Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

THE MOLECULAR CONVERGENCE TULSA, OK 9-21-07 Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY 1.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "THE MOLECULAR CONVERGENCE TULSA, OK 9-21-07 Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE MOLECULAR CONVERGENCE TULSA, OK Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY 1

2 Arthur C. Clarke, author of 2001: A Space Odyssey Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY2

3 Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY3

4 Nanotechnology Biomedicine Information technology Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY4

5 Harness the possibilities of new science New job creation Economic growth and development Urban renewal Creative expansion Better living and better lives Fulfillment of human potential Stockholm, Sweden Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY5

6 Manipulation of molecules and matter Precision assembly of matter Living systems do this every minute of every day Building proteins Respiration Plants photosynthesis Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY6

7 One nanometer (nm) one millionth the width of a human hair 10 hydrogen atoms side-by-side = 1 nm Visible light approx. 500 nm Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY7

8 All nano action is at the surface its all about the surface area As a particle gets smaller and smaller, its surface area compared to its volume gets greater and greater Villi of small intestine Receptors on cell membranes DNA packing in chromosomes DNA in one cell is six feet long!!! Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY8

9 At the nanoscale, surface properties become crucial AND controllable And, properties change based on the dimensions Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY9

10 There is no industry that will not be touched by nanotechnology. Dr. Eric Isaacs, Director of the Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, and Professor of Physics, James Franck Institute, University of Chicago Center for Nanoscale Materials Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY10

11 Carbon nanotubes Super strong Super light Super flexible times as strong as steel Excellent conductors, so great for electronics Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY11

12 $100K per pound to launch to Mars and Jupiter Lighter and stronger nano-materials Instrumentation Propulsion Navigation systems Sensors Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY12

13 Carbon nanotube-based x-ray tubes Evaluate small rock samples (for Mars in 2009) Tiny gas sensors based on carbon nanotubes Analyze extraterrestrial atmospheres Sensor webs 1000s of tiny sensors Sensing and computing capabilities Planetary-wide topography, atmosphere, signs of life Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY13

14 15-20 minutes for one-way signal between Mars Rovers and JSC in Houston Need autonomous (independent-thinking) spacecraft for long-range missions Spacecraft makes decisions locally Need enormous computing power Enter nanotechnology! Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY14

15 One million times faster than whats on our desktops (10 15 versus 10 9 ) Need super-fast components Nano-computing Molecular transistors (switches) Ultra-high-density memory chips (10 9 more than is possible right now) Use optics (light) rather than electrons Side benefit laptops wont get hot Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY15

16 The number one problem facing the next generation of scientists Alternative sources Renewable sources Sustainable sources Need innovative solutions multidisciplinary approaches Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY16

17 The 50 Terawatt (TW) Problem Wheres all the energy going to come from? Global energy consumption was 14 TW per year in TW per year in 2002 Energy is already a scarce resource Energy is our #1 national security issue Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY17

18 Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY18

19 Based on projections, the world will consume 50 TW of energy in In 1953, the science fiction master Robert Heinlein wrote Revolt in He may have been very close to the truth. But help may be only 93,000,000 miles away. Sunlight brings 14 TW of energy per day to the surface of the Earth Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY19

20 Photovoltaics Solar cells Solar panels Photosynthesis Biomimetics mimic this process using nanoscale technology Biology Chemistry Engineering Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY20

21 Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY21

22 Inorganic-organic composites TiO 2 –DNA Titanium dioxide–DNA interface A nanoscopic battery !!! TiO 2 (a semiconductor) absorbs sunlight DNA separates the electric charge The structure stores the charge like a battery Current grand challenge – how to store charge? What do you do at night? Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY22

23 Create a new curriculum for nanobiology Help each discipline understand the others Basic biology for engineers Develop full majors in nanobiology, nano- economics, nano-engineering Dr. Nathan Cady, Assistant Professor of Nanobioscience, College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, SUNY University at AlbanyCollege of Nanoscale Science and Engineering Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY23

24 Mimic biology to build structures at the nanoscale Genetically modifiable biological macromolecules Harness cellular proteins to build a structure on an inorganic surface Build circuits DNA-based biosensors to detect pathogens Multiplex sensors – detect pathogens in a sample Implantable prosthetic devices Tissue bioengineering Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY24

25 Build new mathematical models for robots Program many simple rules emergent autonomous behavior Dr. Dennis Hong, Director, Robotics and Mechanisms Laboratory, Virginia TechRobotics and Mechanisms Laboratory Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY25

26 DARwinDARwin (Dynamic Anthropomorphic Robot With Intelligence) Navigates obstacles and traverses uneven terrain Plays soccer Competed in 2007 RoboCup Communicates by sign Reads dance and dances Reads handshake and shakes hands Plays dice game Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY26

