Management, and Ethics in Project Management.

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1 1 Lecture 45 Project Procurement, Contract Management, and Ethics in Project Management

2 2 Lecture 44 contents What is Risk? Primary Components Tolerance of Risk Risk Management Cat of Risk Risk Planning Risk Assessment (identification and analysis) Risk Handling Risk Monitoring Qualitative Risk Rating

3 3 Lecture 45 Procurement Procurement Cycles –Requirement cycle –Requisition Cycle –Solicitation cycle –Award Cycle –Admin cycle 2. Type of contract –Six Categories of Contract Ethics in Project Management

4 4 Self-pity is our worst enemy & if we yield to it, we can never do anything wise in this world - Helen Keller

5 5 To be prepared is half the victory.To be prepared is half the victory. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra

6 6 Treat people as if they were what they ought to be, & you help them to become what they are capable of being - Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

7 7 The quality of a person's life is in direct production to their commitment to excellence, regardless of their chosen field of endeavor.

8 8 The race is not always to the swift... but to those who keep on running.

9 9 In three words, I can sum up everything I've learned about life: It goes on. - Robert Frost

10 10 Action in Your Project Action may not always bring happiness, but there is no happiness without Action - Benjamin Disraeli

11 11 Procurement Acquisition of goods/services. Procurement (& contracting) is a Process that involves -Two Parties with: Different objectives Who Interact in a given market segment.

12 12 Good Procurement Practices includes Corporate profitability by: Taking advantage of: 1.Quantity discounts, 2.Minimize Cost/Financial Problems, 3.Seeking out Quality Suppliers.

13 13 As Procurement Contributes To Profitability Procurement is Often Centralized, -Results in Standardized practices -Lower Paper work Cost

14 14 Objectives of Procurement Planning are to select one of following for the Procurement of all Goods/Services: 1.From Single Source. 2.From Multiple/source. 3.Procure only small portion of Goods/Services 4.Procure none of Goods/Services

15 15 Critical factor. Environment in which Procurement Take Place is Critical factor. There are two environments: 1.Macro & 2.Micro. Macro environment includes General external variables that can Influence How & When we do Procurement and it Includes: –Recessions, –Inflation, –Cost of borrowing money, –Unemployment.

16 16 Micro environment is the internal to Firm Include Procurement /Contract System five cycles: Requirement Cycle: Defines boundaries of Project Requisition Cycle: analysis of sources Solicitation Cycle: Bidding process Award cycle: Contractor selection & Contract Award Contract Admin Cycle: Managing subcontractor until Completion of the Contract.

17 17 Several Activities of Procurement Process that overlaps Several of Cycles. These cycles are conducted In parallel, especially Requisition & Solicitation.

18 18 1. Requirement Cycle First Step in Procurement Process Definition of Project Specifically Requirements

19 19 Requirement Cycle Includes 1.Defining the need for the project 2.Development of the statement of work, specifications, and work breakdown structure 3.Performing a make or buy analysis 4.Laying out the major milestones and the timing/schedule 5.Cost estimating, including life-cycle costing 6.Obtaining authorization and approval to proceed

20 20 Specifications Written Pictorial or graphic Information describe define or specify services/item to be procured: 1.Design (physical Characteristics) 2.Performance (measurable capabilities) 3.Functional Specification ( subset of Functional, risk is on contractor)

21 21 2. Requisition Cycle Once the Requisition identification, Requisition form sent to Procurement to begin Requisition Process.

22 22 Requisition cycle Include: 1.Evaluation confirming specification. 2.Confirming sources 3.Reviewing past performance of sources 4. Producing Solicitation Package (S/P) Solicitation Package sent to each possible Supplier for Playing Field is level.

23 23 Specification Package Includes: 1.Bid documents (usually standardized) 2.Listing of qualified vendors (expected to bid) 3.Proposal evaluation criteria 4.Bidder conferences 5.How change requests will be managed 6.Supplier payment plan

24 24 3. Solicitation Cycle Selection of Acquisition Method is the Critical Element in Solicitation Cycle. Three Acquisition Methods : Advertising Negotiation Small Purchases (off supplies)

25 25 Advertising company goes out for sealed bids. There are no negotiations. Competitive market forces determine the price and the award goes to the lowest bidder.

