Presentation on theme: "AOP Food Systems. AIR FOOD WATER MULTI POINT INTERVENTION STRATEGY."— Presentation transcript:
AOP Food Systems
AIR FOOD WATER MULTI POINT INTERVENTION STRATEGY
TECHNOLOGY OVERVIEW n n UV n n Ozone n n AOP n n PHI
Know youre ABCs UV-A, long-wave ultraviolet light in the 380 to 315 nm range UV-B, medium-wave ultraviolet light in the 315 to 280 nm range UV-C, short-wave ultraviolet light in the 280 to 100 nm range
UV-A 98.7% of all UV passing through the atmosphere from sun is in the A region. Both natural Sun Tan and artificial tanning lamps. Least harmful UV (…wrinkles). Bug Zapper attractant (~365 nm). Photocatalytic effect (very strong at 380nm)
UV-B Also passes through atmosphere (very small amount…except when ozone holes occur). Causes sunburn to the skin and can damage the eyes with over exposure. Produces Vitamin D in the skin. Too little exposure bad, to much also bad. Photocatalytic effect (~ nm).
UV-C 100% absorbed via atmosphere. UV-C has highest energy of A,B, and C. Quickly causes sunburn to the skin and can damage the eyes (flash burns). Germicidal wavelengths (254nm) Ozone producing wavelengths (185nm) Strong Photocatalytic effect (can actually prevent catalyst deactivation)
UV Sources Sun Low Pressure mercury lamps Medium pressure mercury lamps High pressure mercury lamps (metal halide lamps) Very high pressure mercury and xenon lamps (pulsed lamps) LEDs (emerging..not quite there)
UV-C (Commercial) Disrupts DNA and RNA effectively sterilizing cell. Line of site treatment (shadowing) Minimum energy dose is required for kills Easily determine treatment dose (published) Energy level + time = kill dosage (CT value)
Germicidal UV (254 nm) Effectiveness is dependent upon distance, intensity and exposure time
HVAC requires a large number to treat air Very effective on stationary surfaces Very good for liquid purification (if applied right) Temperature sensitive (extremes reduce it) Hazard due to glass and mercury Generally very effective if applied and sized correctly
Ozone Approved for Food Use July 1997 – Ozone receives GRAS affirmation by the FDA Prior to July 1997 ozone was only approved for potable and bottled water June 2001 Ozone was finally approved by FDA for food contact.
Ozone A Household Word No Longer only associated with the Ozone Layer or Smog. Municipal and Wastewater Treatment. Ozonated and Carbon Filtered Drinking Water. Becoming much more accepted by food industry.
What Is Ozone? n n Oxygen is O 2 – –A molecule containing two oxygen atoms n Ozone is O 3 – A molecule containing three oxygen atoms. OZONE IS ACTIVATED OXYGEN
Why Use Ozone? n n Safety n n Disinfection n n Odor Control n n Oxidation – –Inorganics – –Organics n n Turbidity / Micro flocculation
How is Ozone Generated? n n Ultraviolet Light Rays – –UV Light Rays from the Sun n Electrostatic Discharge –Lighting Bolts
Generation O1O1 O1O1 O3O3 O3O3 O2O2 O2O2 O2O2
Differences in UV & CD Ozone Generation n n % by weight – –0.1% = 1,000ppm n n No Air Pre-treatment needed n % by weight –5.0% = 50,000ppm n Air Pre-treatment necessary
Ozone Generation Technologies n n Ultraviolet Light Ozone Generation – –Typically ideal for air treatment applications, especially due to low mass transfer requirements. – –Require no air preparation. – –Low maintenance and operating costs. – –Not cost effective at single pass water treatment or other very large demand systems. – –Low capital cost.
Ozone Generation Technologies n n Corona Discharge Ozone Generation – –Ideal for fluid treatment applications or very large air systems. – –Requires air preparation. – –RGF only sells with oxygen systems. – –Higher maintenance and operating costs. – –Very effective at single pass water treatment. – –High capital cost (especially for small units).