27 MARSMARS (Multi-Appendage Robotics System) Uses lightweight carbon tube construction NASA developing legged vehicles for zero-G activities Autonomous inspection and maintenance outside space station Whole Skin LocomotionWhole Skin Locomotion – cytoplasmic streaming Search and rescue – collapsed building Medical apps – robotic endoscope Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY27

28 Cancer affects 1.3M Americans each year New diagnoses 25% hereditary; 75% environment and exposure Of these, 550,000 will die of cancer What we need is early detection and eradication! Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY28

29 Not identified early enough for prevention and effective treatment At-risk population is not well-identified Current treatment based on how the tumor looks under the microscope VERSUS the molecular changes that are the REAL PROBLEM Current treatment represents average treatment for the average tumor BUT no two tumors are alike Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY29

30 Am I or my family at risk for cancer? Identify genes that predispose to cancer Identify molecular signatures in early cancer Cancer patients – What kind of treatment will I get and will I survive? Understand changes in cancer cells Advanced pharmaceuticals targeted to specific alterations Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY30

31 Certain mutations are a beacon telling us something has gone wrong We need more sensitive technology to find subtle changes at low concentrations Dr. Francis Barany, Professor of Microbiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, and Director of Mutation Research, Strang Cancer Prevention CenterWeill Cornell Medical College Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY31

32 Chromosomal instability Gene duplication Gene rearrangement Gross losses of chromosome material So – most solid tumors have many genetic mutations And, tumor cells can suppress or silence genes that normally suppress cell growth And, malignant cells have multiple strategies to allow them to become invasive or metastatic Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY32

33 Evade normal mechanisms of the immune system Ability to acquire a blood supply Ability to become highly motile and travel in the blood stream and lymphatics Cancer therapy is an arms race. Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY33

34 Study how genes are disregulated in cancer progression Identify the genetic signatures of cells Probe gene expression, determine which are upregulated and which are suppressed Dr. Barbara Hempstead, Co-Division Chief, Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical CollegeWeill Cornell Medical College Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY34

35 Obesity risk of breast CA by 50% Fat cells are small biochemical factories produce estrogen, polypeptide GFs (e.g., insulin) Overabundance of these biologically active proteins promote carcinogenesis (hypothesis) Fat cells produce leptin, which promotes breast CA cell growth and metastasis High leptin levels are correlated with higher-grade tumors Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY35

36 The genetic makeup of single cancer cells is very important. Cells that express different types of receptors will respond to different combinations of drugs Anti-estrogens and anti-GFs How diet might modify expression of cancer-related genes Dr. Eva Surmacz, internationally recognized expert in cancer biology – Director, Obesity and Cancer Program, Sbarro Health Research OrganizationSbarro Health Research Organization Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY36

37 Genetic risk assessment Family history Genetic screening – genomic data Personalize treatment to groups surveillance screening Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY37

38 Cancer genetics nirvana – keeping healthy people healthy Smart consumer – hows my family history and whats my genetic risk years – highly accurate risk assessment based on family and personal hx, and a small panel of genes Dr. Charis Eng, Chair and Founding Director, Genomic Medicine Institute of the Cleveland Clinic FoundationGenomic Medicine Institute Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY38

39 National Science Foundation K-12 Initiative Grad students mentor middle-school and HS teachers Focus on problem-based learning Interactive pedagogies Engage and excite students in math and science education Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY39

40 Responsibility to communicate science to the public Engage in how science is taught Be translators – explain their own work Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY40

41 Center for Science Education at Emory University Center for Science Education Summer programs for 9 th - 11 th graders 97% go on to college science majors 150 new curriculum modelscurriculum models Dr. Pat Marsteller, Director, Emory College Center for Science Education Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY41

42 Address public concerns about science and how science is done Use jargon-free language Address need for basic research and its costs Codes of ethics and safety protocols Self-correcting nature of science Public learns not to believe what they read in newspapers Public learns they can ask questions, too Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY42

43 Five Grand Challenges (the 5 Es) Energy Environment Economics Education Ethics (harmony, global cooperation) Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY43

44 Grand challenges in medicine Personalized, preventive, and prescriptive medicine Cancer prevention and treatment Diabetes and obesity Alzheimers disease Heart disease and stroke Quality of life with increasing longevity We live in the most exciting time in history for human growth and development Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY44

45 Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY45


Download ppt "THE MOLECULAR CONVERGENCE TULSA, OK 9-21-07 Dr. David Lemberg Executive Producer, SCIENCE AND SOCIETY 1."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google