5Know you’re ABC’sUV-A, long-wave ultraviolet light in the 380 to 315 nm rangeUV-B, medium-wave ultraviolet light in the 315 to 280 nm rangeUV-C, short-wave ultraviolet light in the 280 to 100 nm range
6UV-A98.7% of all UV passing through the atmosphere from sun is in the A region.Both natural “Sun Tan” and artificial tanning lamps. Least harmful UV (…wrinkles).Bug Zapper attractant (~365 nm).Photocatalytic effect (very strong at 380nm)
7UV-BAlso passes through atmosphere (very small amount…except when ozone holes occur).Causes sunburn to the skin and can damage the eyes with over exposure.Produces Vitamin D in the skin.Too little exposure bad, to much also bad.Photocatalytic effect (~ nm).
8UV-C 100% absorbed via atmosphere. UV-C has highest energy of A,B, and C.Quickly causes sunburn to the skin and can damage the eyes (flash burns).Germicidal wavelengths (254nm)Ozone producing wavelengths (185nm)Strong Photocatalytic effect (can actually prevent catalyst deactivation)
9UV Sources Sun Low Pressure mercury lamps Medium pressure mercury lampsHigh pressure mercury lamps (metal halide lamps)Very high pressure mercury and xenon lamps (pulsed lamps)LED’s (emerging..not quite there)
10UV-C (Commercial) Disrupts DNA and RNA effectively “sterilizing” cell. Line of site treatment (shadowing)Minimum energy dose is required for killsEasily determine treatment dose (published)Energy level + time = kill dosage (CT value)
11Effectiveness is dependent upon distance, intensity and exposure time Germicidal UV (254 nm)Effectiveness is dependent upon distance, intensity and exposure time
12HVAC requires a large number to treat air Very effective on stationary surfacesVery good for liquid purification (if applied right)Temperature sensitive (extremes reduce it)Hazard due to glass and mercuryGenerally very effective if applied and sized correctly
14Ozone Approved for Food Use July 1997 – Ozone receives GRAS affirmation by the FDAPrior to July 1997 ozone was only approved for potable and bottled waterJune 2001 Ozone was finally approved by FDA for food contact.
15Ozone “A Household Word” No Longer only associated with the “Ozone Layer” or Smog.Municipal and Wastewater Treatment.Ozonated and Carbon Filtered Drinking Water.Becoming much more accepted by food industry.
16OZONE IS ACTIVATED OXYGEN What Is Ozone?OZONE IS ACTIVATED OXYGENOxygen is O2A molecule containing two oxygen atomsOzone is O3A molecule containing three oxygen atoms.Oxygen MoleculeOzone Molecule
17Why Use Ozone? Safety Disinfection Odor Control Oxidation InorganicsOrganicsTurbidity / Micro flocculation
18How is Ozone Generated? Ultraviolet Light Rays Electrostatic Discharge UV Light Rays from the SunElectrostatic DischargeLighting Bolts
19Generation O1 O2 O3 UV Light Rays or Electric Spark Oxygen Molecules Ozone MoleculesUV Light Rays orElectric SparkO1
20Differences in UV & CD Ozone Generation UV OzoneCD Ozone% by weight0.1% = 1,000ppmNo Air Pre-treatment needed% by weight5.0% = 50,000ppmAir Pre-treatment necessary
21Ozone Generation Technologies Ultraviolet Light Ozone GenerationTypically ideal for air treatment applications, especially due to low mass transfer requirements.Require no air preparation.Low maintenance and operating costs.Not cost effective at single pass water treatment or other very large demand systems.Low capital cost.
22Ozone Generation Technologies Corona Discharge Ozone GenerationIdeal for fluid treatment applications or very large air systems.Requires air preparation.RGF only sells with oxygen systems.Higher maintenance and operating costs.Very effective at single pass water treatment.High capital cost (especially for small units).
