Presentation on theme: "MOBILITY AND ACCESSIBILITY IN CITIES Tamás Fleischer Institute for World Economics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences"— Presentation transcript:
MOBILITY AND ACCESSIBILITY IN CITIES Tamás Fleischer Institute for World Economics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Section: mobility and accessibility
Mobility and accessibility in cities A SHORT GENERAL INTRODUCTION INTO THE TOPIC About the changing technological paradigms and their appearance in the Charters and in the mobility issues Modernity period – and the Athens Charter Post-modern period – and the Leipzig Charter A BUDAPEST CASES Why a new Budapest Transport Frame Development Plan (2008) Story of the lower Danube embankment
Changing technological paradigms A short general introduction into the topic This concept was first presented in Catch the Wave, The Economist, 18 February 1999; Figure courtesy of The Natural Edge Project, Australia, 30 October 2006.
Changing technological paradigms An early one: wood – wind – water Industrialisation, growing big towns, the train period of coal – steam engine – steel/rail Modernity period – and the Athens Charter Post-modern period – and the Leipzig Charter
Modernity period – and the Athens Charter 4th Congress of CIAM ( Congress Internationaux dArchitecture Moderne ) 1933 To solve the housing problem of people => mass-construction of flats: the housing estate (small boxes of flats in ten-level buildings, following an industrialised production system.) Adjusting city to ideas and technologies: functionally homogeneous quarters (land-use modes): business district, residential area, industrial area, recreation area. Effective mass production, economy of scale, big is better, planned Transport: small boxes of units; the new dominant mode is the road => Good technology means better hardware: (motor, vehicle, fuel, M-way) In cities: surface is needed for cars: rails under or over the surface. Less tram, narrowed sidewalks, less trees, subordinated zebra crossings, shifted bus-stops etc. The space is not enough, cars need more space The main target is to ease the (motorised) mobility Citius, altius, fortius (swifter, higher, stronger)
Technological waves of the transport Shift between modes. Time-to-time a new technology becomes dominant
Technological waves of the transport Shift between modes. Time-to-time a new technology becomes dominant. Long-term cycles
Technological waves of the transport J.H. Ausubel, C. Marchetti, and P. Meyer (1998) Toward green mobility: the evolution of transport, European Review, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp own addition Rail Roads Air Maglev Canals 3 % 2 % 1 %
The post-modern – and the Leipzig Charter Everything goes (world music, citations, reutilise, reuse…) New key words: integration, co-operation, partnership, networking, consultation, adjusting, adaptation… (mutual dependencies) There are external constraints: environment counts, society counts, city- life counts, organic life counts… Our planned, man-made system must be adjusted to the constraints. New set of orientations and values: flexibility, buffers, reserves, redundancies, diversity (versus: efficient, uniform, optimal etc.) => Leipzig Charter May, 2007 on sustainable European cities Main ideas: integrated approach (+ Structural Funds) COMPLEX SYSTEMS (Salingaros, Nikos A (2000) Complexity and Urban Coherence. Journal of Urban Design, Vol. 5. pp ) The city consists of modular units from small elements. Homogenous elements are not able to couple. The importance of diversity. Instead of the macro-scale functional divide, the necessity of neighbourhood level multifunctionality. (City of small distances, small cities within a metropolis, mixed zones, smart city, walking distances)
The post-modern – and the Leipzig Charter RISK SOCIETY (Ulrich Beck (1986) Risikogesellschaft: Auf dem Weg in eine andere Moderne. Suhrkamp) New relation with risks Myth of modernity: production of goods are in the centre, as calculable activity, – the not-intended technological consequences are external effects. The new approach: risks and side-effects are not incidental phenomena, but parts of the system. To every technologies there is a normal risk (Who invented the rail also invented the derailment [Paul Virillio] ) Vulnerability and resilience: what we need is good feedbacks, diversified resources, alternative transport routes, non- hierarchical systems, buffers, redundancies. In our cities: (re)construction is not an extraordinaire phenomenon (hard-disk: we need 15-20% free space) SUSTAINABILITY1 : not to emit more that the environment can admit + not to use more, than that the environment can reproduce. SUSTAINABILITY2 : the ability of the system to reserve a sensibility to be able to adapt itself to the changing external circumstances.
The post-modern – and the Leipzig Charter Transport: there is not any more a single dominant transport mode, what is needed is a good mixture of possibilities. (intermodality, combined transport, interoperability, third party access, local networking etc. That is integration and cooperation between transport modes, btw. propriety forms, btw. sector targets, sector policies etc.) The place in the city is given: congestions meaning is not that the space is lacking, but that there are too many cars. The surface must be used in the interest of the whole city life. Good technology also means better software: (regulation, organisation) and not just better hardware Energy lesson: not more kWh but better service (heat, light, etc.) The main target is better accessibility – that is solving the reason of the mobility (getting closer) by not just transport but also by land use It is important to see both possible side of the better accessibility: mobility and land use. Better accessibility with less transport
NEW TRANSPORT PLAN FOR THE HUNGARIAN CAPITAL Tamás Fleischer Institute for World Economics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences
A new Budapest Transport Frame Development Plan (2008) Why is it necessary – if the old one was accepted in 2003 Two characteristic feature of the 2003 plan (emphasised by me ) (1) Big intermodal intersections to change mode / relations (2) Metro-4 between two railway-stations of the middle zone That is separate treatment of the capital and the metropolitan area; and intermodality as concentrated obligate change between vehicles. Sharp border-lines reinforced S-Bahn concept: how to utilise the 11 suburban railway lines in the city transport: transverse lines instead of ending all at terminals; more crossing points with less choice at one point. Softened borders 2008 has brought also small promotion in tariff-system in the public transport of Budapest and its metropolitan zone New level of modal and territorial integration, financial co-operation
A new Budapest Transport Frame Development Plan (2008) New level of modal and territorial integration, financial co-operation BUT All the projects already decided earlier still remained the same! A kind of mental path-dependency
Towards a sustainable and liveable city We had to learn that: It is not enough if we use the new technology only for developing our tools, our hardware It is not enough if we use the information technology only to solve old problems by them There are no definite, optimal, ever-best solutions any more We need intelligent (=able-to-learn, adaptive, demand-sensitive) systems Three key elements of the new context Integrations (within and around the transport sector) Sustainability Complexity
Towards a sustainable and liveable city The Leipzig Charter is a document of the last year and summarises an up-to-date approach of urban development, that can be characterised as a post-modern or post-industrial paradigm. The most important key-words of this period are: integration, co-operation, partnership, networking, co-ordination, consultation, coherence, adjustment, adaptation, feedbacks, alternatives, non-hierarchical systems, flexibility, buffers, reserves, redundancies, diversity, risk and vulnerability, resilience, Summarised again: integrations, sustainability and complexity
MOBILITY AND ACCESSIBILITY IN CITIES Tamás Fleischer Institute for World Economics of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences Section: mobility and accessibility THANKS FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION !