Presentation on theme: "THE CRISIS OF THE 21ST CENTURY"— Presentation transcript:
1 THE CRISIS OF THE 21ST CENTURY WATERTHE CRISIS OF THE 21ST CENTURY
2 It is said that the trouble with being poor is that it takes up all your time. And this is why we say, water washes away poverty.Because a basic, affordable supply of safe water brings freedom – freedom to learn, to work, to grow – to break free from the vicious cycle of poverty.For many South Africans, a ready supply of potable water is just a tap turn away – so it’s difficult to comprehend that water is a scarce resource.
3 Within 20 years, the average supply of water worldwide per person is set to decrease by one third (United Nations report 2003).Why is water security being threatened?Global warmingGlobal degradation of eco-systemsPollution growth ratesExtreme povertyPollution and contamination of water bearingsMismanagementNon-care attitude1.2 Billion people in the world, (one sixtieth of the world population), do not have access to potable water.2.2 Million people in developing countries are dying every year, most of them children, from diseases linked to the lack of access to clean drinking water and poor hygiene.
4 AFRICA’S STATUS: Classified as water scarce or water stressed. The average distance a woman in Africa and Asia walks to collect water is 6kms.The weight of water that woman in Africa and Asia carry on their heads is equivalent to the baggage weight allowed by airlines (20kgs).6000 boys and girls die everyday from diseases linked to the lack of clean drinking water.Women and girls in Africa, use average of more than 8 hours a day, traveling from km, to transport between 20 and 15 litres of water in each trip.
5 Men, especially in rural areas, do not play the role of getting or carrying water. This inequality has implications in woman’s daily life, from a rights base perspective.The carrying of water not only causes them physical disorders, but also makes it difficult for them to get involved in other activities such as education, income generation and recreation.It is critical to reassess the economical, social and environmental roles of clear and safe water.
6 In developing countries one person uses an average of 10 litres of water per day. In the developed world one person uses an average of 135 litres of water everyday.When you flush the toilet, you are using the same amount of water that one person in the third world uses all day to wash, clean, cook and drink.In poor countries the population in cities pay five times more for one litre of water; than what it cost an American Citizen.
7 In the last ten years, diarrhoea has killed more girls and boys than all the people who died during World War II.In some poor countries the people dying from diarrhoea are twice as many as those dying of HIV/AIDS.1.5 Billion people in the world are suffering from parasite infections due to water and sanitation, which could be controlled with hygiene.Every person without access to safe water and adequate sanitation is one person too many…
8 Equal access to clean water and the protection of this resource, to prevent natural disasters, is more than a necessity.It is an urgent human right that can not be postponed.Lack of access to drinking water leads to the violation of the right to life, safety, food, health and education of billions of human beings.Water is a fundamental and inalienable human right and a common good that every person and institute of this planet should protect.It is like air, a heritage of humanity and must be declared that way.
9 The UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights excluded water as an explicit right. UNBELIEVABLE! When water is a natural resource necessary for BASIC SURVIVAL.However, the general comment #15 on the articles 11 and 12 on the rights to clean water, adopted in November 2002 by the committee on economic, social and cultural rights, explicitly recognised that water is a fundamental human right. Water is the origin, essence and sustenance of life.The 145 countries that ratified this agreement are obligated to progressively ensure that every person has access to safe drinking water, equally and without discrimination.
10 This obligation requires that all parties adopt the necessary measures to guarantee the right to drinking water.In present times humanity gives water a commodity value like merchandise, a simply service for commercial use and profit.It has forgotten its value and origin and continuity of life.This situation creates consumption habits and utilizations which are not sustainable in the present and much less in the future.We should call our planet “water” and not “earth” because life originated in the water.The average deep of the oceans is 3 kms and the area covered by the oceans is by far larger than the earth (70% is covered with water).
11 If we wish the continuity of life as we know it now, it is necessary to create a new culture which recognizes and respect the value of water.From this new culture, will depend the survival of future generations and species of our planet.Life originated in the oceans and the salt taste of our blood, reminds us of our origins.Both liquids contain 4 grams of salt per litre and 84 elements, exactly in the same proportions.70% of the surface of the planet is covered with water: 97% is salted and it is found in the oceans; the other 3% is fresh water: 2% is ice, and less than 1% is available for human consumption.
13 The ambiental crises that we are confronted with are related with our loss of values and principles. We do not respect and love what we do not know.The water is the common heritage of all species of the planet.It is the point of origin that maintains organisms and cells with life.There is no doubt that the water is the most important resource for which humanity will suffer as a result of mismanagement of our environment.The water in our planet is a miracle of equilibrium. The volume of water in the world has been constant since its origins.
14 Only 2% of the world’s fresh water is in rivers, lakes and wetlands. The tragedy is that almost every river is contaminated, many lakes are disappearing, and humans have destroyed more than 50% of the world’s wetlands.We are the last generation still capable of preventing the massive extension of plants, animals and micro-organisms.Water is only one of the few components really essential for all organisms of our planet.Without water, there would be no life.
