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Residential Building Energy Standards (RBES) and Commercial Building Energy Standards (CBES) Updates Better Buildings by Design Conference - February 10,

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Presentation on theme: "Residential Building Energy Standards (RBES) and Commercial Building Energy Standards (CBES) Updates Better Buildings by Design Conference - February 10,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Residential Building Energy Standards (RBES) and Commercial Building Energy Standards (CBES) Updates Better Buildings by Design Conference - February 10, 2011 Navigant Consulting, Inc. (Consultants to Vermont DPS)

2 Efficiency Vermont is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems (AIA/CES). Credit(s) earned on completion of this program will be reported to AIA/CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for both AIA members and non-AIA members are available upon request. This program is registered with AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.

3 Learning Objectives At the end of this program, participants will be able to: Gain a better understanding of the current VT residential and commercial energy codes Understand challenges and issues related to implementation and enforcement of the energy code Understand the overall process involved in current and future Vermont energy code updates

4 Course Evaluations In order to maintain high-quality learning experiences, please access the evaluation for this course by logging into CES Discovery and clicking on the Course Evaluation link on the left side of the page.

5 4 Agenda Background and legislative history Stu Slote Residential Building Energy Standards (RBES) Lee Wood Q & A Commercial Building Energy Standards (CBES) Tim Guiterman Q & A

6 5 Code Update Process Last Update: 2003 VT RBES ARRA Requirements: 2009 IECC May 27, legislature adopted Act 45 Stakeholder meetings held to gather feedback Advisory Committee meetings DPS filed rule with ICAR (Interagency Committee on Administrative Rules) DPS held public hearing LCAR to conduct hearing and vote on rule Rule to be adopted 15 days after filed RBES handbook update RBES Update Process

7 6 CBES Update Process Last Update: 2005 VT CBES ARRA Requirements: 2009 IECC or ASHRAE Technical Advisory Panel (TAP) Meetings in June and July of 2010 Highlighted areas for improvement Included changes from current 2012 IECC / ASHRAE update processes

8 7 CBES Update Process Overall direction for CBES Update Meet minimum 2009 IECC / ASHRAE Add VT-specific amendments and improvements Consider substantial changes to create 2012 IECC / ASHRAE New VT CBES codebook (VT-specific version of IECC) Continue to maintain reference to ASHRAE 90.1 standard and allow that as approved compliance path Public hearing on proposed rule held Jan 27 Public comment period ended February 4 LCAR to conduct hearing and vote on rule Rule to be adopted 15 days after filed

9 8 CBES Update Process Where are Commercial Codes Headed? Source: NEEP Building Energy Codes Policy 3/1/2009


11 10 1 Section 1: RBES Administration 2 Section 2: Major Changes to RBES Table of Contents

12 11 Administration and Enforcement Self certificationXX Certificate of complianceXX Filing process to remain unchanged Section 1 » RBES Administration

13 12 Applicability New single family homesXX New multifamily homesXX Change in occupancy or useXX Change in space conditioningX Additions, alterations, renovations, or repairs X Section 1 » RBES Administration

14 13 Additions, alterations, renovations, or repairs Conform as with new construction Unaltered portions do not need to comply Additions can comply alone or in combination with existing building Section 1 » RBES Administration Exceptions Storm windows over existing fenestration Glass only replacements Exposed cavities already filled with insulation

15 14 Exemptions Very low energy use buildingsXX Unconditioned buildingsXX Existing BuildingsXX Historic BuildingsXX Owner Built HomesXX Hunting CampsXX Section 1 » RBES Administration

16 RBES Compliance Paths Prescriptive Approach Mandatory Requirements Start Performance Approach Either R-Values Table U-Factor Alternative Table Total UA Alternative REScheck HERS Rating Section 1 » RBES Administration

17 16 1 Section 1: RBES Administration 2 Section 2: Major Changes to RBES Table of Contents

18 17 Mandatory Requirements Piping insulationXX Vapor RetarderXX Mechanical ventilationXX Combustion safetyXX Air Sealing and verificationX LightingX Fenestration U-factorsX Programmable thermostatX Duct sealing and testingX Equipment sizingX Snow melt system controlsX Pools, hot tubs and spasX Section 2 » Major Changes to RBES

