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Key Question What are the issues of migration of refugees and asylum seekers? Causes and consequences of flows of refugees and asylum seekers into developed.

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Presentation on theme: "Key Question What are the issues of migration of refugees and asylum seekers? Causes and consequences of flows of refugees and asylum seekers into developed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Key Question What are the issues of migration of refugees and asylum seekers? Causes and consequences of flows of refugees and asylum seekers into developed economies both from historical and current dimension Housing Attitudes of migrants and hosts Human rights

2 The Poles are coming A 30 hour journey on a coach does not sound like fun, but five times a week a coach load of Polish people make the journey from Warsaw to Southampton.

3 There are about 2 million Poles living in the UK so it is very likely that you may know someone of Polish origin, even without realizing it. Why not ask around? You will be surprised to find out how many of your peers have Polish connection!

4 KEY STATISTICS 427,000 workers from eight EU accession states successfully applied for work in UK Over half (62%) are Polish 82% are aged 18-34 56% work in factories* Anglia region has highest proportion of workers (15%) (Source: Home Office)

5 New figures from the Office of National Statistics show, among other things, net immigration to the UK increased by 46,000 last year.

6 What is happening? 'Nearly 600,000' new EU migrants
Bulgaria and Romania are set to join the EU in 2007 About 600,000 people have come to work in the UK from eight nations which joined the European Union in 2004. New figures show that 447,000 people from Poland and the seven other new EU states have applied to work in the UK. But Mr McNulty said the figure would be nearer 600,000 if self-employed workers - such as builders - were included. He said the migrants were helping the UK economy, but the figures will fuel fears about strains on public services. The government says the migrant workers are helping to fill gaps in the UK's labour market, especially in administration, business and management, hospitality and catering. It is believed low salaries in Poland, sometimes around £200 a month, is one reason the country's citizens are attracted to working the UK.

7 Why? Despite the impending recession, the UK is still offering higher wages, lower living costs and more job opportunities than Poland, factors which Michal says are drawing more and more Polish to the UK.

8 Positives Powerful boost to the British economy while others in Europe stagnate. While industries in other EU countries have been limited in their attempts to expand by an unavailability of high quality, reasonably-priced labour, many UK industries have been able to fuel their expansion and advances with hard working Poles, Slovaks, Lithuanians and Czechs. demographic studies of those that have entered the UK reveal that over three quarters of immigrants fall into the age bracket. Following natural migration trends, the large majority of these are single, with fewer responsibilities, resulting in an increased disposable income and a greater tendency to participate in the consumer culture that has been behind Britain’s economic growth over the past few years, at a time when most of Europe has been desperately trying to rein in escalating unemployment and avoid economic stagnation. With so many economic positives, the trend for Eastern European migrants seeking work in the UK is unlikely to slow any time soon. Not involved in much crime. Willing to do work that British aren’t, and for lower wages.

9 Negatives High wages have drawn scores of Eastern Europeans to at least one corner of England. But not everyone welcomes this new workforce even if unemployed locals themselves refuse to do the same jobs. Polish immigrants take £1bn out the UK economy: Britain's taxpayers are forking out more than £21million a year in child benefit for youngsters living in Poland, official figures reveal.

10 Poor integration Migrants 'should learn English’ The commission says poor English skills hinder integration People who are seeking to come to the UK to work or to join a spouse already living here should be required to learn English, an expert body says.

11 Views The reality is that the whole scale of immigration into Britain has got out of hand ALARM AT SURGE IN EURO MIGRANTS ON UK BENEFITS THE number of east Europeans applying for benefits has almost doubled amid growing fears that ­thousands of jobless ­migrants could see out the ­recession at the taxpayers’ ­expense. Up to a million former eastern bloc citizens are eligible for some form of state handout. Now experts are warning that even more jobless people are coming to soft-touch Britain to live off our generous benefits. Calls were growing last night for the Government to clamp down on economic ­migration. Sir Andrew Green, of Migration­WatchUK, said: “The number of eastern European people eligible to draw UK benefits is thought to be between 500,000 and one ­million but it is much too early to know the scale of the problem.

