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14 Oxyfuel Gas Cutting Chapter Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Describe the function.

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Presentation on theme: "14 Oxyfuel Gas Cutting Chapter Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Describe the function."— Presentation transcript:

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2 14 Oxyfuel Gas Cutting Chapter

3 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Describe the function of each component of an oxyfuel gas cutting outfit. Correctly and safely assemble an oxyfuel gas cutting outfit. Correctly and safely test the cutting outfit for leaks. Describe the difference between a positive-pressure and injector-type cutting torch. Properly turn on and shut down an oxyacetylene cutting outfit. Correctly select the proper cutting tip and working pressures for cutting a particular thickness of steel.

4 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objectives Cut base metal using an oxyacetylene cutting torch. Distinguish between a well cut surface and a poorly cut surface, and be able to adjust where necessary to perform a good cut. Describe the gouging process and state when it is used. Pass a test on safe practices and procedures while oxyfuel gas cutting or gouging. List all the safety equipment that should be worn and used when oxyfuel gas cutting in various positions.

5 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Oxyfuel Gas Cutting An oxyfuel gas flame is used to heat the metal and an oxygen jet is used to perform the cutting Oxyfuel gas cutting (OFC) is also called oxygen cutting Many layers of metal can be cut at the same time (stack cutting) OFC is useful when shape-cutting metal parts

6 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The Heat of Combustion of Steel Virtually all materials burn if they are heated to their ignition temperature in the presence of oxygen During the process of burning, steel releases heat that is measured in British thermal units (Btu) or joules This is called the heat of combustion

7 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Oxyfuel Gas Cutting Process A special torch and tip is used in the OFC process Cutting tips have one or more preheating orifices Cutting oxygen emits from the central orifice when the welder presses the cutting oxygen lever (Victor, a division of Thermadyne Industries, Inc.)

8 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Oxyfuel Gas Cutting Process The preheating flames are used to heat a spot on the base metal to its ignition temperature As the torch is moved along a line, the metal is cut, forming a kerf The preheating flames are kept burning throughout the entire cutting process

9 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Outfit A cutting outfit includes all equipment required to make a cut A cutting station includes the outfit, lighting, ventilation, a cutting table, and possibly a booth The cutting torch, which provides an oxygen cutting jet, is quite different from a welding torch

10 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Torch The cutting torch is connected to oxygen and fuel gas cylinders The welder controls the cutting operation using the cutting torch lever (ESAB Welding and Cutting Products)

11 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Torch Before the torch is turned on, the desired cutting tip must be inserted into the torch There are two types of OFC torches –Positive-pressure torches –Injector-type torches

12 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Lighting a Positive-Pressure Oxyacetylene Cutting Torch Check the condition of all equipment Inspect the regulators Open the oxygen valve very slowly Turn the cylinder valve all the way open Open the acetylene cylinder valve 1/4 to 1/2 turn

13 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Lighting a Positive-Pressure Oxyacetylene Cutting Torch Open the torch oxygen valve one full turn Open the oxygen cutting valve Adjust the oxygen regulator to give the desired pressure Open the acetylene torch valve one turn (Uniweld Products, Inc.)

14 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Lighting a Positive-Pressure Oxyacetylene Cutting Torch Turn in the acetylene regulator adjusting screw until the low- pressure gauge indicates the desired working pressure Open the torch acetylene valve 1/16 to 1/8 turn before lighting the torch Adjust the acetylene until most of the smoke clears from the flame Open the torch oxygen valve and adjust it to obtain neutral preheat flames

15 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The welder should stand to one side of the gauges when opening the oxygen valve Leave the acetylene cylinder valve wrench in place so the valve can be turned off quickly Never use acetylene at above 15 psig (103kPa) Check the low-pressure gauge readings to make sure that the pressures are not rising A rising pressure indicates that a valve is leaking The outfit should be shut down immediately Use a flint lighter to ignite the acetylene Safety

16 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Lighting an Injector-Type Oxyacetylene Cutting Torch Several steps are required to turn on the outfit, purge the system, and light the torch This illustration shows typical gas flow through an injector-type oxyacetylene cutting torch

17 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Lighting an Injector-Type Oxyacetylene Cutting Torch Check the condition of all equipment Inspect the regulators Open the oxygen cylinder valve until the regulator high- pressure gauge reaches its maximum reading Turn the cylinder valve all the way open Slowly open the acetylene cylinder valve 1/4 to 1/2 turn Open the torch oxygen valve 1/4 turn Open the torch oxygen cutting orifice lever wide open Adjust the oxygen regulator screw for correct working pressure

18 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Lighting an Injector-Type Oxyacetylene Cutting Torch Close the torch oxygen valves Open the torch acetylene valve fully Adjust the acetylene working pressure Close the torch acetylene valve Check the low- pressure gauges Open the torch oxygen valve 1/4 turn Open the torch acetylene valve fully Use a spark lighter to ignite the fuel gas Press down the oxygen cutting lever and adjust the torch acetylene valve until the preheating flames are neutral