19 18 Building Envelope Component R-ValueExemptions R-38 if uncompressed ft 2 for vaulted ceilings Ceiling3849 Source: US DOE Section 2 » Major Changes to RBES

20 19 Building Envelope Component R-ValueNotes R-20 cavity or R-13 cavity + R-5 sheathing Wood Frame Wall or Source: DOE Section 2 » Major Changes to RBES

21 20 Building Envelope Component R-ValueNotes R-15 continuous or R-20 cavity Basement or Crawlspace Wall 1315 / 20 Source: Building Science Corp Section 2 » Major Changes to RBES

22 21 Building Envelope Component R-ValueNotes Heated slabs must have R-15 beneath entire slab Slab Edge10, 4ft15, 4ft Source: Building Energy Codes Program Section 2 » Major Changes to RBES

23 22 Component Window U-Factor Skylight U-Factor Fenestration NR0.55 Fenestration Notes 1.Area-weighted averages 2.15 ft 2 of glazing exempt 3.One opaque door exempt Section 2 » Major Changes to RBES

24 23 ComponentRBES 2003RBES 2011 Air Leakage No testing requirements 1.Test: < 5 2.Visual Inspection Checklist Air Leakage Source: RBES Handbook Section 2 » Major Changes to RBES

25 24 ComponentRBES 2003RBES 2011 Spillage Testing No testing requirements Must establish draft without spillage within two minutes Spillage Testing Source: Saturn Resource Management Section 2 » Major Changes to RBES

26 25 ComponentRBES 2003RBES 2011 Programmable Thermostat No requirementMANDATORY Temperature Controls ComponentRBES 2003RBES 2011 LightingNo requirement 50% of lamps in permanent fixtures high- efficacy Lighting Section 2 » Major Changes to RBES

27 26 COMPONENTRBES 2003RBES 2011 Duct Sealing No verification requirement Must be verified by:* 1. Post-construction test : Leakage to outdoors < 6 cfm per 100 ft 2 of conditioned floor area (CFA) 2. Rough-in test : Total leakage < 3 cfm per 100 ft 2 of conditioned floor area (CFA) Duct Insulation R-8 Same R-value as surrounding surfaces* Ducts * Unless located within conditioned space Section 2 » Major Changes to RBES

28 27 Mechanical Ventilation COMPONENT Balanced systemsXX Exhaust-only systemsXX Supply-only systemsX Section 2 » Major Changes to RBES

29 28 COMPONENTRBES 2003RBES 2011 Piping Insulation Varied R-3 Domestic Hot Water Source : Saturn Resource Management Section 2 » Major Changes to RBES

30 29 COMPONENTRBES 2003RBES 2011 Snow Melt Systems No requirements Mandatory automatic controls Pool Heaters Mandatory on / off switch Pool Covers (heated pools) Pool cover required R-12 minimum for hot tubs and spas Other Requirements Section 2 » Major Changes to RBES

31 30 Component Basement Wall U-Factor Floor U-Factor Ceiling U-Factor Fenestration U-Factor Log Homes Log walls must comply with ICC400 with average minimum wall thickness of 5 or greater, and have heating system AFUE of 90% (gas) or 85% (oil). Boilers must have outdoor temperature reset or thermal purge control. Section 2 » Major Changes to RBES

32 31 Questions?


34 33 CBES Presentation » Overview Key Items Details on code update Administration Definitions General Requirements Envelope Mechanical Systems Service Water Heating Electrical Power and Lighting

35 34 CBES Presentation » Key Items 2012 IECC and ASHRAE recently finalized in Fall 2010 Significant changes to 2012 IECC initiated by joint proposals Department of Energy (DOE) New Buildings Institute (NBI) American Institute of Architects (AIA) Presentation Format


37 Introduction to Compliance Process 36 Must the Project Comply with the IECC? Comply with the Envelope Requirements Comply with the Mechanical/SWH Requirements Comply with the Power & Lighting Requirements Comply with the Power & Lighting Requirements Section Section 5 Sections 503 and Section 6 Section Section 9 Document Compliance with the IECC Plan Review Inspection

38 37 Chapter 1 » Administration Scope Code does not apply to farm structures or process applications (equipment / systems) Compliance Exempt Buildings 1.Low energy buildings (<3.4 Btu/h*ft 2 for space conditioning) 2.Unconditioned buildings 3.Inflatable buildings Context: Re-organizes exemptions from 2005 CBES. Inflatable & Unconditioned buildings added.