Common Oxidants 1 - Fluorine (F - ) 2 - Hydroxyl Radical (OH O )* 3 - Ozone (O 3 )* 4 - Chlorine (Cl - ) 5 - Bromide (Br - ) 6 - Hydrogen Peroxide (H 2 O 2 )* 7 - Oxygen (O 2 )*
Advantage of Friendly Oxidizers Reverts to O 2, CO 2 and H 2 0 After Use Does not leave residue (or add to TDS) Respond Faster to Organics Can be generated on Site Increases Oxygen Content (for fluid applications)
What is AOP? AOP typically refers to Advanced Oxidation Process. In short, Advanced Oxidation is creating more powerful oxidizers from less powerful components via some external energy (typically UV…but not always!) Products of AOP reactions are also sometimes referred to as reactive oxygen species (or ROS).
Common components used in AOP reactions include Water, Oxygen, Hydrogen Peroxide, Ozone, Chlorine Dioxide, UV light and photo catalytic surfaces. There are multitude of reactions and pathways to produce advanced oxidation products.
Typical AOP/ROH products OH o Hydroxyl Radical O 2 - Super Oxide Ions HO 2 Hydroperoxides (includes H ) Ozonide Ions O 3 -
PHOTO CATALYST H 2 O 2, O 3 Energy: UV/other AOPs (Always exceptions: using ClO 2, Fenton's reaction, Sonalysis, you can also get AOPs)
Benefits of AOPs AOP reacts up to 40 times faster than ozone alone (Note that ozone reacts 3000 times faster than chlorine). Attacks virtually all organic compounds. Abstracts hydrogen from contaminants to form water. Provides a redundancy of oxidizers.
The most powerful AOP product produced is the OH o (hydroxyl radical). This reactant is 2 nd only to Fluorine in reactivity Very short lived Is key benefit in forming other AOP compounds, especially important for production of hydroperoxides (disassociation of water) including formation of hydrogen peroxide.
PCOs Photocatalytic Oxidation Reactor Uses UV light striking a catalytic bed Creates reactive holes on catalyst surface In turn producing AOPs Typically targeted to VOC reduction
Usually air only (always exceptions!). Treats only the contaminants that are brought to it. Reactions take place on the surface of catalytic bed. The higher the surface area, and the more UV energy that reaches it, the more efficient.
As surface area of the catalytic bed increases, limitations due occur (UV shadowing). Retention times to treat VOCs are applicable. Very effective when applied properly. Can be costly
AO REACTOR Usually liquid only (again, always exceptions). Reactant is mixed with fluid stream before entering reactor (H 2 0 2, O 3 ). Fluid with reactants enter UV reactor (basically a UV sterilizer on steroids).
Here the photocatalytic reactions occur (producing AOPs). Typically treats only the contaminants brought inside the reactor chamber (very targeted such as MTBE). Can be very effective if sized correctly Also expensive due to fluid handling and requirement for H and / or O 3 addition
TYPICAL AO REACTOR H2O2H2O2 O3O3 UV
PHOTOHYDROIONIZATION Hydrogen based oxidizers created by exposing activated oxygen molecules to a hydrated catalyst containing four unique metals and nm UV light (Photon Energy): – –Hydro-peroxides – –Hydroxides – –Super Oxide Ions – –Ozonide Ions
Photohydroionization is the creation of hydro peroxides from a reaction that takes place between the UV light, air, and the catalyst. These hydro peroxides or friendly oxidizers are very effective in breaking down both airborne and surface borne microbes. The High Humidity of most Food Plants benefits these reactions.
The Lamp Broad Spectrum High Efficiency nm Long Life Coating
PPC The Protection Breakage Containment Non-Polar Insulating Wash Down Compatible
Hydrated Quad-metallic Catalytic Coating Rhodium, Titanium, Silver, Copper, Hydrating Agent The Quad-metallic coating: has particular affinities, breaks bonds, releases electrons, holds and releases atoms, steals other electrons. absorbs water vapor It changes everything but itself remains unchanged. It is a Catalytic process.
Hydrophilic means that it attracts water, (H2O from the air) This creates an abundance of hydrogen and oxygen on the coating Quad-metallic Hydrophilic Coating
Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) is a multifaceted compound. It's the stuff that makes toothpaste white and paint opaque. TiO 2 is also a potent photocatalyst that can break down almost any organic compound. Titanium Quad-metallic Hydrophilic Coating Different catalysts do different things!