19 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Leave the wrench in place on the acetylene cylinder valve Check the low-pressure gauges for any gradual increase in pressures If the pressures are increasing, the regulator seat may be leaking If the pressure on either of the low-pressure gauges is increasing, shut down immediately Use a spark lighter to ignite the fuel gas Safety

20 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Using a Cutting Torch To cut, bring the tip of the inner cone of the preheating flames to the edge of the metal to be cut The jet of oxygen coming from the oxygen jet causes the heated metal to burn away, forming the kerf

21 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Using a Cutting Torch Drag is a measurement made in the direction of travel between the entry and exit points of the cutting jet The slag stream can lag excessively behind the torch tip travel Possible causes include –The flame adjustment may be incorrect –The cutting oxygen pressure adjustment may be too low –The tip travel is too fast and the metal is not being preheated enough

22 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Attachments The cutting attachment is connected to the welding torch body to change the torch from a welding torch to a cutting torch For portable kits, the attachment saves space The operation of the torch with the cutting attachment is the same as the operation of a regular cutting torch

23 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Attachments This illustration shows a cutting attachment installed on a torch The welding torch body has an oxygen valve and a torch acetylene valve The cutting attachment has a torch oxygen valve and a cutting oxygen lever (CONCOA)

24 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. The torch valves on the welding torch body must be turned off before the cutting attachment is disconnected Safety

25 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Tips Cutting tips normally have at least two orifices One orifice is for the cutting oxygen One or more small orifices are for preheating the metal to be cut One-piece tips are used for oxyacetylene cutting only Two-piece tips are used for all other gas cutting

26 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Steel with the Oxyfuel Gas Cutting Torch Metals that can be cut with the oxyfuel gas cutting torch are divided into two classes –Metals whose oxides have a lower melting temperature than the metal itself –Metals whose oxides have a higher melting temperature than the metal itself Practically all steel falls under the first classification

27 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Steel with the Oxyfuel Gas Cutting Torch The second class includes cast iron, some alloy steels, stainless steel, and nonferrous metals It is very important that refractory oxides be reduced by chemical action or be prevented from forming If too much oxygen is fed to the steel being cut, this leaves a bell-mouthed kerf on the side of the metal away from the torch

28 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Steel with the Oxyfuel Gas Cutting Torch The metal at the bottom of the cut is not burned away if the torch is moved too rapidly The large drag leaves a kerf that is very rough and irregular in shape

29 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Steel with the Oxyfuel Gas Cutting Torch Metal that is very dirty and rusty should be cleaned before starting the cutting operation In some cases the thickness of the metal requires an oscillating motion in order to obtain the necessary width of a cut The welder should stand in a comfortable position that permits looking into the cut as it is being formed

30 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Welders should wear –Safety boots with high tops –Trousers without cuffs –Leggings to protect against flying molten slag Welding leggings are pieces of leather that cover the shin and top of the shoe If trousers have cuffs, they must be covered to keep them from catching slag Safety

31 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Thin Steel Cutting steel that is 1/8 or less in thickness requires the use of the smallest cutting tip A tip with only a few preheat holes is often used The tip is usually pointed in the direction the torch is traveling Be careful to keep the end of the preheating inner cone just above the metal

32 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Thick Steel Steel over 1/2 thick should be cut by holding the torch so the tip is perpendicular to the surface of the base metal being cut A cut is normally started at the edge of the stock

33 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Thick Steel The thicker the steel, the greater the time required to raise the temperature of the steel high enough to make clean cuts To start a cut faster, a welder begins at the corner of the metal by slanting the torch in the direction opposite the direction of travel One method used to start cuts is to nick the edge of the metal with a cold chisel

34 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Thick Steel Another method used to start cuts is to place an iron filler rod under the preheating flames at the edge of a thick plate Shaping cutting can be done by –Free-hand cutting –Using special attachments or guides –Setting up an automated cutting torch

35 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Be sure to read and carefully follow all manufacturers tables and safety charts prior to attempting a cutting operation for very thick metal Safety

36 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Chamfers (Bevels) Thicker pieces of steel must be prepared with a chamfered edge so the weld penetrates the metal Bevel angles can be cut at the same time the metal is being cut to size and shape

37 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Chamfers (Bevels) A chamfer can also be cut as a separate operation The technique used to cut a bevel is similar to that used to cut thick metal The torch is held at an acute angle to the base metal The cut is generally made at an existing edge of the metal

38 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Pipe or Tubing When cutting small- diameter pipe, it is best to keep the tip almost tangent to the inner circumference of the pipe For larger pipes, it is possible to keep the torch tip perpendicular to the pipe surface while cutting (Thermadyne Industries, Inc.)