15 Health vs Health Care “Health Care” implies having to remedy sickness. “Health” is a state of freedom from all that illness brings.
16 Between 70 and 80% of diseases is caused by: INCORRECT LIFESTYLESINAPPROPRIATE ENVIRONMENTSo, shouldn’t we think deeply about how we are living to avoid the lowered quality of life and great financial costs that serious disease can bring?
17 Preventative Healthcare 13 MOST IMPORTANT CAUSES OF DEATH Biology 27% (6.9%)Environment19%(1.5%)Healthcare11%(90.6%)13 MOST IMPORTANT CAUSES OF DEATHLifestyle 43% (1.2%)% = Distribution of causes of death(%) = Distribution of public budgetDever, 1976Hjort, 1984
18 Causes of HealthA + B Lifestyle +- Activities within the Environment working, living recreationC Contribution of Health CareD Genetical CausesB = 20%C = 10%A = 50%D = 20%Kalla; Ingemar NorlingGotenborg University
19 It is unfortunate that the demand for services occurs only after illness becomes evident, while the need for services is long before illness occurs.Attention is focused on sick, but the need is to maintain the health of those who are not yet ill.Good health has become synonymous with the provision of a doctor and a hospital rather than the enjoyment of a disease free environment.
20 The existence of more than 1 The existence of more than 1.2 billion people worldwide without drinking water and 2.8 billion without sanitation and in contaminated and polluted environments, is a pungent example of the urgent need for preventive health to be seen in its entirety, tackling the causes of ill health instead of the symptoms.
21 We are living on Earth in 2007 with the same amount of water that was available in 1900, while in the meantime the global population has quadrupled.Because urban populations are growing rapidly, city water systems everywhere are under pressure.Most of the world’s hardest pressed cities simply can not pay for the investment themselves.Many of the world’s fresh water problems arise because governments treat it as “Common Property” – it is free to use, no matter what you do with it and how much you use.
22 Huge quantities are wasted: Farmers over irrigate their fields.Landlords and municipalities don’t fix leaking pipes.Factory owners feel free to pollute.Governments don’t extend and improve their water networks, because they can’t pay for it.By 2025, all of Africa and the Middle East, and almost all of South & Central America and Asia, will be either running out of fresh water or unable to afford its costs. (I.W.M.I)Water is the most important environmental and human rights issue of them all.Global warming is a present reality, but the worst consequences will be felt decades from now. But in the interim the world is running out of water TODAY.
23 Most of the world worries about where to get the next drop, how much it will cost, and whether it will be lethal.All over the world you have these hugely under funded, very inefficient services producing a very bad service.WATER SERVICES ENTAILS FOUR BASIC FUNCTIONS:Purifying the water that goes into the system.Delivering it to end users.Cleaning up the water that leaves the homes and businesses.Extending and maintaining the network of pipes, pumps and plants.
24 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT “RIGID” vs “SOFT” APPROACH
25 The world is going through an enormous transition in the way we are managing our vital and limited resources of fresh water.The metaphor of electing between two ways, will help us to go through the transition better.The traditional and historic way to satisfy the needs of water supply has been the “rigid” way which depends almost exclusively on centralized infrastructure and decision making.
26 The second way, the “soft” way, also depends on centralized infrastructure but is complemented with considerable investment in decentralized installations, with efficient and effective technologies and human capital.The emergence of the “soft” way of course reduces the power of influence of groups with vested interests that resist their acceptance and insist in planning following the “rigid” way.The consequence is that a series of myths and deceits are accepted as truths about the “soft” way, mainly because the traditional planners and engineers are not familiarized with the new approach.
27 How would the future be if the “soft” way is implemented? Everybody and all natural ecosystems would have quality water to satisfy their basic needs.This water would be made available economically and efficiently by transparent institutions in relation to their operational mechanisms.New large infrastructures would only be built when absolutely necessary and only after consultation with the local communities.The eco-systems which have been degraded would be restored and the underground and superficial waters would be managed together like a unique system to protect the water quality and supply.
28 This vision is in line with the new technologies, the institutions and the world economic tools. To achieve this goal it will be necessary to apply a new mind shift to the management and understanding of the water.We are the last generation still with the capacity to prevent the massive extinction of plants, animals and micro-organisms, as well as to maintain the continuity of life on earth.Water is one of the few essential components of all organisms of the planet.Without water there will be no life on earth.
29 Technology like no other Intakatech Water & GasTechnology like no otherProudly South African
30 TO BUILD A COMPANY WITH A SHARED PASSION: VISIONTO BUILD A COMPANY WITH A SHARED PASSION:IMAGINATION AT WORK, TO DEVELOP AND APPLY THE BEST TECHNOLOGY IN WHAT WE DO, FOR A BETTER WORLD.