Vol. 05, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHOTOENERGY, 2003 Enhanced activity of silver modified thin film TiO2 photocatalysts This silver doped photocatalyst decomposes the pollutant 3-times faster than the un-doped TiO2. Silver speeds up titanium reactions It was postulated that silver enhanced the reduction potential of TiO2, … It was found that … the reduction potential of the photocatalytic system can be altered by varying the amount of silver doped onto the TiO2. The amount of silver alters the photocatalytic system Silver Quad-metallic Hydrophilic Coating Different catalysts do different things!
The Current Status of Catalysis by Silver R Schlögl, Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck- Ges., Faradayweg. 4-6, D Berlin, Germany Elemental silver is a unique catalyst for selective oxidation reactions, … Four different species of atomic oxygen interacting in spectroscopically distinct ways with silver have been identified Atomic Oxygen Species Adsorbed on Silver. V.I.Bukhtiyarov, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva prosp., 5, Novosibirsk, , Russia This paper summarizes our efforts to study the nature of oxygen species adsorbed on silver and their reactivity Silver has some unique abilities to work with energized forms of oxygen Silver is an excellent electrical conductor Silver is stable and will not itself oxidize in the course of creating and transporting oxidizers Silver Quad-metallic Hydrophilic Coating Different catalysts do different things!
Copper, like silver, can improve the functions of titanium Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 1999, Vol. 20, No. 8 Photocatalytic Activity of Cu/TiO2 with Oxidation State of Surface- loaded Copper the effect of oxidation state of loaded Cu on the photo-catalytic oxidation reaction. … it is expected that the loaded Cu may improve photocatalytic activity of TiO2, SOLAR PHOTOCATALYTIC HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM WATER USING A DUAL BED PHOTOSYSTEM, Clovis A. Linkous, Darlene K. Slattery, Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida …As it turned out, the more common copper Pc evolved the most H2… our best H2-evolving photocatalyst was copper. Copper has unique abilities to work with hydrogen Copper Quad-metallic Hydrophilic Coating Different catalysts do different things!
Why the PHI Technology is Unique By utilizing our broad spectrum lamp, we not only produce conventional AOP reactions on the cell surface, we also produce AOP reactions within the air that passes through the cell.
254 nm 254 nm breaks O 3 into to AOPs 254 nm initiates ozone decomposition
Germicidal UV Light Rays Hydroxyl Radicals OH o Super Oxides O 2 - Hydroperoxides H 2 O 2 Ozonide Ions O 3 - Hydroxides OH O3O3 O3O3 O2O2 HO 2 - O2O2 - AOP FORMATION
Reaction pathways are complex and will vary greatly due to available reactants and location (for a specific target and point in time). The PHI cell combines the features of a PCO with that of an AOR, plus more. The following slide depicts just one possible reaction pathway of the PHI cell.
PHI CELL ADVANTAGES Uses germicidal UV for microbe inactivation. Uses germicidal UV for Catalytic AOP reactions. Uses the combination of UV wavelengths to produce AOP reactions in air. AOP reactions inactivate microbes as well as destroy odors. AOP reactants remain effective after leaving cell
PHI CELL ADVANTAGES The PHI Cell produces and destroys ozone to facilitate the AOP reactions. Typically greater than 87% of the actual produced ozone is decomposed in the AOP process. Devices utilizing the PHI cells are not ozone generators, residual ozone produced is a by- product of the AOP process.
PHI CELL ADVANTAGES Achieves higher kills (especially relative to levels), than ozone alone. Proven outside studies on PHI effectiveness on Food Plant target organisms.
Food Safety Program RGF's Photohydroionization Sanitation Process Successfully used at: Poultry processors Pork processors Grain processors RTE processors Beef processors
PRODUCT LINE FOCUS n n Treatment of Food Contact Surfaces. n n Treatment of Food Product. n n Treatment of Air. n n UV Treatment of Brine and Chill Water. n n Ozone contact systems for water.
SPECIFIC AREAS OF CONCERN n n CONVEYOR SYSTEMS n n SLICING OPERATIONS n n PRODUCTION FLUID n n AIR - MICROBE AND ODOR CONTROL n n FINAL PACKAGING AREAS n n ICE MACHINES n n PLANT SANITATION
DEMAND FUELED BY : n n ZERO TOLERANCE BY USDA/FDA FOR CERTAIN BACTERIA. n n TREMENDOUS COSTS OF PRODUCT RECALLS. n n LEGAL LIABILITY AND PUNITIVE DAMAGES. CONSUMER DEMAND FOR FEWER CHEMICALS ON THEIR FOOD
n n BACTERIA AND VIRUSES MUTATING RESISTANCES AGAINST COMMON BIOCIDAL AGENTS AND ANTIBIOTICS n n VALUE ADDED CHEMICAL FREE PRODUCTS
PHI on Surfaces
PHI PRODUCTS AND NON-PENETRATING PHOTOIONIZATION RAYS
PHI ON SURFACES n n Can be retrofitted into most existing plant operations and conveyors. n n Does not use chemicals or other consumables other than electricity. n n Leaves no residue. n n Does not require special permitting.
