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WATER THE CRISIS OF THE 21ST CENTURY It is said that the trouble with being poor is that it takes up all your time. And this is why we say, water washes.

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Presentation on theme: "WATER THE CRISIS OF THE 21ST CENTURY It is said that the trouble with being poor is that it takes up all your time. And this is why we say, water washes."— Presentation transcript:

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2 WATER THE CRISIS OF THE 21ST CENTURY

3 It is said that the trouble with being poor is that it takes up all your time. And this is why we say, water washes away poverty. It is said that the trouble with being poor is that it takes up all your time. And this is why we say, water washes away poverty. Because a basic, affordable supply of safe water brings freedom – freedom to learn, to work, to grow – to break free from the vicious cycle of poverty. For many South Africans, a ready supply of potable water is just a tap turn away – so its difficult to comprehend that water is a scarce resource. For many South Africans, a ready supply of potable water is just a tap turn away – so its difficult to comprehend that water is a scarce resource.

4 Within 20 years, the average supply of water worldwide per person is set to decrease by one third (United Nations report 2003). Within 20 years, the average supply of water worldwide per person is set to decrease by one third (United Nations report 2003). Why is water security being threatened? Why is water security being threatened? 1.2 Billion people in the world, (one sixtieth of the world population), do not have access to potable water. 1.2 Billion people in the world, (one sixtieth of the world population), do not have access to potable water. 2.2 Million people in developing countries are dying every year, most of them children, from diseases linked to the lack of access to clean drinking water and poor hygiene. 2.2 Million people in developing countries are dying every year, most of them children, from diseases linked to the lack of access to clean drinking water and poor hygiene. 1. Global warming 2. Global degradation of eco-systems 3. Pollution growth rates 4. Extreme poverty 5. Pollution and contamination of water bearings 5. Pollution and contamination of water. bearings 6. Mismanagement 7. Non-care attitude

5 AFRICAS STATUS: Classified as water scarce or water stressed. Classified as water scarce or water stressed. The average distance a woman in Africa and Asia walks to collect water is 6kms. The average distance a woman in Africa and Asia walks to collect water is 6kms. The weight of water that woman in Africa and Asia carry on their heads is equivalent to the baggage weight allowed by airlines (20kgs). The weight of water that woman in Africa and Asia carry on their heads is equivalent to the baggage weight allowed by airlines (20kgs) boys and girls die everyday from diseases linked to the lack of clean drinking water boys and girls die everyday from diseases linked to the lack of clean drinking water. Women and girls in Africa, use average of more than 8 hours a day, traveling from km, to transport between 20 and 15 litres of water in each trip. Women and girls in Africa, use average of more than 8 hours a day, traveling from km, to transport between 20 and 15 litres of water in each trip.

6 Men, especially in rural areas, do not play the role of getting or carrying water. Men, especially in rural areas, do not play the role of getting or carrying water. This inequality has implications in womans daily life, from a rights base perspective. The carrying of water not only causes them physical disorders, but also makes it difficult for them to get involved in other activities such as education, income generation and recreation. The carrying of water not only causes them physical disorders, but also makes it difficult for them to get involved in other activities such as education, income generation and recreation. It is critical to reassess the economical, social and environmental roles of clear and safe water. It is critical to reassess the economical, social and environmental roles of clear and safe water.

7 In developing countries one person uses an average of 10 litres of water per day. In developing countries one person uses an average of 10 litres of water per day. In the developed world one person uses an average of 135 litres of water everyday. In the developed world one person uses an average of 135 litres of water everyday. When you flush the toilet, you are using the same amount of water that one person in the third world uses all day to wash, clean, cook and drink. When you flush the toilet, you are using the same amount of water that one person in the third world uses all day to wash, clean, cook and drink. In poor countries the population in cities pay five times more for one litre of water; than what it cost an American Citizen. In poor countries the population in cities pay five times more for one litre of water; than what it cost an American Citizen.