26 26 Negotiation is when the price is determined through a bargaining process. In such a situation, the customer may go out for a: –Request For Information (RFI) –Request For Quotation (RFQ) –Request For Proposal (RFP) The request for Proposal (RFP) is the most costly endeavor for the vendor.

27 27 Large proposals contains: separate volumes for cost, technical Performance, Management History, Quality, facilities, subcontractor Management, & Others.

28 28 On Large contracts the Negotiation Process may Also Includes Price, Quantity, Quality & Timing. Vendor Relations are critical during contract negotiations. Can Shorten Process due to: 1.Integrity of relationship & 2.Previous history

29 29 Award Cycle (A/C) Result in a signed contract. Several types of Contracts. So Negotiation process also Include selection of the Type of Contract.

30 30 Objectives of Award Cycle is to negotiate a contract: -Type & Price -Result in reasonable Contractor risk & Provide Contractor risk with Greatest Incentive for Efficient & Economic Performance.

31 31 There are certain basic elements of most contracts. Mutual Agreement: There must be an offer and acceptance. Consideration: There must be a down payment. Contract Capability: The contract is binding only if the contractor has the capability to perform the work. Legal Purpose: The contract must be for a legal purpose. Form Provided By Law: The contract must reflect the contractor's legal obligation, or lack of obligation, to deliver end products.

32 32 The Two Most Common Contract Forms are completion contracts and term contracts. Completion Contract: The contractor is required to deliver a DEFINITIVE END PRODUCT. Upon delivery and formal acceptance by the customer, the contract is considered complete, and final PAYMENT CAN BE MADE.

33 33 2. Term contract: The Contract Is Required To Deliver A Specific "Level Of Effort," Not An End Product. The effort is expressed in Woman/Man-days (Months Or Years) over a Specific Period Of Time using Specified Personnel Skill Levels And Facilities. When The Contracted Effort Is Performed, the contractor is under no further obligation. Final payment is made, irrespective of what is actually Accomplished Technically.

34 34 Final Contract also called Definitive contract, Follows normal Contracting Procedures. E.g. Negotiation of all Contractual Terms & Condition on Cost & Schedule prior to Initiation of Performance.

35 35 Negotiating of contract and preparing it for signatures may require months of preparation. If the customer needs the work to begin immediately or if long-lead procurement is necessary, then:

36 36 Customer may provide the contractor with a letter contract or letter of intent (LOI). The letter contract is a preliminary written instrument authorizing the contractor to begin immediately: 1.The Manufacture Of Supplies Or 2.The Performance Of Services.

37 37 Final contract price Must be negotiated after performance begins, Definitive contract must still be negotiated.

38 38 Types of contract selection based upon following: 1.Overall degree of Cost & Schedule Risk 2.Type & complexity of Requirement (technical Risk) 3.Extent of Price Competition 4.Cost/Price Analysis 5.Urgency of Requirements 6.Performance period 7.Contractor's Responsibility (and Risk) 8.Contractor's Accounting System (Report Earn Value reporting?) 9.Concurrent Contract (contract take A back seat to existing work?) 10.Extent of Subcontracting (how much work contractor out source?)

39 39 General six types of contracts : Fixed-price (FP), Cost -plus-fixed-fee (CPFF), Cost-plus-percentage-fee (CPPF), Guaranteed Max-Shard Savings (GMSS), Fixed-price Incentive- Fee (FPIF), Cost-Plus-Incentive-Fee (CPIF)

40 40 First Category Fixed-price or Lump-sum contract

41 41 Contractor carefully Estimate Target Cost. Contractor required to Perform work at negotiated Contract Value.

42 42 If Estimated target cost is low then Total Profit reduced & may vanish. Contractor may not be able to underbid competitors So Contractor assumes a Large risk.