PHI CONVEYOR BELTS n n Conveyor belts are not always continuously sanitized. n n Excellent benefits particularly in dry process environments or near the end of the process line. n n Protects from pathogen buildup each revolution. n n Cross contamination….mitigation.
Examples of Conveyor and Surface Sanitation
Alternative Treatments n n Chemical sprays, which are costly and leave residue. n n Frequent rinsing during shift (high labor, with mixed results). n n Ozone spray (can be costly). n n UV only: Not as effective PHI approach, offers no redundancy, has inherent shadowing issues, lamp breakage concerns.
PHI TUNNEL n n Systems provide 360 PHI treatment in synergy with non penetrating radiation of product. n n Designed as a final intervention point just prior to packaging or tenderizing. n n Provides excellent contact of the product itself, as well as belt (interval set up). n n Contact time is based on production speed requirements and particular unit design, they are typically held to a minimum of seconds of contact under hood (fast lines require multiple hoods).
n n Has shown not to affect color, taste, or nutritive value (no change in free fatty acid). n n Leaves no chemical residue. n n Treated product does not require any special. consumer labeling. n n Low maintenance. n n Low energy consumption. n n Does not require lengthy specialized training. n n Tunnels are custom made to fit conveyors with open weave belts and variable speed drives (some can be retrofitted, some not).
n n Pathogens cannot develop resistance. n n Lower cost than competing technologies. n n Dont over sell the technology. n n Is not effective on all types of product. - It is non penetrating (ground beef, post grind). - If AOP gases cannot touch it, they wont kill it. - Products with many overlaps or crevices are not a good fit.
Alternative Treatments n n Penetrating radiation treatment. - Very high cost. - Extensive training. - Stigma of the process - Ongoing labeling concerns - Logistics issues (when outsourcing) (although very effective)
LEAD OR DEPLETED URANIUM COLUMINATOR RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE CO 60 PENETRATING RAYS
Alternative Treatments n n Chemical sprays, which are costly, and leave residue. Not always practical (dry products) n n Infrared Treatment - High cost. - Extensive training. - High Energy use / cost. - Product incompatibility (literally cooks surfaces).
n n Ultra High Pressure (UHP) Cold Pasteurization - High purchase cost. - Complicated training. - High Energy use. - Changes microscopic structure of some products (notably degrades proteins in meat causing color changes). - Limited to batch process (not continuous) - Typically good for high liquid content products. If air pockets, they collapse and fill with liquid, changes shape and size of product
n n Ozone spray, usually not an option due to the water addition, also off gassing concerns. n n UV only: Not as effective PHI approach, offers no redundancy, has inherent shadowing issues, lamp breakage concerns. n n Steam Pasteurization – –Applies heat to food surfaces – –Used mainly on pork and beef carcasses – –Surface treatment only
Examples of PHI Tunnel Systems
n n Fully Understand the customers operation n n Use Site Evaluations to capture pertinent information - Customers issues / data / requirements - Product Type - Product Size - Maximum line speed * - Layout of location (sketch at minimum) - Available and/or preferred power * You want to avoid your process impacting theirs. Tunnel and Hood Sizing
n n Answer the easy questions first. n n Ensure material compatibility. n n Communicate, Communicate, Communicate
n n Recommend installations be done by I/R for these units. n n Main reason is proper training, both safety and operational (units are simple, but due to inherent UV hazard, UV training is important). n n Ideally communication is established very early with customer to ease install, the more that is completed upfront, the easier the install, and the happier the customer. Tunnel and Hood Install
n n Ensure the USDA inspector has been made aware of the unit.
