Presentation on theme: "Of 38 Technology Exemplars for Energy Efficient Buildings – Aiming Towards Net-0 for : Saint-Gobain Glass Initiative for Green Buildings date :Wednesday,"— Presentation transcript:
of 38 Technology Exemplars for Energy Efficient Buildings – Aiming Towards Net-0 for : Saint-Gobain Glass Initiative for Green Buildings date :Wednesday, February 13, 2013 presenter:Neeraj Kapoor Kalpakrit Sustainable Environments Pvt. Ltd.
of 38 About Kalpakrit Council of Architecture (COA) licensed architects. Member, Indian Green Building Council (IGBC) Member, US Green Building Council (USGBC) GRIHA Trainers & Evaluators, LEED AP & IGBC AP staff EXPERIENCE & STRENGTHS A green building consultancy firm led by architects – Comprises of young architecture, engineering and building science professionals. Practice rooted in research and industry synergies – providing solutions for moisture migration, hydroponics, urban design principles formed on vernacular built-heritage & CFD Staff involved in the development of Energy Conservation Building Code, i.e. ECBC 2007 and are currently involved with policy initiatives with Bureau of Energy Efficiency, MoP related to code implementation in Tamil Nadu and design of DSM projects.
of 38 3 Key Projects Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), Vithura, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Bhubneshwar, Orissa Energy, Lighting Simulation, IAQ and Design Assistance for the Indira Paryavaran Bhavan (IPB), Delhi, MoEF Ceremonial Hall, Presidential Estate IRRAD – Phase 1, Gurgaon is a Platinum rated green building. Phase-2 consultants. Natraj IT Park, Mumbai; FIFC, Mumbai; Signet Towers, Hyderabad Nestle R&D Centre, Manesar, Haryana Jaypee Residency Manor Extension, Mussoorie, Uttranchal Botanika Residential Development, 76 Friends Colony, Delhi Micron, Barwala, Punjab; Immacule, Nalagarh, Himachal Punjab National Bank, Gurgaon
of 38 4 Net Zero Electricity? Net Zero Embodied Energy? Operational Energy? Carbon Neutral? Carbon Footprint? Off-Grid? ?? What kind of Net Zero?
of 38 5 Net Zero Onsite Operational Electricity Consumption Loads reduction and then,... further loads reduction -- Optimization! Energy Efficiency and Energy Conservation Measures (EEMs & ECMs) Key Net Zero Metrics Technology demonstrators for a large NZEB
of 38 6 Loads: It begins and Ends Here for NZEB.... EXTERIOR LOADS (insulation) Back to the basics -- Orientation, Floor plate depth, Self shading, Passive design features, sailing months, and prevailing breeze! Reducing Heat Gain through walls and roofs ~ At what U / R – value does it become futile to apply more insulation? Is it 0.07?/ 0.065/ 0.06 or 0.055..... (Btu/ft 2.h. F) ~ The dilemma of the glass - WANTED: High VLT and low SHGC for glass – Its Possible! But, before we select glass – ~ Can we effectively shade the windows? What about the frames? Aluminium, Steel, Aluminium with thermal break, UPVC, Wood or Bamboo-Jute/ composites INTERIOR LOADS (power densities and scheduling) Existential Questions -- Why should one be cooling excessively for ineffective and inefficient lighting of the interiors? ~ Complete and adequate daylighting of all interior spaces; ~ Optimized general lighting benchmarks, LPD + specific task lighting
of 38 7 PROCESS LOADS REDUCTION – Are these Classic ECMs? Could the IT loads be reduced? ~ Laptops :15W to 70W; ~ Thin Clients?: 10W to 20W ~ IT Energy Management Software ~ Lets do away with the tubes now -- LCD screens only. LED? What about the efficiency of appliances and electronics? ~ Star-labelled? Energy Star? Conservation before Efficiency ~ Do you really need the equipment, plugged appliances that you have on your wish-list? Aggressive organizational procurement policy to sustain status!