43 43 Lump-sum Provides Max Protection to Owner for ultimate Cost of Project. Disadvantage: Requiring a Long Period For Preparation & Adjudications of Bids.

44 44 Because of a Lack of knowledge of Local conditions, all contractors Include Excessive Contingency.

45 45 Chang Requested By owner after Award of contract Lead to Troublesome & Sometimes Costly extras

46 46 2 nd Category Cost-Plus- Fixed-Fee (CPFF)

47 47 Cost Plus Fixed Fee (CPFF) If Accurate Pricing Not Possible in Any Other way. So we use CPFF, so Cost may vary but Fee remains same. Contractor agrees only to use Best Efforts to Performance Good/Poor Performance Rewarded equally.

48 48 Total Rs/$ Profit likely To Produce Low Rate of Return reflects Small Amount of Risk By contractor. Fixed Fee - small % Age Of Tot/true Cost. CPFF Required Company books be audited.

49 49 3: Cost-Plus- Percentage – fee Contract

50 50 Provides Maximum flexibility to owner Permits Owner & Contractor to work together cooperatively on All Technical, Commercial, Financial Problems. -No Financial Assurance of Ultimate Cost.

51 51 No financial incentive to contractor this because of High building cost (Compared with other forms). Only meaningful Incentive can be: 1.Inc competition & 2.Prospects for Follow-on contracts.

52 52 4 th Category of Contracts Guaranteed Maximum-Share Savings

53 53 Contractor-Gets Fixed Fee for his Profit and Reimbursed for the Actual Cost of Engineering, Materials, Construction Labor, all Other Job Costs, But only up to Ceiling figure established as Guaranteed maximum"

54 54 Savings below the" Guaranteed Maximum are Shared between Owner & Contractor, where as Contractor Assumes the Responsibility For any Overrun beyond Guaranteed Maximum Price.

55 55 Contract form Combines advantages as well as disadvantages of Both Lump Sum & Cost-Plus Contracts. Best form for Negotiated Contract as it Establishes a Maximum Price At Earliest Possible Date

56 56 Though contract awarded without Competitive Tenders. -Yet Protects owner Against being Overcharged,

57 57 Unique in that Owner & Contractor share Financial Risk & Both have Real incentive To Complete Project At lowest Possible Cost.

58 58 5 th Category of Contract Fixed-Price- Incentive-fee Contracts

59 59 These are Same as Fixed- Price contracts Except have some Provision for Adjustment of the Total Profit by a formula. This Formula Depends on Final Total Cost at Completion of Project

60 60 Formula Agreed to in advance By Owner & Contractor. To use this Both Project or Contract Requirements Must be firmly established

61 61 Provides An incentive to Contractor To: a) Reduce Cost b) Increase profit Both Owner & Cost Share in Risk & Savings.

62 62 6 th Cat. Cost-Plus- Incentive- Fee Contracts

63 63 Same as: Cost Plus Contracts, Except have Provide for Adjustment of Fee as Determined By a Formula: Compares Total Project Cost to Target Cost. Formula agreed to in advance by Owner & Contractor. Used for Long Duration or R&D Type Project.

64 64 5. Contract Admin Cycle Contract Administrator is Responsible for Compliance By the Contractor to Contract's Terms & Conditions To Make Sure Final Product is Fit for Use.

65 65 Functions of contract administrator Include: Change Management Specification interpretation Adherence to Quality Warranties Subcontractor Management Production surveillance Waivers Contract breach Resolution of disputes Project Termination Payment Schedule Project Closeout

66 66 Part Two Ethics

67 67 Ethical Origins Societal Ethics: Standards of Members of Society use when dealing with each other. Based on Values & standards

68 68 Societal Ethics: Found in Societys Legal Rules, Norm, & Mores. Codified in the Form of Law & Society Customer.

69 69 Norms dictate how people Should behave. Societal ethics vary based On a given Society. Strong beliefs in one country differ elsewhere.