12 New developments “Polish migrant to head home due to credit crisis “
Polish migrant Malgorzata Iwaniec is ready to join the rush of Poles leaving the UK because she says living here is "no longer financially viable". She said: "Britain is no longer the promised land that it used to be. If you are coming to educate yourself or to travel and have an adventure then it is fine. But earning money to send home just isn't an option as the exchange rate is so bad. "When I came here one pound was equivalent to around six Polish zloty. Now it is worth less than four. People work very hard over here, but the benefits are just not the same as they used to be.

13 New developments Number of eastern European migrants falls 40% as UK recession bites Data shows huge drop in work applications from ex-communist states with many recent arrivals leaving

14 Reaction of host country.
Poland launches campaign to lure back migrant workers For nearly four years, Britain's construction and hospitality industries have flourished thanks to the influx of an estimated one million Polish workers – but now Poland wants them back. The Warsaw government is so worried about a national labour shortage in the professions that it plans to advertise in the UK to encourage expatriate Poles to return to the country that many of them left after it joined the European Union. According to Polish media reports, the adverts will soon appear in English and Polish-language newspapers in this country. They are part of a wider campaign to encourage migrant workers to return. mounting evidence that many Poles are already heading back east, particularly because the current weakness of Britain's currency means they are getting fewer zlotys for their pounds. brochure that it plans to give away with Polish newspapers and at the many Polish cultural centres across Britain. The Handbook for Re-Emigrants advises Poles how to find accommodation back home and apply for special loans. After Poland joined the EU in May 2004, an estimated two million people – about 10 per cent of the population – left to find work, predominantly in Britain and Ireland. But while the British and Irish economies benefited from the influx of cheap and willing labour, Poland suffered staff shortages, particularly in the building and and hospitality trades. Of major concern to Warsaw is the lack of skilled construction workers needed to build new football stadiums before the European championships in 2012, which Poland and the Ukraine will host jointly. The government estimates that up to 200,000 extra workers are needed to complete the multibillion-euro projects earmarked for the event.

15 In the past year, the Polish government has introduced a series of measures aimed at encouraging Poles to return. It has abolished a rule which meant migrant workers were liable to pay taxes both in Britain and at home. Mr Tusk's government also wants to grant a five-year amnesty to those who have failed to pay taxes in Poland while working abroad. This will no doubt prove attractive to thousands of expats who have put off returning because they fear they will be receive a large tax bill when they arrive. Estimating how many Poles return home each year is difficult because the government does not record the figure. However, many analysts believe that east European immigration to Britain may already have peaked. The numbers of east European migrants approved to work in Britain dropped from 227,875 in 2006 to 206,905 last year – a fall of nearly 10 per cent. This may be because employment prospects in Poland have improved dramatically since it joined the EU. The current unemployment rate is 10 per cent – half what it was four years ago. Currency exchange rates may also have an effect on migration. When Poland entered the EU in 2004, £1 was worth seven zlotys; now it is worth only 4.2 zlotys. The number of Poles coming to the UK may now be the same as the number who are going home. "The process of leaving has already started," he said. "Immigration to Britain is not as attractive a prospect as it was a few years ago." Some doubt that an advertising campaign would encourage many of his countrymen to return. "Work is just one of many factors behind why people chose to live where they do," he added. "I don't think an advert saying 'come back to Poland' will work, but I do think it will make Poles think and maybe a few will be tempted to leave."