n n Units are inherently easy to install (when all is done correctly upfront). n n Due to customization of units, most installs are different (field mount versus complete). n n Units all use the same basic components, making understanding parts exchange very easy. n n Each unit is shipped with a specific manual, each manual includes wiring diagrams and a specific spare parts list. Install Details
n n A multiple cell unit may look complicated, but in essence, it only has multiple single components systems. n n These component systems each require a cell, a ballast, a 4 pin ballast connector, and power supplied to the ballast to run (Basically, if you can trouble shoot and change a fluorescent light, you should be able to service these units). n n All the connectors, o-rings, etc..have been standardized for these units, pay special attention to the cell and lamp part numbers (in manuals), as these change based on unit requirements.
n n Attach to the hoods and tunnels via standard tri-clamp fitting. n n All designed as low voltage units (quick disconnect plugs). n n These are the latest generation modules, and are to be the standard for your systems. n n All internal parts will be interchangeable with the exception of the installed cell (these are sized for application). PHI Modules (AOP Generator)
PHI TREATMENT OF AIR n Protects evaporator coils from pathogen buildup n Destroys air borne contaminants including mold, yeast, bacteria and viruses n Reduces employee absenteeism n Reduces surface contamination n Extends shelf life
Commercial HVAC In Duct Products (Plant offices, common areas, locker rooms) Guardian Air HVAC Cell REME HVAC Cell
ECO AIR Food Applications Kraft documented 93% Microbial Reduction EPRI documented 94% Microbial Reduction FSIS documented 90% Microbial Reduction Wall mounted, stand alone unit.
PHI Rack System
Typical PHI Cell Reductions in air 2 nd Day 71.2 % 3 rd Day 86.8 % 4 rd Day 95.4 %
BOS Bacteria Odor Abatement Systems
TYPICAL CUSTOM UNITS n n Large Lift Stations n n Roof Top A/C units n n Air Transport Systems n n Large Ice Units n n Container Refrigeration Units
UV Fluid Treatment n n Design – –Low pressure UV lamps – –Low heat generation – –35-40% of energy converted to germicidal UV vs.8-10% with medium pressure – –Designed for 40 mJ/cm2 minimum energy at target rated flow – –Designed for turbid water
UV Fluid Treatment n n Germicidal UV – – C range of the UV light spectrum – –253.7 nm – –Inactivates bacteria by inhibiting its reproductive capability sterilizes them. – –Multi lamp reactors for both high and low flows – –In low turbidity and low absorbance situations flows can be increased.
Features n n Stainless Steel, Food Grade materials n n Lamp status indicators n n Wash down stainless steel NEMA 4 enclosures n n PPC containment (glass breakage) n n No flat surfaces n n No tool disassembly n n CIP capable n n Small Foot Print n n Integrated leak detectors (with relay contact) n n Can integrate with optional flow sensors and temperature sensors
UV Fluid Treatment n n Products – –FLUV-20 unit is for flow rates up to 20 GPM – –FLUV-60 unit is for flow rates up to 60 GPM – –FLUV-200 (aka. HVUV) is for flow rates up to 200 GPM
FLUV-20 SPECIFICATIONS: Model FLUV-20 Material Stainless Steel Electrical 120 volt 8 amps Weight 45 lbs. Flow rate 20 gpm (per unit) Max operating pressure 50 psi Connections 1 1/2 Sanitary (Tri clover style) Tube Diameter 4 UV Lamps 5
FLUV-60 SPECIFICATIONS: Model FLUV-60 Material Stainless Steel Electrical 120 volt 30 amps Weight 90 lbs. Flow rate 60 gpm (per unit) Max operating pressure 50 psi Connections 2 Sanitary (Tri clover style) Diameter of tube 6 UV Lamps 14
Example Performance Data – –Pork Chill Brine UV system – –Chub Chill Glycol UV system – –Marinate injection UV system
Typical Reductions Turkey Marinate Examples of before and after UV sample testing
n n Typical Reductions Turkey Marinate
UV System Validation VALIDATION BASELINE
UV Activation 520 CFU UV System Validation
Brine Marinate Injection System
Typical Brine Injection Install
Typical Chiller Loop Install
