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UC Davis Mechanical Engineering Alex Beckerman, Kevin Quach, Nick Raymond, Tom Rumble, Teresa Yeh.

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Presentation on theme: "UC Davis Mechanical Engineering Alex Beckerman, Kevin Quach, Nick Raymond, Tom Rumble, Teresa Yeh."— Presentation transcript:

1 UC Davis Mechanical Engineering Alex Beckerman, Kevin Quach, Nick Raymond, Tom Rumble, Teresa Yeh

2 Introduction An overview of the CITRIS Renewable Energy Grant proposal, and projects scope Preliminary Design and Research Technical Review Terminology and main features of our WEC design. Subsystems Buoy Spar PTO Hydraulics Electronics Heave Plate Construction A comparison of the two hydraulic motors regarding power performance, efficiency, and cost. Next Stage Testing in Bodega Bay Instruction Manual

3 Project Introduction

4 CITRIS 2012 CITRIS Sustainability Competition Winners $10,000 Renewable Energy Research Grant (+ $5,400 funding for testing) Complete project within one year from award

5 Objectives 1. Design and fabricate a Wave Energy Converter (WEC) 2. Use standard parts and components to build the PTO 3. Create a set of instructions and share information over website

6 Preliminary Designs and Research

7 Exposed to Pacific ocean waves and wind swell Local university facility to assist with deployment Steep ocean floor topography (bathymerty) Close proximity to UC Davis Team has personal knowledge of area Potential Test Site: Bodega Bay, Ca Image:

8 Source: Bodega Bay Marine Lab

9 Significant Wave Height 1981-2008 Dominant Wave Period 1981-2008 KEY NOAA Buoy 46013 NOAA provides ocean data for last 28 years Buoy anchored 14 miles off shore Dominant wave period remains constant Wave height expected to increase closer to shore

10 Bond graph Modeling Transfers system from mechanical translational domain to the electrical domain Determines hydraulic damping coefficient for given electrical resistance Damping coefficient used in state space dynamic modeling

11 State Space Modeling Model to represent the dynamics of our physical system in ocean Linear wave model: approximation of ocean waves as sinusoids. [1] Equations developed within state space using a free body diagram. The system is modeled as a two body system with individual forces acting on each body. MatLab Simulation for Different Heave plate sizes used in Iteration Process Free Body Diagram of Buoy- Heave Plate Dynamics

12 [ WEC_001] [ WEC_002 ][ WEC_003 ]

13 Technical Background

14 Spar Have Plate PTO Buoy [ WEC_004 ] 47.3 ft



17 Preliminary testing of foam Fabricated one cubic foot mold out of plywood and wood screws Filled mold with two part expanding polyurethane foam Results From Initial Foam Test

18 Positioning the PVC pipes Lining the mold with plastic to assist with releasing the foam from the mold

19 Marine grade polyurethane foam Mixture come in two parts, expands when mixed Final volume is 15 times the original volume after 20 minutes of curing

20 Releasing the foam from the mold

21 The foam was cut with a chainsaw to form the 45°chamfer

22 The buoy was then sanded down and coated with a pigmented epoxy resin

23 Steel plates mounted on the upper and lower surfaces of the buoy All thread compresses the plates and secures buoy to the spar


25 Hydraulic


27 Welded components into framework The bolt holes were drilled on the mill to assist in accurate alignment.

28 Housing for springs and hydraulic shaft Wire rope alignment housing

29 Addition of strut members

30 Strut members welded to the spar Secured to the buoy bottom plate


32 5 spring alignment brackets to keep the 6 springs inline

33 Bushing doubles as spring alignment and linear guide for hydraulic rod extension

34 Cylinder alignment bracket



37 System Operation: Direct drive Reverses direction with each stroke Accumulator displaces cylinder rod volume Hydraulic Subsystem elements: Hydraulic Ram Bladder Type Accumulator Piston Type Motor Standard hydraulic hoses and fittings

