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Chapter 8 Water and Minerals. Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Water Water is an essential nutrient that must be consumed for survival. Water is.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Water and Minerals. Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Water Water is an essential nutrient that must be consumed for survival. Water is."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 Water and Minerals

2 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Water Water is an essential nutrient that must be consumed for survival. Water is a polar solvent in the body. The polarity of water comes from hydrogen and oxygen. Blood is 90% water. Blood transports oxygen and nutrients to cells and removes carbon dioxide and waste products.

3 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Water Water functions as a lubricant and cleanser. Tears wash away dirt, synovial fluid lubricates joints, saliva assists in chewing, tasting and swallowing and spinal fluid protects against shock. Water assists in regulating body temperature by holding onto heat and changing temperature slowly.

4 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Water in the Body About two-thirds of body water is found inside cells. Water inside cells is called intracellular fluid. Extracellular fluid is found outside the cells. Interstitial fluid consists of lymph, blood plasma and extracellular fluid. Intracellular fluid has the highest concentration of protein, extracellular fluid has less, and interstitial fluid has the lowest concentration of protein. Extracellular fluid has the highest concentration of sodium and chloride and a lower concentration of potassium. Intracellular fluid has the lowest concentration of sodium and the highest concentration of potassium. The fluid pressure of blood against the blood vessels is blood pressure.

5 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Water Balance in the Body

6 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Regulating Water Loss

7 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Dehydration

8 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Water Intoxication

9 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Minerals in the Body Minerals are elements needed by the body in small amounts for health and maintenance. Major minerals are needed in the diet in amounts greater than 100mg per day or are present in the body in amounts greater than 0.01% of body weight. Trace minerals are required in the diet in amounts less than 100mg per day or are present in the body in amounts less than 0.01% of body weight.

10 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Minerals in the Body Minerals are available in unprocessed foods, some processed foods and dietary supplements. To maintain health, minerals must be consumed in the correct proportions. Bioavailability is very important. For example, phytates can limit the bodys ability to absorb calcium, zinc and iron. DRIs for minerals are expressed as RDAs, EARs or AIs. Because certain minerals can be toxic if taken in too high an amount, ULs have been established.

11 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Minerals on the Menu

12 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Compounds that Interfere with Mineral Absorption

13 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Function of Minerals in the Body

14 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Electrolytes: Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride The correct combination and amounts of electrolytes are essential for life. Distribution of electrolytes affects the distribution of water throughout the body. Sodium, potassium and chloride are the principal electrolytes in body fluids.

15 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Electrolytes in the Body

16 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Electrolytes in the Body

17 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Regulation of Blood Pressure

18 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The Effect of Diet on Blood Pressure

19 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The Effect of Diet on Blood Pressure

20 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The Effect of Diet on Blood Pressure

21 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Meeting Electrolyte Needs Stay hydrated Drink before, during, and after you exercise. Guzzle two extra glasses of water when you are out on a hot day. Bring a bottle of water with you in your car. Boost your potassium intake Double your vegetable serving at dinner. Take two pieces of fruit for lunch. Drink orange juice instead of soda or punch. Reduce your sodium intake Choose more unprocessed foods. Do not add salt to the water when cooking rice, pasta, and cereals. Flavor foods with lemon juice, onions, garlic, pepper, curry, basil, oregano, or thyme rather than with salt. Limit salty snacks such as potato chips, salted nuts, salted popcorn, and crackers. Limit condiments such as soy sauce, barbecue sauce, ketchup, and mustard; they are high in sodium.

22 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Sodium on Food Labels

23 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Summary of Water and Electrolytes

24 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Minerals and Bone Health: Calcium Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body. Calcium provides structure for bones and teeth and has important regulatory roles. Calcium is absorbed by active transport and passive diffusion, depending on the availability of the active form of Vitamin D. Bioavailability of calcium is decreased in the presence of tannins, fiber, phytates and oxalates. Calcium accounts for 1–2% of adult body weight.

