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MODERN AND POST-MODERN

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1 MODERN AND POST-MODERN
Review 3 RENAISSANCE ISLAMIC MODERN AND POST-MODERN BYZANTINE

2 Renaissance Mannerism Parmigianino Madonna with the Long Neck
Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Parmigianino Madonna with the Long Neck ca oil on wood 7 ft. 1 in. x 4 ft. 4 in.

3 Historical styles are cited by Charles Moore in his Piazza d’Italia (FIG. 34-48):
Italian architecture, all the way back through to the time of Roman culture: the Greek agora or the Roman forum, the Renaissance, Mannerism, and Baroque. eclecticism CHARLES MOORE, Piazza d'Italia, New Orleans, Louisiana,

4 Post painterly abstraction
Frank Stella (born May 12, 1936) is an American painter and printmaker. He is a significant figure in minimalism and post-painterly abstraction. He was born in Malden, Massachusetts Post painterly abstraction FRANK STELLA, Nunca Pasa Nada, Metallic powder in polymer emulsion on canvas, 9' 2" x 18' 4 1/2". Collection Lannan Foundation. Frank Stella

5 High Renaissance Compositional devices Leonardo used in The Virgin of the Rocks to knit the figures together; Pyramidal grouping of the figures. Light simultaneously reveals and veils the forms, immersing them in a layer of atmosphere that exists between them and the viewer’s eye. Four artists who were most closely associated with the High Renaissance: Leonardo da Vinci Raphael Michelangelo Titian Leonardo da Vinci Virgin of the Rocks ca oil on wood 6 ft. 3 in. x 3 ft. 7 in.

6 Modernist formalism Willem de Kooning Woman I (detail)
Willem de Kooning was one of the major practitioners of a movement that developed in New York in the late-1940s and 1950s. It was called Abstract Expressionism. Abstract, in that it does not look like the real world, and expressionist, because emotional and subjective aspects are more important than objective and formal concerns. Abstract Expressionism developed partially as a response to the end of World War II. With the dropping of the atomic bomb in Japan, people came to realize that humankind could destroy the world if they were foolish enough to do so. After the war, the United States was introspective, and artists felt that this mood could not successfully be expressed through traditional painting techniques and subject matter. Instead, they looked inside themselves, using lines and colors to express feelings. The title Gotham News gives us a reference point for interpretation. "Gotham" refers to the city in the Batman comics, which in turn referred to New York, where de Kooning lived. "News" perhaps refers to the newsprint seen on the lower left and the top center of the canvas. The artist had been using newspaper to help the paint to dry, and in that process some of the print came off. He liked the effect and left it. Gotham News could be considered a non-objective representation of life in New York, with the colors, crowds, and energy. Each viewer’s experience of cities will affect his or her interpretation of the painting; what is exciting, energizing, and exhilarating to some might be interpreted as confusing, violent, and frightening to others. Or, perhaps, de Kooning shows both sides of life in the city. The working technique used to create Gotham News has been labeled "action" or "gesture" painting, referring to the fact that the artist’s movements and creation process are clearly evident in the final result. De Kooning used a number of different sized brushes—some strokes are very wide and others are quite thin. The paint is applied in a variety of ways as well, from very thin passages to thick areas of paint squeezed directly from the tubes. Although it appears as if Gotham News was painted quickly and spontaneously, de Kooning actually thought carefully about the creation process, often stepping back to consider his next move. The role of accident was important as well, as seen in the unintended newsprint and the way in which the paint was allowed to run in a number of areas. The development of Abstract Expressionism is extremely important in the history of contemporary art for two major reasons. It was the first artistic movement born entirely in the United States. And, with its arrival on the art scene, the center of the art world—which up until World War II had always been in Europe (most recently in Paris)—shifted to New York. Willem de Kooning Woman I (detail) oil on canvas 6 ft. 3 7/8 in x 58 in.

7 High Renaissance Raphael Marriage of the Virgin
Chapel of Saint Joseph in Città di Castello near Florence, Italy 1504 oil on wood 5 ft. 7 in. x 3 ft. 10 1/2 in. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.

8 High Renaissance Three figures that Michelangelo is believed to have created for the tomb of Julius II. Moses Bound Slave “Unfinished Captive” Michelangelo Buonarroti Moses San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, Italy ca marble approximately 8 ft. 4 in. high Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.