16 Why Britain needs Polish migrants
While we supported the Government's controversial decision in 2004 to allow citizens of the new EU states to work in Britain, we were concerned at the lack of foresight regarding the social problems that would accompany such a large influx. Only 13,000 would come every year, said the Government. The House of Lords committee report acknowledged that immigrants contributed some £6 billion annually into the economy, but then made the astounding statement that this "was irrelevant". Since when has GDP been irrelevant? It is always an important factor in the measure of any economy. The main beneficiaries, the report claims, are large-scale employers and the immigrants themselves; the losers are those on low incomes, which is then averaged out to mean nearly everybody. Leads to pockets of resentment because the economic gains of society have never been evenly distributed among the population and also because the welfare system no longer encourages many indigenous residents to seek work. This is hardly the fault of the immigrant. The million or so Poles who have come here in the past five years definitely came to work. They are three times more likely to be law-abiding than the average British resident, and the 134 Polish Catholic churches are packed. Many Poles now go to school here, are treated by the NHS and some receive child benefit, but only three per cent are eligible for other subsidies. There is an extra burden on local health and education authorities and police associations: many of these social costs however are covered by their £1.9 billion a year contribution to the Exchequer in income tax and national insurance, and that figure does not include their contribution to council tax. Their presence has been hugely popular among the middle classes, who needed plumbers and nannies, and welcomed by the catering and construction industries, local public transport and by Scottish agriculture, which they have saved from extinction. Trade unions seek to recruit them. So does the Army. Their work ethic has been praised by employers, customers and fellow workers alike. It is resented, however, by those who feel that the crowded labour market for the unskilled and lowly paid is no longer a level playing field. The report will encourage them to say: "Poles go home". And what if they do leave? Stories that many Poles may be returning to a now more prosperous Poland are a little exaggerated, but have raised panic among employers, particularly in the rural industries. Those who were once belabouring the Poles consistently for their presence will now call them "deserters" for threatening to leave. If only Britain could make up its mind.

17 Here come the Poles! According to some of the locals, Peterborough is being stretched to breaking point by the influx of Eastern Europeans, attracted to the area by the promise of high wages and decent living conditions in exchange for manual labour. Employers are delighted with their Polish recruits, but some residents want the Poles to go home. They're not alone. The Polish city of Gdansk wants its workers back. Its shipyards are struggling without them and there aren't enough men to build the football stadium ready for Euro 2012. This prompts Gdansk's leaders to visit Peterborough to plead for the return of their workers. Can the Polish immigrants be tempted home and how will the local economy cope if they left? An examination on the impact of immigration on one typical English city.

18 Key question 4: What are the issues of the migration of refugees and asylum seekers?
Refugees are people who have been granted “refugee status”. This means that they can make themselves a new home with the same rights as everyone else in the country. In order to be granted refugee status, and allowed to come and live in another country, the applicants must prove to the government that it is not safe to return to their home country because they would be in danger of persecution because of their race, religion or some other reason.

19 What is an asylum seeker?
An asylum seeker is somebody who is hoping to become a refugee. In order to become a refugee, the government of the new country must believe that the person in question cannot return home because it is too dangerous. They are people who have applied with the government for refugee status, and are waiting for their request to be processed. So, asylum seekers are people who have not yet been granted refugee status.

20 Somalis into Cardiff

21 Where is Somalia? Somalia forms the cap of the horn of Africa in eastern Africa. After the Suez Canal was completed in 1869, it opened a passage for ships to travel to Europe.

22 History – first settlers
Cardiff has one of the longest established Somali communities in Britain and the largest British-born Somali population in the UK. Although Somali women have only been in the UK since the 1970s, Somali men have been here for more than 100 years. The first of them came to the UK originally drawn to Cardiff as seamen shortly after the opening of the Suez Canal to work in the thriving docks in 1869; the arrival of the first Somali in Cardiff dates from the 1870s. These young men came as sailors, not as refugees or slaves, driven by the desire to earn money to buy more livestock back in Somalia. Some of them settled down and married local women, whilst others returned home periodically to visit their families, living in boarding houses during their time onshore. The boarding houses were run by Somalis and provided the visiting sailors with the familiarity of shared language and customs. Somalis first settled in Cardiff in the 1860’s, many are now first, second and third generation British Somalis. Somalis asylum seekers, including women and families, began arriving in Britain during the 1980s, fleeing the dictatorial reign of Siad Barre. Many Somalis suffered abuse and imprisonment during this time and as the violence increased and political destabilisation intensified, many families sought refugee status, including single women whose husbands had either been murdered or imprisoned.

23 History of Somalis in Cardiff
Because of Britain's colonial presence in Somaliland it was possible for the sailors to work and live in the UK. There was usually plenty of work available for the seamen in the docks, and later in the steel industry, although they were often filling jobs that the white workers didn't want, whether on the tramp steamers where working conditions were tough, or in the merchant navy during World War One when white British seamen were transferred to the Royal Navy. It was not an easy life, and times of economic crisis could spell disaster: the Great Depression saw hundreds of Somali sailors dying from starvation through lack of work.