38 Hydraulic Motor Drain Port By-pass: Check valves Swagelok fittings Hydraulic subsystem waterproof housing

39 Power take-off systems conveniently contained within water proof boxes

40 Boxes mount to frame Frame mounts to top of buoy Easy to access and maintain

41 Permanent Magnet DC Motor: Operated mechanically to function as a generator Microcontroller: Logs system data from voltage and current sensors in 16 MB SD card

42 Power dissipates in 1500 Watt 1 ohm resistor Waterproof microcontroller housing




46 Steel square tubing arranged into framework. Test fitting before final welding of sheet steel Supported from spar by connections of steel cables

47 Sheet steel limits water flowing around steel frame -Hydrodynamic damping -Added mass effect Sheet steel welded to frame using plug and bead welds

48 1.Plug welds 2.Bead welds Use of four individual modules advantageous for transportation and storage

49 Steel cable, clips, and thimbles Steel cable threads through eyelets welded on steel frame



52 Mooring site at depth of 100 feet

53 Ring hoists mounted to bottom of buoy, and section of steel frame Allows for lifting and transportation Lifting with crane

54 Ring Hoists Ring hoist selected due to ability to lift angled loads Capacity of 5,000 lbs each

55 Transporting WEC List with 1 Ton crane in EFL Placed onto trailer provided by EFL Tow trailer and WEC with a FORD F-550

56 UC Davis Bodega Bay Marine Laboratory

57 BML Boat Mussel Point Research Vessel Boat: 42 foot long, with winch system Specifically designed operate in demanding waters nearshore and offshore BML Crane 3 Ton lifting capacity 15 foot boom span Drive trailer directly onto dock

58 Image provided by BML: Example of a Float Bag and 2,000 lbs Anchor 2,000 lbs Anchor Plan A: train axel (vendor not responding) Plan B: purchase scrap steel $0.15/lbs and cut and weld Plan C: purchase scrap steel $0.40/lbs and vendor will weld Float Bag Plastic bag filled with air Provided by BML Can float 3,000 lbs Will float anchor behind boat

59 Collect data and analyze power output Compile results Create a manuscript and instruction manual Upload the instruction manual onto team website Upload informational videos to website (x5) Submit final report to CITRIS Team website Project Wiki

60 A Review of Wave Energy Converter Technology. Drew, B, Plummer, AR and Sahinaya, MN. s.l.: Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath, UK. Frequently Asked Questions. US Energy Information Administration. [Online] US Department of Energy, July 9, 2012. [Cited: November 20, Department, Minerals Management. Technology White Paper on Wave Energy Potential on the U.S.Outer Continental Shelf. s.l. : U.S. Department of the Interior, 2006. Hydraulics: 2X72X1.25 DA HYD CYL Item# 9-7707-72. Surplus Center. [Online] 2010. [Cited: 02 18, 2013.] 72&catname=hydraulic. McMaster- Carr Supply Company. Plastic Material Properties: More About Plastics. McMaster-Carr. [Online] 2012. McMaster-Carr Supply Company. More About Steel Alloys. McMaster-Carr. [Online] 2010. More About Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys. [Online] 2010. [Cited: 04 22, 2013.] NOAA. NOAA Marine Environmental Buoy Database. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. [Online] NOAA Ocean Facts. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. [Online] 2011 йил 17- November. [Cited: 2012 йил 10-November.] Surplus Center. Hydraulics: 4X96X2.25 DA HYD CYL HEAVY DUTY CROSSTUBE. Surplus Center. [Online] 2012. [Cited: 02 12, 2013.] Urethane Technologies Inc. Floating Devices Catalog. Denham Springs, Louisiana, USA : s.n. US Energy Information Administration. Annual Energy Outlook 2012- Renewable Energy Generating Capacity and Generation. Washington DC : US Department of Energy, 2012. US Energy Information Administration. The Electric Power Monthly with Data for August 2012. Washington DC : US Department of Energy, 2012. Willis, H. L., Welch, G. V., and Schrieber, R. R. Aging Power Delivery Infrastructures. New York : Marcel Dekker, Inc, 2001.

61 Thank you for the opportunity to present our project. We hope you found this information useful. If you have any questions or comments, please feel free to ask.

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