25Advantage of “Friendly” Oxidizers Reverts to O2, CO2 and H20 After UseDoes not leave residue (or add to TDS)Respond Faster to OrganicsCan be generated on SiteIncreases Oxygen Content (for fluid applications)
26What is AOP? AOP typically refers to Advanced Oxidation Process. In short, Advanced Oxidation is creating more powerful oxidizers from less powerful components via some external energy (typically UV…but not always!)Products of AOP reactions are also sometimes referred to as reactive oxygen species (or ROS).
27Common components used in AOP reactions include Water, Oxygen, Hydrogen Peroxide, Ozone, Chlorine Dioxide, UV light and photo catalytic surfaces.There are multitude of reactions and pathways to produce advanced oxidation products.
29AOP’s PHOTO CATALYST Energy: UV/other H2O2, O3 (Always exceptions: using ClO2, Fenton's reaction, Sonalysis, you can also get AOP’s)
30Benefits of AOP’sAOP reacts up to 40 times faster than ozone alone (Note that ozone reacts 3000 times faster than chlorine).Attacks virtually all organic compounds.Abstracts hydrogen from contaminants to form water.Provides a redundancy of oxidizers.
31The most powerful AOP product produced is the OHo (hydroxyl radical). This reactant is 2nd only to Fluorine in reactivityVery short livedIs key benefit in forming other AOP compounds, especially important for production of hydroperoxides (disassociation of water) including formation of hydrogen peroxide.
32PCO’s Photocatalytic Oxidation Reactor Uses UV light striking a catalytic bedCreates reactive “holes” on catalyst surfaceIn turn producing AOP’sTypically targeted to VOC reduction
33Usually air only (always exceptions!). Treats only the contaminants that are brought to it.Reactions take place on the surface of catalytic bed.The higher the surface area, and the more UV energy that reaches it, the more efficient.
34As surface area of the catalytic bed increases, limitations due occur (UV shadowing). Retention times to treat VOC’s are applicable.Very effective when applied properly.Can be costly
36AO REACTOR Usually liquid only (again, always exceptions). Reactant is mixed with fluid stream before entering reactor (H202, O3).Fluid with reactants enter UV reactor (basically a UV sterilizer on steroids).
37Here the photocatalytic reactions occur (producing AOP’s). Typically treats only the contaminants brought inside the reactor chamber (very targeted such as MTBE).Can be very effective if sized correctlyAlso expensive due to fluid handling and requirement for H202 and / or O3 addition
40PHOTOHYDROIONIZATION Hydrogen based oxidizers created by exposing activated oxygen molecules to a hydrated catalyst containing four unique metals and nm UV light (Photon Energy):Hydro-peroxidesHydroxidesSuper Oxide IonsOzonide IonsA patented process using quad metallic catalyst (Rhodium, Titanium Dioxide, Silver, Copper) and 300 nm UV light.Sponsored by C.C. Dickson Co.40
41Photohydroionization is the creation of hydro peroxides from a reaction that takes place between the UV light, air, and the catalyst.These hydro peroxides or “friendly oxidizers” are very effective in breaking down both airborne and surface borne microbes.The High Humidity of most Food Plants benefits these reactions.
45The LampBroad SpectrumHigh EfficiencynmLong Life Coating
46PPC The Protection Breakage Containment Non-Polar Insulating Wash Down Compatible
47Hydrated Quad-metallic Catalytic Coating Rhodium, Titanium, Silver, Copper, Hydrating AgentThe Quad-metallic coating:has particular affinities,breaks bonds,releases electrons,holds and releases atoms,steals other electrons.absorbs water vaporIt changes everything but itself remains unchanged. It is a “Catalytic” process.
48Quad-metallic Hydrophilic Coating “Hydrophilic” means that it attracts water,(H2O from the air)This creates an abundance of hydrogen and oxygen on the coating
49Different catalysts do different things! Quad-metallic Hydrophilic CoatingTitaniumDifferent catalysts do different things!Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a multifaceted compound. It's the stuff that makes toothpaste white and paint opaque. TiO2 is also a potent photocatalyst that can break down almost any organic compound.
