16Angle’s Classification Class I (Neutrocclusion): mesial buccal cusp of maxillary first molars is contacting the buccal groove of the mandibular first molars, remaining teeth are considered to be in normal occlusion.
17MalocclusionMolars are in the same relationship as Class I, however, remaining teeth exhibit deviations from normal occlusion, such as: crowding, crossbite, or openbite.
18Class II MalocclusionClass II (Distocclusion): mesial buccal cusp of maxillary first molars is contacting the mesial portion of the mandibular first molars, mesial to buccal groove.
19Class II Division IDivision I (refers to anterior teeth only): molars are in the same relationship as Class II with maxillary anteriors being flared out to the labial.
20Class II Division IIDivision II (refers to anterior teeth only): molar relationship the same as Class II with maxillary centrals are tipped back to the lingual; they are touching the mandibular anterior teeth.
21Class III Malocclusion Class III (Mesiocclusion): Mesial cusp on maxillary first molars are touching distal of the buccal groove on the mandibular first molar.
35Phases of Orthodontic treatment PreventiveInterceptiveCorrective
36PreventiveOrthodontic treatment designed to correct problems, that if not stopped, will contribute to more serious problems in the future.
37InterceptiveOrthodontic treatment involving the correction of problems as they are developing.
38Treatment for Preventive and Interceptive Phases Space MaintainersRestoration to prevent tooth lossObserving growth patternsCorrecting bad habitsSerial extractionsRecognizing deviation from normal development
39CorrectiveOrthodontic treatment performed when the problems have already occurred and there were no steps taken to correct them previously.
40Initial Exam/Initial Consultation First appointmentReview medical historyExamine the patientInitial recommendations, review treatment options, and answer questionsNext appointment Records
41Records Second appointment Montage of patient Intraoral and extraoral photographsStudy modelsPanoramicCephalometricNever review financial information at this appointment
42MontagePhotographsA series of usually eight photographs to allow the doctor a clear view of the patient mouth.
43Study ModelsAn exact replica of patients teeth and surrounding tissuesAllows the doctor to view all aspects of patient’s teeth without patient having to be there
44PanoramicA wide view of patient’s mouthAllows insight into placement of impacted teeth, 3rd molar location, and eruption patterns of unerupted teeth
45CepholometricUsed for diagnosis of jaw relationshipsTracings are designed to show how the jaw relates to certain landmarks in the skull
46Consultation/Case Presentation A detailed outline of the treatment for the patientHow long it will takeWhat style of braces and or appliances are being usedCost of treatment
48SeparatorsElastic, circular shaped item placed between teeth to open contact between teeth to allow orthodontic band to fit around teeth.
49BandsOrthodontic bands are placed on first molars, to act as an anchor in orthodontic treatment and to help stabilize the archwire.Brackets are soldered on the band, have tubes to hold archwire.Only upper first molar bands have headgear tubesCome in multiple sizes
51BracketsBonded to buccal/facial portion of teeth, transmits force of archwire to move teethCan be silver, clear or gold in colorEach bracket is specific to a toothArchwire slot has a specific torque and tip to bring teeth into ideal occlusionMay have wings for tying or doors
52Bonding Appointment Pumice teeth to remove salvia and debris Acid etch teeth for 30 secondsApply bonding agentApply cement to back of each bracketPlace bracket on toothOrthodontist positions bracket to precise location on toothLight cure bracket to teeth or allow to self cure
53Archwires Placed into bracket slot to control movement of teeth. Held in place by elastic ligature ties or stainless steel ties.
54Elastic Ties aka: O’s, A’s, colored ties Used to hold AW into bracket slots.
55Stainless Steel Ligature Ties Used to hold arch firmly into archwire slotCan be preformed with pigtail or longUsed to tie individual teeth or multiple teeth together.
56Kobayashi Hooks Placed on Brackets to attach interarch elastics Interarch elastics, used to correct Class II and Class III occlusion
57Tooth MovementTeeth are allowed to move through the bone by resorption (osteoclasts).Teeth are held in place by deposition (osteoblasts).Active Phase=tooth movementRetention Phase=teeth held in place with retainers, osteogenesis takes 6-12 monthsHawleys, Trutanes, Fixed Retainers