25 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Calciums Role in the Body 99% of calcium in the body is found in solid mineral deposits in the bones and teeth. The remaining 1% is found in intracellular fluid, blood and extracellular fluid. Calcium found in the bodys fluid plays a role in nerve transmission, muscle contractions, blood pressure regulation and the release of hormones.

26 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Calcium on the Menu

27 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Bone Mass and Osteoporosis

28 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Bone Mass and Osteoporosis

29 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Risk Factors for Osteoporosis

30 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Phosphorus Phosphorus makes up about 1% of an adults body. 85% of phosphorus in the body is found in the bones and teeth. Phosphorus is more readily absorbable than calcium. Phosphorus is an important component of molecules with structural or regulatory roles. Phosphorus deficiency can lead to bone loss, weakness and loss of appetite. Phosphorus toxicity is rare, but can lead to bone resorption

31 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Magnesium About 50% to 60% of magnesium in the body is found in bone, where it is essential for the maintenance of structure. Most of the remaining magnesium is present inside cells, where it is the second most abundant intracellular ion after potassium. Magnesium is a cofactor for over 300 enzymes. It is necessary for the generation of energy from carbohydrate, lipid and protein. Magnesium deficiency is rare. When it does occur, especially in individuals with alcoholism, malnutrition, kidney and GI disease or in people taking diuretics, it may cause nausea, muscle weakness and cramping, mental derangement and changes in blood pressure and heartbeat. Magnesium toxicity is rare. The UL for adults has been set at 350 mg from nonfood sources of magnesium.

32 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Magnesium on the Menu

33 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Calcium, Phosphorus and Magnesium in the Diet Get calcium into your body and your bones Have three servings of dairy a day: milk, yogurt, cheese. Bone up on calcium by eating sardines or canned salmon, which are eaten with the bones. Choose leafy greensthey are a vegetable source of calcium. Walk, jog, or jump up and downweight-bearing exercises build up bone. Dont fret about phosphorusits in almost everything you eat. Maximize your magnesium Choose whole grains. Sprinkle nuts and seeds on your salad, cereal, and stir-fry. Go for the greenwhenever you eat green, you are eating magnesium; most greens contain calcium, too.

34 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Sulfur Dietary sulfur is found in protein foods and in sulfur-containing amino acids in vitamins. Dietary sulfur is also found in nonfood additives, such as sulfur dioxide, sodium sulfite and sodium bisulfite. Sulfur containing amino acids, such as methionine and cysteine, are needed for protein synthesis. The vitamins thiamin and biotin contain sulfur. There is no recommended daily intake for sulfur.

35 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Summary of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Sulfur

36 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Trace Minerals The trace minerals include iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, iodine, fluoride, chromium and molybdenum. They are required in an amount less than 100 mg per day. Trace minerals have been difficult to study, as they are difficult to remove from the diet. Rate of bioavailability is a concern for trace minerals.

37 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Iron Hemoglobin is the iron-containing component of the blood. Iron from animal products is heme iron. Iron from plant products is nonheme iron. Iron cookware can be a source of nonheme iron in the diet. Heme iron is more efficiently absorbed than nonheme iron. Iron from the diet is absorbed into the intestinal mucosal cells.

38 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Iron in the Body Ferritin is the major iron storage protein Transferritin is an iron transport protein in the blood. Hemosiderin is an insoluble iron storage compound produced by the body when iron exceeds the storage capacity of ferritin. Iron is essential for the delivery of oxygen to cells. Two oxygen-containing proteins, hemoglobin and myoglobin, contain iron. Most of the iron in the body is part of hemoglobin.

39 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Iron on the Menu

40 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Iron Deficiency When iron is deficient, hemoglobin cannot be produced. When there is insufficient hemoglobin, red blood cells are microcyctic and hypochromic and unable to deliver sufficient oxygen to the tissues. This is known as iron deficiency anemia. It is estimated that as much as 80% of the worlds population may be iron deficient and 30% suffer from iron deficiency anemia.