8 Every person without access to safe water and adequate sanitation is one person too many… Every person without access to safe water and adequate sanitation is one person too many… In the last ten years, diarrhoea has killed more girls and boys than all the people who died during World War II. In the last ten years, diarrhoea has killed more girls and boys than all the people who died during World War II. In some poor countries the people dying from diarrhoea are twice as many as those dying of HIV/AIDS. In some poor countries the people dying from diarrhoea are twice as many as those dying of HIV/AIDS. 1.5 Billion people in the world are suffering from parasite infections due to water and sanitation, which could be controlled with hygiene. 1.5 Billion people in the world are suffering from parasite infections due to water and sanitation, which could be controlled with hygiene.

9 It is like air, a heritage of humanity and must be declared that way. It is like air, a heritage of humanity and must be declared that way. Equal access to clean water and the protection of this resource, to prevent natural disasters, is more than a necessity. Equal access to clean water and the protection of this resource, to prevent natural disasters, is more than a necessity. It is an urgent human right that can not be postponed. Lack of access to drinking water leads to the violation of the right to life, safety, food, health and education of billions of human beings. Lack of access to drinking water leads to the violation of the right to life, safety, food, health and education of billions of human beings. Water is a fundamental and inalienable human right and a common good that every person and institute of this planet should protect. Water is a fundamental and inalienable human right and a common good that every person and institute of this planet should protect.

10 The UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights excluded water as an explicit right. UNBELIEVABLE! When water is a natural resource necessary for BASIC SURVIVAL. The UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights excluded water as an explicit right. UNBELIEVABLE! When water is a natural resource necessary for BASIC SURVIVAL. However, the general comment #15 on the articles 11 and 12 on the rights to clean water, adopted in November 2002 by the committee on economic, social and cultural rights, explicitly recognised that water is a fundamental human right. Water is the origin, essence and sustenance of life. However, the general comment #15 on the articles 11 and 12 on the rights to clean water, adopted in November 2002 by the committee on economic, social and cultural rights, explicitly recognised that water is a fundamental human right. Water is the origin, essence and sustenance of life. The 145 countries that ratified this agreement are obligated to progressively ensure that every person has access to safe drinking water, equally and without discrimination. The 145 countries that ratified this agreement are obligated to progressively ensure that every person has access to safe drinking water, equally and without discrimination.

11 This obligation requires that all parties adopt the necessary measures to guarantee the right to drinking water. This obligation requires that all parties adopt the necessary measures to guarantee the right to drinking water. In present times humanity gives water a commodity value like merchandise, a simply service for commercial use and profit. In present times humanity gives water a commodity value like merchandise, a simply service for commercial use and profit. It has forgotten its value and origin and continuity of life. This situation creates consumption habits and utilizations which are not sustainable in the present and much less in the future. This situation creates consumption habits and utilizations which are not sustainable in the present and much less in the future. We should call our planet water and not earth because life originated in the water. We should call our planet water and not earth because life originated in the water. The average deep of the oceans is 3 kms and the area covered by the oceans is by far larger than the earth (70% is covered with water).

12 If we wish the continuity of life as we know it now, it is necessary to create a new culture which recognizes and respect the value of water. If we wish the continuity of life as we know it now, it is necessary to create a new culture which recognizes and respect the value of water. From this new culture, will depend the survival of future generations and species of our planet. Life originated in the oceans and the salt taste of our blood, reminds us of our origins. Life originated in the oceans and the salt taste of our blood, reminds us of our origins. Both liquids contain 4 grams of salt per litre and 84 elements, exactly in the same proportions. 70% of the surface of the planet is covered with water: 97% is salted and it is found in the oceans; the other 3% is fresh water: 2% is ice, and less than 1% is available for human consumption. 70% of the surface of the planet is covered with water: 97% is salted and it is found in the oceans; the other 3% is fresh water: 2% is ice, and less than 1% is available for human consumption.

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14 The ambiental crises that we are confronted with are related with our loss of values and principles. The ambiental crises that we are confronted with are related with our loss of values and principles. We do not respect and love what we do not know. The water is the common heritage of all species of the planet. It is the point of origin that maintains organisms and cells with life. There is no doubt that the water is the most important resource for which humanity will suffer as a result of mismanagement of our environment There is no doubt that the water is the most important resource for which humanity will suffer as a result of mismanagement of our environment. The water in our planet is a miracle of equilibrium. The volume of water in the world has been constant since its origins. The water in our planet is a miracle of equilibrium. The volume of water in the world has been constant since its origins.