9 High Renaissance Four aspects of the sculptural appearance of Bramante's Tempietto. Lower level directly inspired by Roman round temples. Resembles a sculptured reliquary. The dome, drum, and base bear a logical and harmonious relationship to each other and to the whole. Rhythmical play of light and shadow in the columns and balustrade. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Donato d’Angelo Bramante Tempietto San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, Italy 1502

10 Six adjectives that describe Deconstructivist architecture:
Deconstructivistm Six adjectives that describe Deconstructivist architecture: Disorder Dissonance Imbalance Asymmetry Unconformity Irregularity GÜNTER BEHNISCH, Hysolar Institute Building, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany, 1987.

11 Art as a political weapon
Post modernism Art as a political weapon The issue that was of primary concern to Cindy Sherman was the way much of Western art has been constructed to present female beauty for the enjoyment of the “male gaze,” and in women’s images and identities. Cindy Sherman produced a series of film stills in which she transformed herself CINDY SHERMAN, Untitled Film Still #35, Black-and-white photograph, 10" x 8".

12 High Renaissance Michelangelo Buonarroti Capitoline Hill Rome, Italy
Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Michelangelo Buonarroti Capitoline Hill Rome, Italy designed ca. 1537

13 Later islamic Taj Mahal Agra, India 1632-1647
Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Taj Mahal Agra, India Later islamic

14 Holy roman empire Matthias Grünewald Isenheim Altarpiece (fully open)
Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Matthias Grünewald Isenheim Altarpiece (fully open) ca oil on panel center panel, 9 ft. 9 1/2 in. x 10 ft. 9 in.

15 Art as a political weapon
Post modernism Art as a political weapon Three artists who used their art to explore issues involved with being African American women: Faith Ringgold Adrian Piper Lorna Simpson Faith Ringgold Who's Afraid of Aunt Jemima? 1983 Acrylic on canvas with fabric borders, quilted 7 ft. 6 ins. x 6 ft. 8 ins.

16 High Renaissance The most outstanding feature of Titian’s Assumption of the Virgin is his ability to convey light through dazzling color. Titian Assumption of the Virgin Santa Maria Gloriosa del Frari, Venice, Italy ca oil on wood 22 ft. 6 in. x 11 ft. 10 in. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.

17 Northern Renaissance Matthias Grünewald Isenheim Altarpiece (open)
Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Matthias Grünewald Isenheim Altarpiece (open) ca oil on panel center panel, 9 ft. 9 1/2 in. x 10 ft. 9 in.

18 Later islamic Dome of the Shah Mosque Isfahan, Iran 1611-1638
Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Dome of the Shah Mosque Isfahan, Iran

19 16th century northern Europe
Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Hans Holbein the Younger The French Ambassadors 1533 oil and tempera on panel 6 ft. 8 in. x 6 ft. 9 1/2 in.

20 Computer-Generated landscapes: In Nora, David Em uses computer imaging to create futuristic geometric versions of Surrealistic dreamscapes with a vivid illusion of space. Post modernism DAVID EM, Nora, Computer-generated color photograph, 1' 5" x 1' 11". Private collection.

21 Byzantine Theodora was an actress born in a low family, and before she and Justinian could be married, the laws had to be rewritten allowing senators to marry actresses (often prostitutes). She was known to be quite intelligent and became Justinian’s adviser, acquiring vast power and prestige throughout the empire. Although neither of them ever visited Ravenna, the mosaics in San Vitale show them lining up with their retinues to take part in the Eucharist at that church, Justinian carrying the bread and Theodora the wine. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Theodora and attendants south wall apse mosaic, San Vitale Ravenna, Italy ca. 547 mosaic

22 Post war expressionism
Two characteristics of the art of Jean Dubuffet: His scenes are painted or incised into thickly encrusted, parched-looking surfaces of impasto. Scribblings are interspersed with the images, heightening the impression of smeared and gashed surfaces of crumbling walls and worn pavements marked by random individuals. Jean Dubuffet Dhotel Hairy with Yellow Teeth (haute pâte) 1947 mixed media on canvas 45 3/4 x 35 in.

23 High Renaissance “poesia”
Painting meant to operate in a manner similar to poetry. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Giorgionne da Castelfranco Pastoral Symphony ca oil on canvas 3 ft. 7 in. x 4 ft. 6 in.