50Quad-metallic Hydrophilic Coating SilverDifferent catalysts do different things!Silver speeds up titanium reactionsVol. 05, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHOTOENERGY, 2003Enhanced activity of silver modified thin film TiO2 photocatalystsThis silver doped photocatalyst decomposes the pollutant 3-times faster than the un-doped TiO2.The amount of silver alters the photocatalytic systemIt was postulated that silver enhanced the reduction potential of TiO2, … It was found that … the reduction potential of the photocatalytic system can be altered by varying the amount of silver doped onto the TiO2.
51Quad-metallic Hydrophilic Coating SilverDifferent catalysts do different things!Silver has some unique abilities to work with energized forms of oxygenThe Current Status of Catalysis by Silver R Schlögl, Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Ges., Faradayweg. 4-6, D Berlin, GermanyElemental silver is a unique catalyst for selective oxidation reactions, … Four different species of atomic oxygen interacting in spectroscopically distinct ways with silver have been identifiedAtomic Oxygen Species Adsorbed on Silver. V.I.Bukhtiyarov, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Lavrentieva prosp., 5,Novosibirsk, , RussiaThis paper summarizes our efforts to study the nature of oxygen species adsorbed on silver and their reactivitySilver is an excellent electrical conductorSilver is stable and will not itself oxidize in the course of creating and transporting oxidizers
52Different catalysts do different things! Quad-metallic Hydrophilic CoatingCopperDifferent catalysts do different things!Bull. Korean Chem. Soc. 1999, Vol. 20, No. 8Photocatalytic Activity of Cu/TiO2 with Oxidation State of Surface-loaded Copperthe effect of oxidation state of loaded Cu on the photo-catalytic oxidation reaction. … it is expected that the loaded Cu may improve photocatalytic activity of TiO2,Copper, like silver, can improve the functions of titaniumSOLAR PHOTOCATALYTIC HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM WATER USING A DUAL BED PHOTOSYSTEM, Clovis A. Linkous, Darlene K. Slattery, Florida Solar Energy Center, University of Central Florida…As it turned out, the more common copper Pc evolved the most H2… our best H2-evolving photocatalyst was copper.Copper has unique abilities to work with hydrogen
53Why the PHI Technology is Unique By utilizing our broad spectrum lamp, we not only produce conventional AOP reactions on the cell surface, we also produce AOP reactions within the air that passes through the cell.
58Reaction pathways are complex and will vary greatly due to available reactants and location (for a specific target and point in time).The PHI cell combines the features of a PCO with that of an AOR, plus more.The following slide depicts just one possible reaction pathway of the PHI cell.
60PHI CELL ADVANTAGES Uses germicidal UV for microbe inactivation. Uses germicidal UV for Catalytic AOP reactions.Uses the combination of UV wavelengths to produce AOP reactions in air.AOP reactions inactivate microbes as well as destroy odors.AOP reactants remain effective after leaving cell
61PHI CELL ADVANTAGESThe PHI Cell produces and destroys ozone to facilitate the AOP reactions.Typically greater than 87% of the actual produced ozone is decomposed in the AOP process.Devices utilizing the PHI cells are not ozone generators, residual ozone produced is a by-product of the AOP process.
62PHI CELL ADVANTAGESAchieves higher kills (especially relative to levels), than ozone alone.Proven outside studies on PHI effectiveness on Food Plant target organisms.
63RGF's Photohydroionization Sanitation Process Food Safety ProgramRGF's Photohydroionization Sanitation ProcessSuccessfully used at:Poultry processorsPork processorsGrain processorsRTE processorsBeef processors
64PRODUCT LINE FOCUS Treatment of Food Contact Surfaces. Treatment of Food Product.Treatment of Air.UV Treatment of Brine and Chill Water.Ozone contact systems for water.