15 Only 2% of the worlds fresh water is in rivers, lakes and wetlands. Only 2% of the worlds fresh water is in rivers, lakes and wetlands. The tragedy is that almost every river is contaminated, many lakes are disappearing, and humans have destroyed more than 50% of the worlds wetlands. We are the last generation still capable of preventing the massive extension of plants, animals and micro- organisms. We are the last generation still capable of preventing the massive extension of plants, animals and micro- organisms. Water is only one of the few components really essential for all organisms of our planet. Water is only one of the few components really essential for all organisms of our planet. Without water, there would be no life.

16 Health vs Health Care Health Care implies having to remedy sickness. Health is a state of freedom from all that illness brings.

17 Between 70 and 80% of diseases is caused by: Between 70 and 80% of diseases is caused by: So, shouldnt we think deeply about how we are living to avoid the lowered quality of life and great financial costs that serious disease can bring? So, shouldnt we think deeply about how we are living to avoid the lowered quality of life and great financial costs that serious disease can bring? INCORRECT LIFESTYLES INCORRECT LIFESTYLES INAPPROPRIATE ENVIRONMENT INAPPROPRIATE ENVIRONMENT

18 13 MOST IMPORTANT CAUSES OF DEATH % = Distribution of causes of death (%) = Distribution of public budget Preventative Healthcare Healthcare11%(90.6%) Biology 27% (6.9%) Lifestyle 43% (1.2%) Environment19%(1.5%) Dever, 1976 Hjort, 1984

19 Kalla; Ingemar Norling Gotenborg University Causes of Health A + BLifestyle +-Activities within the Environmentworking, living recreation CContribution of Health Care DGenetical Causes C = 10% D = 20% B = 20% A = 50%

20 It is unfortunate that the demand for services occurs only after illness becomes evident, while the need for services is long before illness occurs. It is unfortunate that the demand for services occurs only after illness becomes evident, while the need for services is long before illness occurs. Attention is focused on sick, but the need is to maintain the health of those who are not yet ill. Attention is focused on sick, but the need is to maintain the health of those who are not yet ill. Good health has become synonymous with the provision of a doctor and a hospital rather than the enjoyment of a disease free environment. Good health has become synonymous with the provision of a doctor and a hospital rather than the enjoyment of a disease free environment.

21 The existence of more than 1.2 billion people worldwide without drinking water and 2.8 billion without sanitation and in contaminated and polluted environments, is a pungent example of the urgent need for preventive health to be seen in its entirety, tackling the causes of ill health instead of the symptoms. The existence of more than 1.2 billion people worldwide without drinking water and 2.8 billion without sanitation and in contaminated and polluted environments, is a pungent example of the urgent need for preventive health to be seen in its entirety, tackling the causes of ill health instead of the symptoms.

22 We are living on Earth in 2007 with the same amount of water that was available in 1900, while in the meantime the global population has quadrupled. We are living on Earth in 2007 with the same amount of water that was available in 1900, while in the meantime the global population has quadrupled. Because urban populations are growing rapidly, city water systems everywhere are under pressure. Because urban populations are growing rapidly, city water systems everywhere are under pressure. Most of the worlds hardest pressed cities simply can not pay for the investment themselves. Most of the worlds hardest pressed cities simply can not pay for the investment themselves. Many of the worlds fresh water problems arise because governments treat it as Common Property – it is free to use, no matter what you do with it and how much you use. Many of the worlds fresh water problems arise because governments treat it as Common Property – it is free to use, no matter what you do with it and how much you use.

23 Huge quantities are wasted: Huge quantities are wasted: Factory owners feel free to pollute. Factory owners feel free to pollute. Governments dont extend and improve their water networks, because they cant pay for it. Governments dont extend and improve their water networks, because they cant pay for it. By 2025, all of Africa and the Middle East, and almost all of South & Central America and Asia, will be either running out of fresh water or unable to afford its costs. (I.W.M.I) By 2025, all of Africa and the Middle East, and almost all of South & Central America and Asia, will be either running out of fresh water or unable to afford its costs. (I.W.M.I) Water is the most important environmental and human rights issue of them all. Water is the most important environmental and human rights issue of them all. Global warming is a present reality, but the worst consequences will be felt decades from now. But in the interim the world is running out of water TODAY. Global warming is a present reality, but the worst consequences will be felt decades from now. But in the interim the world is running out of water TODAY. Landlords and municipalities dont fix leaking pipes. Landlords and municipalities dont fix leaking pipes. Farmers over irrigate their fields. Farmers over irrigate their fields.