of 38 8 Process Loads Reduction – An example of a classic ECM Interior Loads Existential Questions -- Why should one be cooling excessively for ineffective and inefficient lighting of the interiors? ~ Complete daylighting of all interior spaces; ~ Optimized general lighting benchmarks, LPD + specific task lighting
10 Consideration to soil erosion: Scarce fertility
of 38 11 HVAC LOADS REDUCTION Efficiency approaches are not enough. Thinking about ECMs! ~ At what temperature are you comfortable? ~ What is comfort? ~ Can we redefine comfort for humans as a function of their adaptability to natural preconditions?; How do the systems design respond ~ Differentiating Thermostat set-points for different functions. Zoning the building for say – three varying set-points, excluding the merely ventilated spaces. ~ Do corridors and lobbies need cooling or could they be simply shaded, well ventilated transition spaces when one enters the building from the extreme outdoors? ~ How does one respond to Seasonal Cycles? Hot-Dry versus Warm Humid?
of 38 14 Design and Construction Process Housing in the Everglades Integrated Design Process that involves the Owners. Sophisticated Controls, experienced and smart facility managers. Educated and Sensitized Users who will sustain the super efficiency goals.
of 38 20 CASE 2 : Conservation & adaptation as a effective strategy for energy consumption reduction
of 38 21 Our Immediate Environment: Comfort in Buildings As lifestyle aspirations evolve for the middle class India, we have started seeing air conditioning getting installed largely as an additional facility. Its usually used only during certain times – and – that forms the basis of a mixed mode operational approach. Ceiling Fans Nat. Vent. / Night Flushing Evap. Cooling Air Conditioning Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec AC used for 6 hrs a day for 45 days (270 hrs a year ) Ceiling fans through out summer Graphic & Source: Office space comfort systems usage pattern, New Delhi; Ashok Lall & Neeraj Kapoor
of 38 22 Changing Expectations in Thermal Comfort Basic Cool ~ Cold ~ Outright Chilly Source: Ashok B. Lall Architects
of 38 23 Changing Means to meet Comfort Expectations As India develops economically there is a rising trend toward adopting refrigerant based air conditioning for indoor comfort. Ceiling Fans Nat. Vent./ Night Flushing Evap. Cooling Refrigeration based A/C Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Graphic & Source: Adaptation of the graphic to represent contemporary HVAC trend for buildings in India
of 38 24 Alternatively, theres... The Adaptive comfort model accounts for our physiological capacities to adapt to a wider range of temperature and humidity conditions in real life than those that are assumed to be the idealized limits. Graphic & Source: Acceptable operative temperature ranges for naturally conditioned spaces, ASHRAE 55 - 2004 Adaptive Comfort
of 38 25 Nicols Emperical Formulae for Comfort (in Pakistan)
of 38 26 Adaptive Comfort versus Steady State Adaptive / Reasonable Hot Dry season (RH < 60%): Comfortable at 28°C. Warm Humid season (RH 70%): Comfortable at 26 ° C. Image Source: Ashok B. Lall Architects
of 38 31 CASE 3 : Fresh Air Displacement Ventilation for a School, New Delhi Each tunnel to be 90m long to handle 12000 CFM approx. depending on 900mm wide tunnel. Slow Speed system: Air quantity based on 6 ACH in Peak Summer and 3 ACH in Monsoon & Winter. Displacement Ventilation for natural stratification of air column.
of 38 32 Forced Air Distribution versus Natural Stratification Forced Air: 12.5 - 14°C UFAD/ Stratified: 15.5 – 18.5°C Source: # web #
of 38 33 Displacement Ventilation Outside air is first pre cooled & then let to naturally stratify as it picks up heat. 29°C to 32 ° C 25°C to 28°C 21°C to 24°C Source: Nirmal Gupta Consultants; Original Source: # web #
of 38 34 Relevance... Air Quality! Source: # web # [24˚C] [25˚C] [26˚C ]
of 38 35 Better air quality & therefore health. Thermal comfort and adequate daylight Environment conducive to better performance. Sensitivity and ownership towards environmental initiatives. Quantifiable, real energy consumption reduction. for the occupants of the building, it means...
of 38 36 Comfort & Energy Efficiency when used with.... Evaporative cooler in hot dry season Refrigerant based cooling hybridized to condense water out of the air TES for managing peak loads, & differential utility tariff structures. Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Graphic: Adaptation of the graphic to represent use of high savings yielding EEMs in an Indian context Winter Heating, if necessary Nat. Vent./ Night Flushing / Free Sail Evap. Cooling during hot dry period Dehum. Air delivered via Displ. Ventilation