70 70 Professional Ethics: Values & standards used by Group of Managers in workplace. Applied when Decision not Clear-Cut Ethically. Physicians/Lawyers Professional Associates – (PMA, Bar Council)

71 71 Values An individuals Basic convictions of What is Right & Wrong

72 72 Values Basic beliefs About what one should or should not do? & What is & is not important?

73 73 Individual Ethics: Values of an individual resulting from their family & upbringing.

74 74 Behavior not illegal, Yet People still disagree If not ethical.

75 75 Ethics of top Project Manager – set the – tone for – Project

76 76 Ethics Codes & Policies Provide sign of top Managements desires in Project Based Organizational culture

77 77 Why Behave Ethically? Project Manager should behave ethically To Avoid Harming others. Managers Responsible for Protecting & Nurturing Resources In their Charge.

78 78 Leadership, Culture, Incentive Compensation Plans help Shape Individual Ethical behavior in Project Management

79 79 Promoting Ethics Evidence Showing Ethical Managers benefit over long term.

80 80 Ethical Control System in Project Management Formal System to encourage Ethical Management. Project Management Firms appoint an Ethics Ombudsman to monitor practices. Communication standards To all employees.

81 81 Ethical culture: firms increasingly seek to make good ethics part of norm & organizational culture.

82 82 Ethical decisions involve Normative Judgment implies something is good or bad, right or wrong, better or worse. Morality Societys accepted norms of behavior

83 83 Should you pay compensation pay to laid off workers? – May December Stakeholder Return. – Should you buy goods from overseas firms that hire children? If you dont Children may not earn enough money to eat.

84 84 Views of Ethical Decision-Making Decision makers seek to impose and enforce rules fairly and impartially Decisions made solely on the basis of outcomes or consequences Decisions are concerned with respecting and pro- tecting basic rights of individuals

85 85 Code of Ethics Professional organizations Project Management Institute (PMI) Taking a serious look at developing Requirements for a Professional Project manager.

86 86 Ethics obligation matrix.

87 87 CODE OF ETHICS FOR PROJECT MANAGERS PREAMBLE: Project Managers, in the pursuit of their profession, affect the quality of life for all people in our society. Therefore, it is vital that Project Managers conduct their work in an ethical manner to earn and maintain the confidence of team members, colleagues, employees, clients and the public.

88 88 ARTICLE I: Project Managers shall maintain high standards of personal and professional conduct. a)Accept responsibility for their actions. b)Undertake projects and accept responsibility only if qualified by training or experience, or after full disclosure to their employers or clients of pertinent qualifications. c)Maintain their professional skills at the state -of-the-art and recognize the importance of continued personal development and education. d)Advance the integrity and prestige of the profession by practicing in a dignified manner. e)Support this code and encourage colleagues and co- workers to act in accordance with this code. f)Support the professional society by actively participating and encouraging colleagues and coworkers to participate. g)Obey the laws of the country in which work is being performed.

89 89 ARTICLE II: Project Managers shall, in their work: a)Provide the necessary project leadership to promote maximum productivity while striving to minimize costs. b)Apply state-of-the-art management tools and techniques to ensure schedules are met and the project is appropriately planned and coordinated. c)Treat fairly all project team members, colleagues and co- workers, regardless of race, religion, sex, age or national origin. d)Protect project team members from physical and mental harm. e)Provide suitable working conditions and opportunities for project team members. f)Seek, accept and offer honest criticism of work, and properly credit the contribution of others. g)Assist project team members, colleagues and co-workers in their professional development.

90 90 ARTICLE III: Project Managers shall, in their relations with employers and clients: a)Act as faithful agents or trustees for their employers or clients in professional or business matters. b)Keep information on the business affairs or technical processes of an employer or client in confidence while employed, and later, until such information is properly released. c)Inform their employers, clients, professional societies or public agencies of which they are members or to which they may make any presentations, of any circumstances that could lead to a conflict of interest. d)Neither give nor accept, directly or indirectly, any gift, payment or service of more than nominal value to or from those having business relationships with their employers or clients. e)Be honest and realistic in reporting project cost, schedule and performance.