41 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Iron Toxicity Iron is essential for cellular metabolism, but too much can be toxic. A UL has been set at 45 mg/day from all sources. Iron poisoning can be life-threatening. It can damage the intestinal lining and cause abnormalities in body pH, shock and liver failure. Iron overload can happen over time and accumulates in tissues such as the heart and the liver. The most common form of iron overload is hemochromatosis.

42 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copper Copper may be important in helping to prevent certain types of anemia. The richest dietary source of copper is organ meat. Seafood, chocolate, nuts, seeds and whole-grain foods are also good sources. Zinc can decrease the bioavailability of copper. The RDA for copper for adults is 900 micrograms per day.

43 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Zinc Zinc is essential in the diet for growth and development. Zinc from animal sources is better absorbed than zinc from plant sources. Zinc can be bound by phytates, affecting bioavailability. Zinc is the most abundant intracellular trace element. Zinc is involved in the functioning of over 300 different enzymes, including superoxide dismutase, important for protecting cells from free-radical damage. Zinc can be toxic if taken in excess.

44 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Zinc on the Menu

45 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Selenium The selenium content of plant foods, such as grains and seeds, depends on the selenium content of the soil in which they are grown. Selenium deficiency can lead to Keshan disease, affecting the heart muscle. Symptoms of selenium deficiency include muscular discomfort and weakness. There may be a connection, still being researched, between diets low in selenium and higher incidences of cancer.

46 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Selenium as an antioxidant

47 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Iodine The iodine content of food depends on the soil where plants are grown or where animals graze. Soil near the ocean or sea is higher in iodine than soil inland. Most of the iodine in the diet comes from iodized salt. Iodized salt is salt fortified with iodine. Natural sea salt may be very low in iodine. More than half the iodine in the body is found in the thyroid gland. Iodine is an essential component of thyroid hormones, including thyroxine.

48 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Iodine When the supply of iodine is adequate, the body can produce the needed thyroid hormones. The RDA for iodine for adult men and women is 150 micrograms per day. The RDA for iodine is higher during pregnancy and lactation. Consuming diets high in goitrogens, such as cabbage, cassava and millet, limits the bioavailability of iodine. Iodine deficiency may result in hereditary cretinism. The UL for adults is 1100 micrograms of iodine per day. Iodine toxicity is possible.

49 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Iodine Deficiency Disorders

50 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Iodine Deficiency Disorders

51 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Iodized Salt

52 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Chromium Dietary sources of chromium include brewers yeast, liver, nuts and whole grains. Cooking in stainless steel can increase foods chromium content. Chromium is involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

53 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Fluoride Fluoride is important for dental health. Fluoride is present in small amounts in almost all soil, water, plants and animals The most common source of fluoride is fluoridated water, tea, marine fish eaten with their bones (such as canned salmon or sardines) and topical toothpaste. Calcium-rich foods reduce the bioavailability of fluoride.

54 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Trace Minerals in the Diet Add more iron Eat red meat, poultry, or fishthey are all good sources of heme iron. Add raisins to your oatmeal. Fortify your breakfast by eating iron-fortified cereal. Dust off the iron skillet. Have some beansthey are a good vegetarian source of iron. Increase iron absorption Have orange juice with your iron-fortified cereal. Dont take your calcium supplement with your iron sources. Think zinc Scramble some eggs. Beef up your zinc by having a few ounces of meat. Eat whole grains, but make sure they are yeast leavened. Trace down your minerals Check to see if your water is fluoridated. See if your salt is iodized. Replace refined grains with whole grains to increase your chromium intake. Have some seafood to add selenium to your diet.

55 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Summary of Trace Minerals

56 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Summary of Trace Minerals

57 Copyright 2010, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. End of Chapter 8 Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted in section 117 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without express permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Request for further information should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. The purchaser may make back-up copies for his/her own use only and not for distribution or resale. The Publisher assumes no responsibility for errors, omissions, or damages caused by the use of these programs or from the use of the information herein..


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