24 History of Somalis in Cardiff
With the outbreak of civil war in Somalia in the 1980s, seamen from this well established community were allowed to bring their families over. There are also large Somali communities in London and Manchester but Cardiff is the oldest: "there's a Somali proverb which says 'Cardiff, my home' ".

25 History of Somalis in Cardiff
Religion is a vital part of a Somali's life. Friday prayer is very important. Many young people and families go to the Al-Noor Mosque: this was built on the site of the original Peel Street Mosque. The Peel Street mosque was built after the Second World War but demolished as part of the Butetown redevelopment in 1988.

26 What are the problems? Negative media representation Language barrier
Strict Muslim religion Closed community Racial prejudice of host Lack of integration Underachievement in schools Crime Homelessness

27 Welsh Somalis facing tough times
Cardiff's Somalis are "invisible" in the job market, says SIS Somalis in Wales need more support to achieve their potential, according to the Cardiff based Somali Integration Society (SIS). Cardiff is home to the largest Somali population in the UK, mainly settled in Cardiff and Butetown. Yet many are facing economic hardship. “You can see lots of Somalis in Cardiff” says Ibrahim Harbi, of the SIS. “But when it comes to employment, they are invisible.” Somalis first arrived in Britain in the late 19th century, seeking work as shipmen. Recent generations fled civil war from the 1980s onwards. Many of these new arrivals had no formal schooling. While keen not to criticise the authorities, Mr Harbi believes more could be done to improve their situation. “There should be more training courses, more educational opportunities, to empower Somali youngsters”.

28 Under achievement Many young Somalis in the UK leave full time education unconfident and underachieving. Their job prospects are limited. Those born in the UK do better than those arriving as older children, but not well enough. Most fare less well than other new communities in the UK. The differences in performance between Somali children and their peers in public examinations are becoming a contentious area of research and debate. Children of Somali heritage have been the lowest performing group across key stages 2, 3 and 4 in most subject areas. Low levels of achievement amongst Somali children are evident as early as key stage 2. Alarmingly, the achievement levels for Somali pupils and their peers were found to widen at each key stage. The data highlights the underachievement that has been recognized by SEF-Cymru and shows there is a desperate need for projects which address this. There is also a need to expand our services to other areas of Cardiff so that more children have access. SEF-Cymru is currently working towards this.

29 Somalis urged to explore heritage
Native-language fluency can raise attainment. Nicola Porter reports Somali pupils must go back to their roots and learn their mother tongue to end a downward spiral of low achievement, according to the head of Cardiff's ethnic-minority achievement service. Geraint Evans said that latest research proved Somali pupils who had a good grasp of their native language did better at school. He called for young Somalis to have more access to lessons in their own language, in and out of school. And he said GCSE Somali should be introduced to encourage fluency among pupils who currently see learning their own language as a "waste of time". Cardiff's Somali community is the oldest ethnic minority in Britain, but the mother tongue is gradually dying out as English becomes the first language. At a conference on Somali achievement and language training held in the city, Mr Evans said this was now known to be a key factor in underachievement. He told delegates: "In Cardiff, Somali pupils are doing worse than other ethnic minorities and we must look at why this is so, and how we can raise standards." There are 875 Somali pupils in Cardiff in primary schools and 533 in secondary education. Figures for the city reveal a drop in the performance of Somali pupils in 2004 compared to A fifth achieved five GCSE passes at grades A*-C, down 7 percentage points from 28 per cent in 2003. The comparative study, which found that Somalis are the lowest-performing ethnic-minority group in the city, included Pakistani, Bengali and white pupils. In 2004, half of Cardiff's white pupils achieved five good GCSE passes, compared to 36 per cent of their ethnic-minority classmates. A third of Bangladeshi children reached the same standard, compared to 47 per cent of Pakistani pupils. She said: "Somali parents from all tribal and religious backgrounds attended and they all had one common aim - to find out how they can help raise the educational standards of their children.

30 A true story Somali-born Abdi Sugulle came to the UK in 1990 aged 10 years. His family settled in Manchester where his sister was already living. He has nine brothers and sisters - a large family even by Somali standards, the average being five or six children. He now lives with his wife who is a Cardiff Somali and works at the Red House.