24 Abstract expressionism
Jackson Pollock Autumn Rhythm 1952 oil on canvas

25 High Renaissance Titian's painting Venus of Orbino established the compositional essentials for the representation of the female nude in much of later Western art. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Titian Venus of Urbino 1538 oil on canvas 4 ft. x 5 ft. 6 in.

26 Post-painterly abstraction
Frankenthaler's soak-stain technique. She poured diluted paint onto unprimed canvas, allowing the pigments to soak into the fabric, resulting in absolute flatness. Effect she wanted to achieve: The images appear spontaneous and almost accidental. Morris Louis was another artist who utilized it HELEN FRANKENTHALER, Bay Side, Acrylic on canvas, 6' 2" x 6' 9". Private Collection, New York.

27 16th century northern Europe
Holy roman empire 16th century northern Europe Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Albrecht Dürer Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse ca woodcut 15 1/4 x 11 in.

28 Post modernism Iktinos and Kallikrates
Parthenon, Temple of Athena Parthenos Acropolis, Athens, Greece B.C.E. Leon Battista Alberti façade of Sant’Andrea Mantua, Italy designed ca. 1470 Philip Johnson and John Burgee, , AT&T Building 560 Madison Avenue (at 56th Street) New York NY

29 Post modernism The artist who created designs for gigantic monuments depicting ordinary objects: Claes Oldenburg. Claes Oldenburg Clothes Pin Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1976 Cor-ten steel 45 ft. x 12 ft. 3 in. x 4 ft. 6 in.

30 The type of art are Christo and his wife Jeane-Claude were most famous for their temporary alter of landscape, by enclosing it, and buildings, in huge lengths of cloth. Their works are only on view for a few weeks. Environmental art CHRISTO and JEANNE-CLAUDE, Surrounded Islands, Biscayne Bay, Greater Miami, Florida, Pink woven polypropylene fabric, 6 1/2 million sq. ft.

31 Islamic Muhammad is believed to have ascended to heaven from the Dome of the Rock The first great achievement of Islamic architecture was The Dome of the Rock Following a brief period of Persian rule, Jerusalem was captured in 638, six years after the death of Muhammad, by the Muslim Caliph Umar. Soon after his occupation of the city, Umar cleansed the Temple Mount, built a small mosque and dedicated the site to Muslim worship. The most imposing structure the Muslims found in Jerusalem was the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Nearby the Arab conquerors undertook to build a more spectacular edifice, the Dome of the Rock, not only to proclaim the supremacy of Islam, but also to ensure that the new followers of Islam would not be tempted by Christianity. The site chosen was the very same rock where previously had stood the Jupiter temple of the Romans and before that, the two temples of the Jews. At this hallowed site, known in Arabic as Haram al Sharif, the 9th Caliph, Abd al-Malik, built the great Dome of the Rock between 687 and 691. Dome of the Rock Jerusalem

32 A series of triangles, each containing a large projecting rosette, framed by elaborately carved moldings. Each triangle is different, and animal figures appear in some of them, but not to the right of the entrance—the part of the façade corresponding to the mosque’s qibla wall. Islamic Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Frieze of the Umayyad Palace Mshatta, Jordan ca. 740 – 750, limestone 16 ft. 7 in. high

33 High Renaissance Michelangelo Buonarroti Tomb of Giuliano de’Medici
Medici Chapel, San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy marble central figure approximately 5 ft. 11 in. high Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.

34 Islamic The 165 foot tall Malwiya minaret is in Samarra, Iraq
The distinguishing feature of the minaret from Samarra is Its steeped spiral ramp. Its name, Malwiya, means “snail shell” in Arabic) Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Malwiya minaret of the Great Mosque Samarra, Iraq ca

35 Post modernism Political art
Trading with the white man: Jaune Quick-to-See Smith's Trade (Gifts for Trading Land with White People) is a large-scale painting with collage elements and attached objects that explores the politics of identity. Quick-to-See Smith uses cultural heritage and historical references to comment on the present and to challenge stereotypes and unacknowledged assumptions. Post modernism Political art JAUNE QUICK-TO-SEE SMITH, Trade (Gifts for Trading Land with White People), Oil and mixed media on canvas, 5' x 14' 2". Chrysler Museum of Art, Norfolk, Virginia (museum purchase 93.2).