91 91 ARTICLE IV: Project Managers shall, in fulfilling their responsibilities to the community: a)Protect the safety, health and welfare of the public and speak out against abuses in those areas affecting the public interest. b)Seek to extend public knowledge and appreciation of the project management profession and its achievements.

92 92 Part Two ends

93 93 Social Responsibility Social Power Social Responsibility Concept Project Management Organization must behave Proactively Business has certain social responsibility because power it wields Be a Good Corporate Citizen

94 94 Social Responsibility Pyramid Obey the Law Make Enough Money To Survive Good Corporate Citizen Do What is Right, Just

95 95 Levels of Social Responsibility Reactive (Obstruction) Proactive DefensiveAccommodative Level of Social ResponsibilityLow High

96 96 Accommodative Response: Managers realize need for social responsibility. – Try to balance interests of all S/H. Proactive response : Manager actively embrace social responsibility. – Go out of their way to learn about & help Stakeholders – Good Corporate Citizen Social Responsiveness

97 97 Why be Responsible? Managers accrue benefits by being responsible. – Workers & Society benefit. – Quality of Life in Society improve. – It is the right thing to do. Whistleblowers: a per reporting illegal or unethical acts. Now protected by law Social audit: Managers specifically take ethics & business into account when making decisions.

98 98 The Social Audit Profitability NegativeLowMediumHigh Negative Low Medium High Favored Strategies Social Returns

99 99 Arguments For Social Responsiveness Business is involved in social issues

100 100 Business resources to tackle todays complex societal problems

101 101 A better society means a better environment for doing business Corporate social action will prevent Government intervention

102 102 How Firms Can Improve Their Social Responsiveness (Ethical Performance) Establish and publish their own Code of Ethics Ombudsmen - (committee, task force) to review the corporate past behavior Protect whistle-blowing - when an employee discloses an illegal, immoral, or unethical action committed by a member of the organization Training programs - ethical sensitivity training Controlling compliance - corporate social audit (or ethics audit) Leadership - demonstrate commitment from leaders Involve personnel at all levels

103 103 Part Three Recap of the course

104 104 Management Project Management Project Manager Project Proposal Project Feasibility Project Selection Method Project Planning Scope Charter Quality ( 3-4 ) Productivity

105 105 Leadership Communication Ethics Costing Pricing Risk Management Procurement Close out Note

106 106 Part Four Project Management Institute (PMI)

107 107 Procurement Management Processes Project Procurement Management involves engaging in a systematic process to purchase or acquire the needed products, services, or results from an outside source which will perform the work. Procure Management encompasses contract management and control processes necessary to administer contracts or purchase orders. It also includes processes which assist in administering a contract to assure the buyer/seller relationships are properly managed. The procurement management processes are:

108 108 Plan Purchases and Acquisitions – Plan Purchases and Acquisitions process involves ascertaining what is needed, and when it is needed. Then how to assure you have what you need when you need it. (Novel concept!) This is completed as a part of the planning process group.

109 109 Plan Contracting – The Plan Contracting process involves documenting the products, services, and results requirements and identifies potential sellers. Plan Contracting is commonly first engaged in the planning process group.

110 110 Request Seller Responses – Request Seller Responses process obtains information, quotations, bids, offers, or proposals from sellers as appropriate. This is a part of the executing process group

111 111 Select Sellers – The Select Sellers process is where the offers are reviewed, and a chosen vendor rises to the top of the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Commonly negotiations are started in written form. This is commonly a part of the executing process group.

112 112 Contract Administration - The Contract Administration Process manages all aspects of the contract and the relationship between the buyer and the seller including managing seller performance and changes, providing a basis for future work, and managing the relationship with the projects buyer. This is a part of the monitoring and controlling process grouping.

113 113 Contract Closure - The Contract Closure Process assures completion and settling terms of any contracts including resolving any open items and closing each contract.

114 114 Each Procurement Management process results in a specific deliverable which is used as the foundations for the subsequent process. Combined the procurement management processes provide a best practice pattern for managing contracts and vendor relationships on a project.

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