65SPECIFIC AREAS OF CONCERN CONVEYOR SYSTEMSSLICING OPERATIONSPRODUCTION FLUIDAIR - MICROBE AND ODOR CONTROLFINAL PACKAGING AREASICE MACHINESPLANT SANITATION
66DEMAND FUELED BY: ZERO TOLERANCE BY USDA/FDA FOR CERTAIN BACTERIA. TREMENDOUS COSTS OF PRODUCT RECALLS.LEGAL LIABILITY AND PUNITIVE DAMAGES.CONSUMER DEMAND FOR FEWER CHEMICALS ON THEIR FOOD
67BACTERIA AND VIRUSES MUTATING RESISTANCES AGAINST COMMON BIOCIDAL AGENTS AND ANTIBIOTICS VALUE ADDED CHEMICAL FREE PRODUCTS
69PHI PRODUCTS AND NON-PENETRATING PHOTOIONIZATION RAYS
70PHI ON SURFACESCan be retrofitted into most existing plant operations and conveyors.Does not use chemicals or other consumables other than electricity.Leaves no residue.Does not require special permitting.
71PHI CONVEYOR BELTSConveyor belts are not always continuously sanitized.Excellent benefits particularly in dry process environments or near the end of the process line.Protects from pathogen buildup each revolution.Cross contamination….mitigation.
76Alternative Treatments Chemical sprays, which are costly and leave residue.Frequent rinsing during shift (high labor, with mixed results).Ozone spray (can be costly).UV only: Not as effective PHI approach, offers no redundancy, has inherent shadowing issues, lamp breakage concerns.
78PHI TUNNELSystems provide 360 PHI treatment in synergy with non penetrating radiation of product.Designed as a final intervention point just prior to packaging or tenderizing.Provides excellent contact of the product itself, as well as belt (interval set up).Contact time is based on production speed requirements and particular unit design, they are typically held to a minimum of seconds of contact under hood (fast lines require multiple hoods).
79Has shown not to affect color, taste, or nutritive value (no change in free fatty acid). Leaves no chemical residue.Treated product does not require any special. consumer labeling.Low maintenance.Low energy consumption.Does not require lengthy specialized training.Tunnels are custom made to fit conveyors with open weave belts and variable speed drives (some can be retrofitted, some not).
80Pathogens cannot develop resistance. Lower cost than competing technologies.Don’t over sell the technology.Is not effective on all types of product.- It is non penetrating (ground beef , post grind).- If AOP gases cannot touch it, they wont kill it.- Products with many overlaps or crevices are not a good fit.
81Alternative Treatments Penetrating radiation treatment.- Very high cost.- Extensive training.- Stigma of the process- Ongoing labeling concerns- Logistics issues (when outsourcing)(although very effective)
82LEAD OR DEPLETED URANIUM COLUMINATOR PENETRATING RAYSRADIOACTIVE ISOTOPE CO 60
83Alternative Treatments Chemical sprays, which are costly, and leave residue. Not always practical (dry products)Infrared Treatment- High cost.- Extensive training.- High Energy use / cost.- Product incompatibility (literally cooks surfaces).
84Ultra High Pressure (UHP) “Cold Pasteurization” - High purchase cost.- Complicated training.- High Energy use.- Changes microscopic structure of some products (notably degrades proteins in meat causing color changes).- Limited to batch process (not continuous)- Typically good for high liquid content products. If air pockets, they collapse and fill with liquid, changes shape and size of product
85Ozone spray, usually not an option due to the water addition, also off gassing concerns. UV only: Not as effective PHI approach, offers no redundancy, has inherent shadowing issues, lamp breakage concerns.Steam PasteurizationApplies heat to food surfacesUsed mainly on pork and beef carcassesSurface treatment only
92Tunnel and Hood Sizing Fully Understand the customers operation Use Site Evaluations to capture pertinent information- Customers issues / data / requirements- Product Type- Product Size- Maximum line speed *- Layout of location (sketch at minimum)- Available and/or preferred power* You want to avoid your process impacting theirs.
93Answer the easy questions first. Ensure material compatibility.Communicate, Communicate, Communicate
94Tunnel and Hood Install Recommend installations be done by I/R for these units.Main reason is proper training, both safety and operational (units are simple, but due to inherent UV hazard, UV training is important).Ideally communication is established very early with customer to ease install, the more that is completed upfront, the easier the install, and the happier the customer.