What to ask? n n Speak with the customer and complete and SOC. Visit if feasible. n n Review micro data (if available). – –Pre processing. – –During operation. – –Post processing. – –What are the target reductions (log or percentage). n n Determine the water quality. – –What does the water contain? Brine, Glycol, flavorings…. – –Flow rates, maximum and average flow. – –Line Pressure. – –Temperature. – –Pre and post processing differences
OZONE CONTACT SYSTEMS n n POOR QUALITY WATER FOR WASHING PRODUCE n n POOR QUALITY CONTROL MEASURES n n HUMAN ERROR FACTORS n n POOR PROCESSING METHODS n n CHLORINE IS HAZARDOUS TO STORE n n CHLORINE CAUSES HEALTH PROBLEMS IN PLANTS FROM EMISSIONS
OZONE CONTACT SYSTEMS n n CHLORINE EMISSIONS CAUSE OXIDATION OF PLANT MACHINERY AND OTHER EQUIPMENT n n SOME BACTERIA ARE RESISTANT TO IT
Competitive Technologies n Chemicals; Sanova, peracetic acid (Inspexx), chlorine and chlorine dioxide, quatenary ammonia –Except for chlorine they are expensive –Can create taste and color changes –Surface treatment only –No labeling requirements –Elevated COD levels in plant effluent –Storage and handling problems –Chlorine and caustic foaming agents, corrosive to plant equipment –Difficult to maintain accurate method of application
Assumptive Questions n Do you use chlorine in your plant for sanitation or product washing? n Are you interested in reducing chlorine consumption? n Do you experience corrosion that you attribute to chlorine use? n How much do you spend on chlorine per year? n Are you required to document chlorine use? n Do you swab product or equipment for pathogens during production? n Do you experience spikes or ramping of bacteria on equipment or product? n Do you have shelf life issues? n Do you have product returns as result of shelf life? n What are the advantages for an anti-microbial, which does not require storage or result in chemical residue on plant equipment or foodstuff? n What are your concerns about cross contamination points such as cutting surfaces, conveying surfaces or other product/equipment contact points?
Ozone System Sizing Why so many ?s
System Sizing Factors 1. Applied Ozone Dosage 2. Total Ozone Demand 3. Flow Rate 4. Desired Residual
Applied Ozone Dosage (AOD Value) Applied Ozone Dosage (ppm) = (CN x OR) Where: CN = ppm of contaminant in the water OR =ppm of O 3 required to neutralize contaminant
Total Ozone Demand (TOD Value) Total Ozone Demand (ppm) = AOD + MTF Where: AOD = Applied Ozone Dosage MTF = Mass Transfer Factor
Mass Transfer Factor (MTF Value) MTF Value is based on Factors Affecting Transfer of Ozone into a liquid: 1 - Pressure 2 - Temperature* 3 - Bubble Size 4 - Concentration of Ozone (% by weight)* 5 - Unknown Demand * - Ozone Solubility Chart
4. CT Value CT Value =C x T Where: C = O 3 Residual Concentration T = Contact Time (time in contact with ozone prior to measurement)
Measuring Ozone Residuals n n DPD Colorimetric Test – –Measures free oxidants n n ORP Measurement – –mV Readings unstable past 950 mV n n Ozone Monitor – –Expensive, high maintenance, – –very accurate
Sizing Example Question: What size ozone generator is required to eliminate iron and hydrogen sulfide? Given: Flow = 10 gpm Iron = 1.1 ppm Hydrogen Sulfide = 0.44 ppm
Sizing Example Applied Ozone Dosage Calculations: AOD = CN x OR Iron: AOD = 1.1 x 0.43 = ppm Sulfide: AOD = 0.44 x 1.0 = 0.44 ppm AOD Total = ppm
Sizing Example Total Ozone Demand Calculation: TOD = AOD + MTF AOD: AOD = ppm MTF: MTF = AOD For AOD <1 TOD: TOD = = ppm
Sizing Example Ozone Generator Size Calculation: OGS = TOD x FR x.012 x 19 TOD: TOD = ppm FR: FR = 10 gpm OGS = x 10 x.012 x 19 OGS = 4.36 gm/hr
Sizing Example (Cooling Tower) Question: What size ozone generator is required for a Cooling Tower to provide disinfection? Given: Flow = 150 gpm Tonnage = 200 Ton
Sizing Example (Cooling Tower) General Rules: Disinfection = ppm = gm / ton Total Ozone Demand Calculation: TOD = 0.6 ppm
Sizing Example (Cooling Tower) Ozone Generator Size Calculation: OGS = TOD x FR x.012 x 19 TOD: TOD = 0.6 ppm FR: FR = 150 gpm OGS = 0.6 x 150 x.012 x 19 OGS = gm/hr