24 WATER SERVICES ENTAILS FOUR BASIC FUNCTIONS: WATER SERVICES ENTAILS FOUR BASIC FUNCTIONS: Purifying the water that goes into the system Purifying the water that goes into the system. Delivering it to end users Delivering it to end users. Cleaning up the water that leaves the homes and businesses. Cleaning up the water that leaves the homes and businesses. Extending and maintaining the network of pipes, pumps and plants. Extending and maintaining the network of pipes, pumps and plants. Most of the world worries about where to get the next drop, how much it will cost, and whether it will be lethal. Most of the world worries about where to get the next drop, how much it will cost, and whether it will be lethal. All over the world you have these hugely under funded, very inefficient services producing a very bad service. All over the world you have these hugely under funded, very inefficient services producing a very bad service.

25 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT RIGID vs SOFT APPROACH

26 The world is going through an enormous transition in the way we are managing our vital and limited resources of fresh water. The world is going through an enormous transition in the way we are managing our vital and limited resources of fresh water. The metaphor of electing between two ways, will help us to go through the transition better. The metaphor of electing between two ways, will help us to go through the transition better. The traditional and historic way to satisfy the needs of water supply has been the rigid way which depends almost exclusively on centralized infrastructure and decision making. The traditional and historic way to satisfy the needs of water supply has been the rigid way which depends almost exclusively on centralized infrastructure and decision making.

27 The emergence of the soft way of course reduces the power of influence of groups with vested interests that resist their acceptance and insist in planning following the rigid way. The emergence of the soft way of course reduces the power of influence of groups with vested interests that resist their acceptance and insist in planning following the rigid way. The consequence is that a series of myths and deceits are accepted as truths about the soft way, mainly because the traditional planners and engineers are not familiarized with the new approach. The consequence is that a series of myths and deceits are accepted as truths about the soft way, mainly because the traditional planners and engineers are not familiarized with the new approach. The second way, the soft way, also depends on centralized infrastructure but is complemented with considerable investment in decentralized installations, with efficient and effective technologies and human capital. The second way, the soft way, also depends on centralized infrastructure but is complemented with considerable investment in decentralized installations, with efficient and effective technologies and human capital.

28 How would the future be if the soft way is implemented? Everybody and all natural ecosystems would have quality water to satisfy their basic needs. Everybody and all natural ecosystems would have quality water to satisfy their basic needs. This water would be made available economically and efficiently by transparent institutions in relation to their operational mechanisms. This water would be made available economically and efficiently by transparent institutions in relation to their operational mechanisms. New large infrastructures would only be built when absolutely necessary and only after consultation with the local communities. New large infrastructures would only be built when absolutely necessary and only after consultation with the local communities. The eco-systems which have been degraded would be restored and the underground and superficial waters would be managed together like a unique system to protect the water quality and supply. The eco-systems which have been degraded would be restored and the underground and superficial waters would be managed together like a unique system to protect the water quality and supply.

29 This vision is in line with the new technologies, the institutions and the world economic tools. This vision is in line with the new technologies, the institutions and the world economic tools. To achieve this goal it will be necessary to apply a new mind shift to the management and understanding of the water. To achieve this goal it will be necessary to apply a new mind shift to the management and understanding of the water. We are the last generation still with the capacity to prevent the massive extinction of plants, animals and micro-organisms, as well as to maintain the continuity of life on earth. We are the last generation still with the capacity to prevent the massive extinction of plants, animals and micro-organisms, as well as to maintain the continuity of life on earth. Water is one of the few essential components of all organisms of the planet. Water is one of the few essential components of all organisms of the planet. Without water there will be no life on earth.

30 Intakatech Water & Gas Technology like no other Proudly South African

31 VISION TO BUILD A COMPANY WITH A SHARED PASSION: IMAGINATION AT WORK, TO DEVELOP AND APPLY THE BEST TECHNOLOGY IN WHAT WE DO, FOR A BETTER WORLD.