95Ensure the USDA inspector has been made aware of the unit.
96Install DetailsUnits are inherently easy to install (when all is done correctly upfront).Due to customization of units, most installs are different (field mount versus complete).Units all use the same basic components, making understanding parts exchange very easy.Each unit is shipped with a specific manual, each manual includes wiring diagrams and a specific spare parts list.
97A multiple cell unit may look complicated, but in essence, it only has multiple single components systems.These component systems each require a cell, a ballast, a 4 pin ballast connector, and power supplied to the ballast to run (Basically, if you can trouble shoot and change a fluorescent light, you should be able to service these units).All the connectors, o-rings, etc..have been standardized for these units, pay special attention to the cell and lamp part numbers (in manuals), as these change based on unit requirements.
98PHI Modules (AOP Generator) Attach to the hoods and tunnels via standard tri-clamp fitting.All designed as low voltage units (quick disconnect plugs).These are the latest generation modules, and are to be the standard for your systems.All internal parts will be interchangeable with the exception of the installed cell (these are sized for application).
101PHI TREATMENT OF AIR Protects evaporator coils from pathogen buildup Destroys air borne contaminants including mold, yeast, bacteria and virusesReduces employee absenteeismReduces surface contaminationExtends shelf life
102Commercial HVAC In Duct Products (Plant offices, common areas, locker rooms)Guardian Air HVAC CellREME HVAC Cell
103ECO AIR Wall mounted, stand alone unit. Food Applications Kraft documented 93% Microbial ReductionEPRI documented 94% Microbial ReductionFSIS documented 90% Microbial Reduction
110UV Fluid Treatment Design Low pressure UV lamps Low heat generation 35-40% of energy converted to germicidal UV vs.8-10% with medium pressureDesigned for 40 mJ/cm2 minimum energy at target rated flowDesigned for turbid water
111UV Fluid Treatment Germicidal UV 253.7 nm “C” range of the UV light spectrum253.7 nmInactivates bacteria by inhibiting its reproductive capability “sterilizes” them.Multi lamp reactors for both high and low flowsIn low turbidity and low absorbance situations flows can be increased.
112Features Stainless Steel, Food Grade materials Lamp status indicators Wash down stainless steel NEMA 4 enclosuresPPC containment (glass breakage)No flat surfacesNo tool disassemblyCIP capableSmall Foot PrintIntegrated leak detectors (with relay contact)Can integrate with optional flow sensors and temperature sensors
113UV Fluid Treatment Products FLUV-20 unit is for flow rates up to 20 GPMFLUV-60 unit is for flow rates up to 60 GPMFLUV-200 (aka. HVUV) is for flow rates up to 200 GPM
114FLUV-20 SPECIFICATIONS: Model FLUV-20 Material Stainless Steel Electrical volt 8 ampsWeight lbs.Flow rate gpm (per unit)Max operating pressure 50 psiConnections /2” Sanitary (Tri clover style)Tube Diameter 4”UV Lamps
115FLUV-60 SPECIFICATIONS: Model FLUV-60 Material Stainless Steel Electrical volt 30 ampsWeight lbs.Flow rate gpm (per unit)Max operating pressure 50 psiConnections ” Sanitary (Tri clover style)Diameter of tube ”UV Lamps
116FLUV-200 (aka HVUV) SPECIFICATIONS: Model FLUV-200 Material Stainless SteelElectrical volt 30 ampsWeight lbs.Flow rate gpm (per unit)Max operating pressure 50 psiConnections ” Sanitary (Tri clover style)Tube Diameter 10”UV Lamps
117Example Performance Data Pork Chill Brine UV systemChub Chill Glycol UV systemMarinate injection UV system
118Typical Reductions Turkey Marinate Examples of before and after UV sample testing