31 The Intaka Tech water purification plant is a portable, easy to transport water treatment plant that can purify up to litres of water per hour. [Between and ]Simple to operate, cost efficient and reliable system designed to operate with a wide and reliable water quality systems.For the price that conventional water treatment plants will produce one litre of drinkable water, Intaka Tech’s water purification plant will produce up to 3 times as much on average. Chemicals, electricity and maintenance included.
32 It produces drinkable water according to the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality. The plant removes high turbidity, colour concentration, and eliminates bacteria, spores, viral pathogenic and parasitic agents, cysts, protozoa, phytoplankton algae.Consequently combats cholera and other diseases related to contaminated water.The plant is easily transported and installed, can be started up in about 7 days, and can be used in conjunction with existing facilities.
33 Conventional Water Plants: High construction and running costs.Water quality dependent on the competence of the operator.Requires periodic maintenance.Longer period of construction.Intaka Tech Water Plants:Lower construction and running costs.Mostly automated.Low maintenance.Very short periods of construction and installation.Movable.
34 Major Benefits are:Particularly low operating cost per litre of water purified – only ZAR 1,5 per litres, which includes chemicals, electricity and general maintenance.Capacity of – litres per hour.Low capital cost / short manufacturing and implementation timeframes.Portable and easily transportable.Quick installation and start up period.Easy-to-operate.Low maintenance.Stainless steel 304 construction.Fully automated.Excellent water quality.Elimination of bacteria, etc.Flexible, reliable and adaptable to raw water quality.Adaptable to existing facilities.
35 Main steps of the Water Purification Plant: Purification is the process of treating water in order to make it suitable for human consumption. The Plant will treat raw surface water in a continuous process, which will not only clarify and disinfect the raw water but also neutralise any dissolved chemical contaminants present in concentrations above the permissible levels.Step 1 Abstraction (source of raw water supply)Step 2 Chemical dosing (clarification)Step 3 Coagulation and FlocculationStep Sedimentation (Solids/liquids separation)Step 5 Filtration (Precipitation)Step 6 DisinfectionStep 7 Storage
36 STEP ONE:ABSTRATIONFrom surface water sources such as dams and rivers.Through screens the large objects are removed.Water is pumped or flows to the purification plant.
37 CHEMICAL DOSING AND CLARIFICATION STEP TWO:CHEMICAL DOSING AND CLARIFICATIONIncoming water contains particles that:Make the water look dirty.Give the water a bad taste.Cause illnesses.
38 Chemical dosing is done for two reasons: When dosing with a coagulant, usually aluminium or iron salts, chemical destabilisation occurs and “colloidal particles” form “colloids” which in turn group together to form large floccules.Chemicals are added to alter the pH of the water so corrosion (low pH) and scaling (high pH) do not occur.Low pH add alkalinityHigh pH add acidityThe objective of clarification is to eliminate the particles in the water which give it colour (Turbidity), bad taste and unpleasant smells.
39 COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATION STEP THREE:COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATIONTakes place when the chemicals and the particles are mixed causing grouping and the formation of floccules (flocs).These flocs clump together to form larger and heavier flocs.Coagulation is therefore the destabilisation of the colloids (non settleable solids) by the neutralisation of the forces that keep them apart. An area of high turbulence is required for thorough mixing of the chemicals.
40 FLOCCULATION [Continued] STEP THREE:FLOCCULATION [Continued]Flocculation occurs when colloidal particles agglomerate into flocs. An area of low turbulence is required for this process.The required dosage of chemicals is determined by the results of the “jar tests”.Colloidal species in raw water include clay, silica, iron, other heavy metals, colour, organic solids, such as debris of dead organisms.
41 CLARIFICATION BY SEDIMENTATION STEP FOUR:CLARIFICATION BY SEDIMENTATIONGravitational settling takes place when the suspended flocs sink in a sedimentation tank.The clear water is discharged from the top of the sedimentation tank and flows to the pressure filters.The floc at the bottom forms a sludge layer which it periodically purged to waste.The water is NOT SAFE YET for human consumption as bacteria is still present.
42 FILTRATION AND DISINFECTION STEP FIVE:FILTRATION AND DISINFECTIONFiltration is the last step of solids / liquid separation.During the physical process the last suspended particles are removed from the water.The filter media comprises of layers of silica sand, pebbles and / or anthracite.By utilising material of different granular density and particular size the filtration efficiency and the life of the filter is increased.
43 FILTRATION AND DISINFECTION [Continued] Disinfection is the removal of harmful pathogenic organisms to render the water safe to drink.The water is treated with chlorine.Disinfection by means of Sodium Hypochlorite is normally carried out before filtration.In this way we ensure that chlorinated water goes through the filters reducing the possibility of micro-organism growth which would normally take place in the multiple layers of the filter medium.