39 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Pipe or Tubing If the pipe is being chamfered, most welders start the cut at the extreme edge of the pipe and cut back to the marked chamfer ring It is not the diameter of the pipe that determines the size of the cutting torch tip The thickness of the pipe wall is the controlling factor

40 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Piercing and Cutting Holes The term pierce means to produce a relatively small hole through a steel plate A greater amount of heat is required to preheat the surface for piercing than when starting on a edge For this reason, a larger tip may be needed It is good practice to outline the hole first, using special chalk

41 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Until the steel plate is melted through the bottom surface, molten metal is blown upward by the pressure of the cutting oxygen Safety

42 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting and Removing Rivet Heads Cutting torches are frequently used in salvage operations Torches are used to remove the two types of rivet heads –Round-head –Countersunk-head If possible, the welder should do the cutting without damaging the steel plate

43 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting and Removing Rivet Heads For cutting the round-head rivet, preheat the head of the rivet to a bright cherry red The steel plate is usually adequately protected from the flame by a coating of scale (oxide) Countersunk rivet heads can be removed by carefully cutting around the countersunk angle

44 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Gouging with the Cutting Torch Gouging is a process that removes metal from the surface of a part to a desired depth For gouging, a lower oxygen cutting pressure and a larger diameter cutting tip orifice are used

45 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Gouging with the Cutting Torch In a gouging tip, there are five or six preheat orifices to provide even distribution of the preheat flames The speed of torch movement is important Moving the torch too rapidly creates a groove that is too narrow and shallow Moving the torch too slowly creates a gouge that is too deep and wide

46 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Alloy Steels Of the alloy steels, stainless steel is the most widely used Many alloy metals have melting temperatures below that of mild steel The metal to be cut should be placed so that the cutting tip and flame are in a horizontal position whenever possible

47 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Alloy Steels A slight, quick up-and- down motion of the torch facilitates the removal of slag Like carbon steel, alloy steels must be preheated before the cutting operation is started

48 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Alloy Steels Stainless steel must be preheated to a white heat before the cutting oxygen is turned on When the cutting is often interrupted by unmeltable slag, a welder may hold a mild steel welding rod in the kerf of the metal Adding welding rod is also useful when cutting poor grade steels, cast irons, and old, oxidized steel castings

49 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Cutting Cast Iron It is more difficult to cut cast iron than steel This is because iron oxides of cast iron melt at a higher temperature than the cast iron itself It is important to preheat the whole casting before starting the cut Use a carburizing flame to prevent oxides from forming on the surface before cutting starts The casting should be cooled very slowly if gray cast iron is desired Rapid cooling creates a white cast iron grain structure

50 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Automatic Cutting Automatic cutting equipment requires a controller or a computer to control the operation Feedback controls monitor the automatic cutting process and make needed corrections In semiautomatic cutting, some changes to the process may be required while cutting is taking place

51 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Automatic Cutting There are many automatic and semiautomatic mechanisms available to perform cutting operations (ESAB Welding and Cutting Products)

52 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Automatic Cutting Practically all automatic cutting machines and their torches are moved by servomotors Special cutting torches are mounted on a light, rigid rail called a gantry A vernier gear mechanism permits fine adjustments to raise and/or lower the torch A magnetic tracer with a steel pattern can be used as a cutting torch guiding device

53 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Dangers can be greatly reduced through the correct handling of oxygen and fuel gas equipment Many potential hazards exist when cutting Every welder must follow approved procedures to eliminate these dangers Safety

54 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Safety in Oxyfuel Gas Cutting Floors on which cutting is done should be concrete or other fireproof material Shop furniture should be made of metal or fire- resistant material Flammable materials should not be in the room where cutting is done

55 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Safety in Oxyfuel Gas Cutting Leather or slow-burning fabrics should be worn Welders trousers should not have cuffs Welders pockets should not contain flammable items Tanks and containers should be welded only by experienced welders

56 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. It is generally required to pass an inert gas or steam through the tank as it is being cut The steam or inert gas is intended to displace any combustible gases in the tank The tank may also be filled with water except in the area of work In all cases the tank must be vented to prevent the entrapment of potentially explosive gases Safety

57 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Safety in Oxyfuel Gas Cutting Certain metals, such as magnesium, can burn with an explosive force if flame-cut The face and hands must be protected from metal splatter A fire extinguisher should be at hand and a fire watch posted during cutting operations Follow correct procedures for using cylinders, regulators, hoses, and torches

58 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Safety in Oxyfuel Gas Cutting Review metal fume hazards Know what metal is being worked on before performing any cutting operation Check that ventilation systems are working As the oxygen content in an enclosed space is increased above a certain percentage, there is an increasing danger of a spark or flame causing a fire or explosion

59 Permission granted to reproduce for educational use only.© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Be certain of what metal is being cut Never use acetylene at a pressure greater than 15 psig (103kPa) Acetylene becomes unstable above that pressure and may explode Safety


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