125What to ask?Speak with the customer and complete and SOC. Visit if feasible.Review micro data (if available).Pre processing.During operation.Post processing.What are the target reductions (log or percentage).Determine the water quality.What does the water contain? Brine, Glycol, flavorings….Flow rates, maximum and average flow.Line Pressure.Temperature.Pre and post processing differences
127OZONE CONTACT SYSTEMS POOR QUALITY WATER FOR WASHING PRODUCE POOR QUALITY CONTROL MEASURESHUMAN ERROR FACTORSPOOR PROCESSING METHODSCHLORINE IS HAZARDOUS TO STORECHLORINE CAUSES HEALTH PROBLEMS IN PLANTS FROM EMISSIONS
128OZONE CONTACT SYSTEMSCHLORINE EMISSIONS CAUSE OXIDATION OF PLANT MACHINERY AND OTHER EQUIPMENTSOME BACTERIA ARE RESISTANT TO IT
129Competitive Technologies Chemicals; Sanova, peracetic acid (Inspexx), chlorine and chlorine dioxide, quatenary ammoniaExcept for chlorine they are expensiveCan create taste and color changesSurface treatment onlyNo labeling requirementsElevated COD levels in plant effluentStorage and handling problemsChlorine and caustic foaming agents, corrosive to plant equipmentDifficult to maintain accurate method of application
130Assumptive QuestionsDo you use chlorine in your plant for sanitation or product washing?Are you interested in reducing chlorine consumption?Do you experience corrosion that you attribute to chlorine use?How much do you spend on chlorine per year?Are you required to document chlorine use?Do you swab product or equipment for pathogens during production?Do you experience spikes or ramping of bacteria on equipment or product?Do you have shelf life issues?Do you have product returns as result of shelf life?What are the advantages for an anti-microbial, which does not require storage or result in chemical residue on plant equipment or foodstuff?What are your concerns about cross contamination points such as cutting surfaces, conveying surfaces or other product/equipment contact points?
135Total Ozone Demand (TOD Value) Total Ozone Demand (ppm) =AOD + MTFWhere:AOD = Applied Ozone DosageMTF = Mass Transfer Factor
136Mass Transfer Factor (MTF Value) MTF Value is based on Factors Affecting Transfer of Ozone into a liquid:1 - Pressure2 - Temperature*3 - Bubble Size4 - Concentration of Ozone (% by weight)*5 - Unknown Demand* - Ozone Solubility Chart
137Contact Time - Flow Rate - Tank size (Contact Tank) - Delivery distance- Targeted reduction- Delivered Dosage required
1384. CT Value CT Value =C x T Where: C = O3 Residual Concentration T = Contact Time (time in contact with ozone prior to measurement)
139Measuring Ozone Residuals DPD Colorimetric TestMeasures free oxidantsORP MeasurementmV Readings unstable past 950 mVOzone MonitorExpensive, high maintenance,very accurate
140Sizing ExampleQuestion: What size ozone generator is required to eliminate iron and hydrogen sulfide?Given:Flow = 10 gpmIron = 1.1 ppmHydrogen Sulfide = 0.44 ppm
141Sizing Example Applied Ozone Dosage Calculations: AOD = CN x OR Iron: AOD = 1.1 x = ppmSulfide: AOD = x 1.0 = 0.44 ppmAOD Total = ppm
142Sizing Example Total Ozone Demand Calculation: TOD = AOD + MTF AOD: AOD = ppmMTF: MTF = AOD For AOD <1TOD: TOD = = ppm
143Sizing Example Ozone Generator Size Calculation: OGS = TOD x FR x .012 x 19TOD: TOD = ppmFR: FR = 10 gpmOGS = x 10 x .012 x 19OGS = gm/hr
144Sizing Example (Cooling Tower) Question: What size ozone generator is required for a Cooling Tower to provide disinfection?Given:Flow = 150 gpmTonnage = 200 Ton
145Sizing Example (Cooling Tower) General Rules:Disinfection = ppm= gm / tonTotal Ozone Demand Calculation:TOD = 0.6 ppm
146Sizing Example (Cooling Tower) Ozone Generator Size Calculation:OGS = TOD x FR x .012 x 19TOD: TOD = 0.6 ppmFR: FR = 150 gpmOGS = 0.6 x 150 x .012 x 19OGS = gm/hr