32 The Intaka Tech water purification plant is a portable, easy to transport water treatment plant that can purify up to litres of water per hour. [Between and ] The Intaka Tech water purification plant is a portable, easy to transport water treatment plant that can purify up to litres of water per hour. [Between and ] Simple to operate, cost efficient and reliable system designed to operate with a wide and reliable water quality systems. Simple to operate, cost efficient and reliable system designed to operate with a wide and reliable water quality systems. For the price that conventional water treatment plants will produce one litre of drinkable water, Intaka Techs water purification plant will produce up to 3 times as much on average. Chemicals, electricity and maintenance included. For the price that conventional water treatment plants will produce one litre of drinkable water, Intaka Techs water purification plant will produce up to 3 times as much on average. Chemicals, electricity and maintenance included.

33 It produces drinkable water according to the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality. It produces drinkable water according to the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality. The plant removes high turbidity, colour concentration, and eliminates bacteria, spores, viral pathogenic and parasitic agents, cysts, protozoa, phytoplankton algae. The plant removes high turbidity, colour concentration, and eliminates bacteria, spores, viral pathogenic and parasitic agents, cysts, protozoa, phytoplankton algae. Consequently combats cholera and other diseases related to contaminated water. Consequently combats cholera and other diseases related to contaminated water. The plant is easily transported and installed, can be started up in about 7 days, and can be used in conjunction with existing facilities. The plant is easily transported and installed, can be started up in about 7 days, and can be used in conjunction with existing facilities.

34 Conventional Water Plants: High construction and running costs. High construction and running costs. Water quality dependent on the competence of the operator. Water quality dependent on the competence of the operator. Requires periodic maintenance. Requires periodic maintenance. Longer period of construction. Longer period of construction. Intaka Tech Water Plants: Lower construction and running costs. Lower construction and running costs. Mostly automated. Mostly automated. Low maintenance. Low maintenance. Very short periods of construction and installation. Very short periods of construction and installation. Movable. Movable.

35 Major Benefits are: Particularly low operating cost per litre of water purified – only ZAR 1,5 per litres, which includes chemicals, electricity and general maintenance. Particularly low operating cost per litre of water purified – only ZAR 1,5 per litres, which includes chemicals, electricity and general maintenance. Capacity of – litres per hour. Capacity of – litres per hour. Low capital cost / short manufacturing and implementation timeframes. Low capital cost / short manufacturing and implementation timeframes. Portable and easily transportable. Portable and easily transportable. Quick installation and start up period. Quick installation and start up period. Easy-to-operate. Easy-to-operate. Low maintenance. Low maintenance. Stainless steel 304 construction. Stainless steel 304 construction. Fully automated. Fully automated. Excellent water quality. Excellent water quality. Elimination of bacteria, etc. Elimination of bacteria, etc. Flexible, reliable and adaptable to raw water quality. Flexible, reliable and adaptable to raw water quality. Adaptable to existing facilities. Adaptable to existing facilities.

36 Purification is the process of treating water in order to make it suitable for human consumption. The Plant will treat raw surface water in a continuous process, which will not only clarify and disinfect the raw water but also neutralise any dissolved chemical contaminants present in concentrations above the permissible levels. Purification is the process of treating water in order to make it suitable for human consumption. The Plant will treat raw surface water in a continuous process, which will not only clarify and disinfect the raw water but also neutralise any dissolved chemical contaminants present in concentrations above the permissible levels. Main steps of the Water Purification Plant: Step 1Abstraction (source of raw water supply) Step 2Chemical dosing (clarification) Step 3Coagulation and Flocculation Step 4 Sedimentation (Solids/liquids separation) Step 5Filtration (Precipitation) Step 6Disinfection Step 7Storage

37 STEP ONE: ABSTRATION ABSTRATION From surface water sources such as dams and rivers. From surface water sources such as dams and rivers. Through screens the large objects are removed. Through screens the large objects are removed. Water is pumped or flows to the purification plant. Water is pumped or flows to the purification plant.