31 When Abdi first arrived in the UK he didn't speak English and he thinks it took him about five years to learn properly. He admits that when he's working he writes in English but still thinks in Somali, although there are many words that don't have literal translations. Many Somalis continue to travel back and forth to Somalia, especially the older generation and the children, who can take advantage of the long summer break, but Abdi has still not returned since he arrived.

32 Red Sea House About Red Sea House Abdi works as the Scheme Manager for Red Sea House, a sheltered housing scheme for Somali elders which is managed by Taff Housing Association. It was funded by the National Assembly for Wales, Cardiff County Council, and the Race Equality Council. Red Sea House was finished in September 2002, and permanently houses 15 retired Somali seamen in self-contained units. Some of them served in the British Navy during World War II. Many fought alongside the British and were awarded medals for their service. The housing complex was named after the Red Sea, which is immediately to the north of Somalia, by Mr Ahmed Mohammed, a seaman who came to Cardiff when he was 19 and is now a resident. Red Sea House was built to replace the accommodation which had been provided by the boarding houses in Angelina Street for several generations and which were demolished in Cardiff Council's redevelopment of the area. The boarding houses had been run by Somalis, and provided a home-from-home for many guests. The older generation of seamen are connected by trust and friendship , when they arrived in Cardiff, all they had were each other. Now Cardiff's Somalis have friends and family from several generations.

33 What is being done to help integration?

34 Somali Integration Society (SIS)
The Somali Integration Society (SIS) was established in 2002 as a voluntary organisation to meet the growing needs of the Somali community in Wales.  Its vision is to help the Somali community in Wales to become self reliant through integration.  The SIS enables Somalis in Wales to become equipped with life skills, confidence and information, to better access key services and entitlements to improve their health, education and employment prospects.

35 The Somali Progressive Association (SPA)
Registered charity, and is a community based non-profit making Association. The SPA is a governed by unpaid volunteers that make up the management committee, elected from the local community. The Somali Advice and Information Office was established in May 1988 to address the specific and complex needs of the Somali Population in Cardiff. Mission Statement To improve the social/cultural and economic status of the Somali population in the County and City of Cardiff. To work towards the elimination of discrimination and promote equality of opportunity and good relations between persons different racial groups generally and particularly between those who are of Somali origin and all other inhabitants

36 SEF Cymru SEF-Cymru believes that Education is the key to tackling social exclusion. We define social exclusion as the restriction of a person’s ability to participate in mainstream society. SEF-Cymru by striving to raise self-esteem, motivation and achievement of our students hopes to facilitate their access to further education/training and ultimately the job market – factors which reduce the impact of social exclusion.

37 SEF pioneered the way by providing pupils with lessons in their mother tongue and has long campaigned for a recognised qualification in Somali for young people studying their language. The teaching of mother tongue has been found to increase pupil self-esteem and impacts on achievement in other areas. It also helps pupils with their sense of identity and understanding of Somali culture. Many of the pupils taught have been born and brought up in Britain and have never lived in Somalia or Somaliland. SEF continued to strive to improve the education, skills and ultimately life chances of young Somalis in Cardiff throughout the years that followed. SEF changed its name to SEF-Cymru in July The organization now oversees three homework clubs in the Splott, Grangetown and Riverside areas of Cardiff. SEF-Cymru works with parents and pupils to raise expectations, self-esteem, motivation and achievement.

38 Somalis in Cardiff A celebration of Somaliland Independence Day in June 2008 was held at the Wales Millennium Centre to promote the activities and interests of the Somali community in Cardiff and Wales.

39 Segregation in Cardiff.
Bute town- afro-carribbean, Somali Grangetown- “ “ Splott- Low income white, Somali Roath- low income white, Asian, students Cathays- “ “ “ Ely- Low income /council LLanrumney-low income/ council Cyncoed- High income- Jewish

40 Asylum seekers: Britain's shadow people
As new figures suggest half a million failed asylum seekers are living destitute in Britain, the Guardian speaks to those living in the margins of society

41 Use all the information you have been given to produce a detailed mind map that answers the following questions: Where is Somalia? Why did Somalis begin to come to the UK? What problems do they face? What is being done to help them?

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