36 Islamic Horseshoe arches were an important architectural feature of Mosque at Córdoba Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Prayer hall of the Great Mosque Córdoba, Spain 8th to 10th centuries

37 Superrealist Two Superrealist painters: Audrey Flack Chuck Close
"Some people wonder whether what I do is inspired by a computer and whether or not that kind of imaging is a part of what makes this work contemporary. I absolutely hate technology, and I'm computer illiterate, and I never use any labor-saving devices although I'm not convinced that a computer is a labor-saving device." CHUCK CLOSE, Big Self-Portrait, Acrylic on canvas, 8' 11" x 6' 11" x 2". Collection Walker Art Center, Minneapolis (Art Center Acquisition Fund, 1969).

38 Islamic Eastern façade of Great Mosque Djenne, Mali
Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Eastern façade of Great Mosque Djenne, Mali begun 13th century, rebuilt

39 Byzantine Feature that makes this image Christian and not pagan are the uppermost panel showing two angels holding a youthful image of Christ carrying a cross. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Justinian as world conqueror (Barberini Ivory) mid-6th century ivory 1 ft. 1 1/2 in. x 10 1/2 in.

40 Byzantine San Vitale Ravenna, Italy 526-547
Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. San Vitale Ravenna, Italy

41 Byzantine Justinian and Theodora’s reign marked the end of the Late Roman Empire and the beginning of the Byzantine Empire. He drove the Ostrogoths out of Italy, the Vandals from the African provinces, the Bulgars out of the northern frontier, and held the Sasanians on the eastern border, thus briefly restoring the Roman Empire’s range. Overlapping of Justinian and Maximianus: Each figure seems to be partly in front of and behind the other, representing the balance of imperial and church powers. Justinian's halo signifies his association with Christ, who is also haloed and who also wears purple robes. The dual political and religious role of the Byzantine emperors is emphasized. A halo , purple cloak , crown , and large golden bowl distinguishes Justinian from other figures in Byzantine mosaics. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Justinian, Bishop Maximianus and attendants north wall apse mosaic, San Vitale Ravenna, Italy ca. 547 mosaic

42 16th century northern Europe Netherlands
Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Pieter Breughel “the Elder” The Triumph of Death ca oil on board 46 x 63 3/4 in.

43 Byzantine Symbolism from the apse mosaic of Sant' Apollinare in Classe: Jeweled cross Symbol of the transfigured Christ, possibly representing the cross Constantine erected on Calvary. Three sheep below the cross The three disciples who accompanied Christ to the foot of the Mount of the Transfiguration. Twelve sheep Possibly the congregation under the protection of Saint Apollinaris. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Saint Apollinaris amid sheep Sant’Apollinare in Classe Ravenna, Italy mosaic

44 Holy roman empire Francis i Château de Chambord Chambord, France
Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Château de Chambord Chambord, France begun 1519

45 16th century northern Europe Netherlands
Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Pieter Aertsen Meat Still-Life 1551 oil on panel 4 ft. 3/8 in. x 6 ft. 5 3/4 in.

46 16th century northern Europe Netherlands
Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Pieter Breugel the Elder Hunters in the Snow 1565 oil on panel 3 ft. 10 in. x 5 ft. 4 in.

47 Pop art Example of Jasper Johns' “things seen but not looked at”:
The American flag. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Jasper Johns Flag encaustic, oil and collage on fabric mounted on plywood 3 ft. 6 1/4 in. x 5 ft. 5/8 in.

48 Spanish mannerist El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulous)
Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulous) The Burial of Count Orgaz 1586 oil on canvas 16 x 12 ft.

49 Characterize Michelangelo's style in painting and sculpture with four adjectives or phrases.
Figures are sharply outlined against the neutral architectural setting, rather than forming atmospheric “picture windows”. Reclining and twisting positions of the figures. Heavy musculature. Straight architectural axes (such as in Leonardo’s compositions) are replaced by diagonals and curves. High Renaissance Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights. Michelangelo Buonarroti Creation of Adam, Sistine Chapel Ceiling Vatican City, Rome, Italy fresco approximately 18 ft. 8 in. x 9 ft. 2 in.

50 High Renaissance Raphael Philosophy (School of Athens)
Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome, Italy fresco approximately 19 x 27 ft. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.

51 High Renaissance Titian Meeting of Bacchus and Ariadne
oil on canvas 5 ft. 9 in. x 6 ft. 3 in. Slide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD FOR EDUCATIONAL USE ONLY For publication, reproduction or transmission of images, please contact individual artists, estates, photographers and exhibiting institutions for permissions and rights.


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