38 STEP TWO: CHEMICAL DOSING AND CLARIFICATION CHEMICAL DOSING AND CLARIFICATION Incoming water contains particles that: Incoming water contains particles that: Make the water look dirty. Make the water look dirty. Give the water a bad taste. Give the water a bad taste. Cause illnesses. Cause illnesses.

39 Chemical dosing is done for two reasons: Chemical dosing is done for two reasons: When dosing with a coagulant, usually aluminium or iron salts, chemical destabilisation occurs and colloidal particles form colloids which in turn group together to form large floccules. When dosing with a coagulant, usually aluminium or iron salts, chemical destabilisation occurs and colloidal particles form colloids which in turn group together to form large floccules. Chemicals are added to alter the pH of the water so corrosion (low pH) and scaling (high pH) do not occur. Chemicals are added to alter the pH of the water so corrosion (low pH) and scaling (high pH) do not occur. Low pH add alkalinity High pH add acidity The objective of clarification is to eliminate the particles in the water which give it colour (Turbidity), bad taste and unpleasant smells. The objective of clarification is to eliminate the particles in the water which give it colour (Turbidity), bad taste and unpleasant smells.

40 STEP THREE: COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATION COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATION Takes place when the chemicals and the particles are mixed causing grouping and the formation of floccules (flocs). Takes place when the chemicals and the particles are mixed causing grouping and the formation of floccules (flocs). These flocs clump together to form larger and heavier flocs. These flocs clump together to form larger and heavier flocs. Coagulation is therefore the destabilisation of the colloids (non settleable solids) by the neutralisation of the forces that keep them apart. An area of high turbulence is required for thorough mixing of the chemicals. Coagulation is therefore the destabilisation of the colloids (non settleable solids) by the neutralisation of the forces that keep them apart. An area of high turbulence is required for thorough mixing of the chemicals.

41 STEP THREE: FLOCCULATION [Continued] FLOCCULATION [Continued] Flocculation occurs when colloidal particles agglomerate into flocs. An area of low turbulence is required for this process. Flocculation occurs when colloidal particles agglomerate into flocs. An area of low turbulence is required for this process. The required dosage of chemicals is determined by the results of the jar tests. The required dosage of chemicals is determined by the results of the jar tests. Colloidal species in raw water include clay, silica, iron, other heavy metals, colour, organic solids, such as debris of dead organisms. Colloidal species in raw water include clay, silica, iron, other heavy metals, colour, organic solids, such as debris of dead organisms.

42 STEP FOUR: CLARIFICATION BY SEDIMENTATION CLARIFICATION BY SEDIMENTATION Gravitational settling takes place when the suspended flocs sink in a sedimentation tank. Gravitational settling takes place when the suspended flocs sink in a sedimentation tank. The clear water is discharged from the top of the sedimentation tank and flows to the pressure filters. The clear water is discharged from the top of the sedimentation tank and flows to the pressure filters. The water is NOT SAFE YET for human consumption as bacteria is still present. The water is NOT SAFE YET for human consumption as bacteria is still present. The floc at the bottom forms a sludge layer which it periodically purged to waste. The floc at the bottom forms a sludge layer which it periodically purged to waste.

43 STEP FIVE: FILTRATION AND DISINFECTION FILTRATION AND DISINFECTION Filtration is the last step of solids / liquid separation. Filtration is the last step of solids / liquid separation. During the physical process the last suspended particles are removed from the water. The filter media comprises of layers of silica sand, pebbles and / or anthracite. By utilising material of different granular density and particular size the filtration efficiency and the life of the filter is increased. By utilising material of different granular density and particular size the filtration efficiency and the life of the filter is increased.

44 FILTRATION AND DISINFECTION [Continued] Disinfection is the removal of harmful pathogenic organisms to render the water safe to drink. Disinfection is the removal of harmful pathogenic organisms to render the water safe to drink. Disinfection by means of Sodium Hypochlorite is normally carried out before filtration. Disinfection by means of Sodium Hypochlorite is normally carried out before filtration. In this way we ensure that chlorinated water goes through the filters reducing the possibility of micro- organism growth which would normally take place in the multiple layers of the filter medium. The water is treated with chlorine.

45 SAFE POTABLE WATER

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53 A true conservationist is a person who knows that the world is not given by their fathers but borrowed from their children.


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