39 : Alterations, Additions, Renovations and Repairs If energy use is not increased, following need not comply Re-roofing where neither sheathing nor insulation is exposed Alterations that replace < 50% of luminaires Alterations that replace only bulb and ballast Context: New in 2009 IECC Chapter 1 » Administration

40 39 103: Construction Documents 1.Added: Additional information required on construction documents a. Design ambient temperatures; interior temps. for heating / cooling modes; relative humidity setpoints; ventilation rates 2.Added: Additional info. required on mechanical equipment schedules a. Equipment efficiencies; Fan and pump nameplate motor / brake horsepower; Hydronic system (if applicable) supply / return water design temps. for boilers and all terminal devices (e.g. baseboards, unit ventilators, etc); Steam system (if applicable) design pressure for boilers and all terminal devices Context: Rarely included, but useful information for code review, commissioning, future energy audits, etc. Chapter 1 » Administration




44 43 Chapter 3 » General Requirements 301: Design Conditions 2005 CBES: broad allowance for adjustments 2011 CBES: adjustments for 1.Winter heating design temperatures for projects located at either: a. Elevation of 1,500 feet or higher b. Caledonia, Essex or Orleans counties 2. As approved by code official or other authority having jurisdiction Context: Improve language from 2005 VT CBES which allowed adjustments for local design conditions


46 45 Building Envelope : Roof Assembly Added: Requirement to insulate skylight and mechanical curbs to at least R-5 Context: Skylight curbs included in proposal for 2012 IECC. Mechanical curb recommended by TAP.

47 46 Table (1) Envelope Tables 1.Envelope R-Values/U-Factors only for Vermont Climate Zone (CZ) 6 2.Added additional metal building description and U-factor reference tables 3.Maximum Vertical fenestration area is 40% of above- grade wall area, same as 2009 IECC CBES was 50% maximum Building Envelope

48 47 Building Envelope - Opaque Assemblies Roofs2005 CBES 2009 IECC / CBES Roof: Insulation entirely above deck R - 24 ci U R - 20 ci U R - 30 ci U Metal Buildings R R - 10 or R - 30 U R R - 19 U R R - 13ci U Steel Joist R R - 5ci (with R - 5 thermal blocks) U N / A Attic and other R - 38 U R - 38 U R - 38 U

49 48 Walls- Above Grade 2005 CBES 2009 IECC / CBES Mass R ci U R ci U R ci U Metal building R - 19 or R R - 13 U R R ci U R R ci U Metal- framed R R ci U R R ci U R R ci U Wood- framed and other R - 19 or R - 12 ci or R R ci U R R ci U R R ci or R R ci or R - 23 U Building Envelope - Opaque Assemblies

50 Note: VT was already ahead of 2009 IECC. Recommendation to maintain current 2005 VT CBES values. 49 Walls-Below Grade 2005 CBES 2009 IECC / CBES Below Grade Wall R - 10 ci C R ci C R - 10 ci C Building Envelope - Opaque Assemblies

51 50 Floors 2005 CBES 2009 IECC / CBES Mass R - 10ci U R ci U R ci U Joist / Framing- Metal* R - 30 U R - 30 U R - 30 U Joist / Framing-Wood and Other* R - 30 U R - 30 U *Note: Final version will consolidate 2 categories into one, per 2009 IECC Building Envelope - Opaque Assemblies

52 51 Slab-on-Grade Floors* 2005 CBES 2009 IECC/ CBES Unheated R - 10 for 48 inches F R - 10 for 24 inches below F R - 10 for 48 inches F ** Heated R - 10 for entire slab (under slab and perimeter) F R - 15 for 24 inches below F R - 10 for entire slab (under slab and perimeter) F * Insulation shall be placed on the exterior of the foundation ** Change to F-Value from 2005 CBES to reflect vertical installation (Or downward to bottom of slab and then horizontally for total distance shown in table) Building Envelope - Opaque Assemblies

53 52 Opaque Doors 2005 CBES 2009 IECC/ CBES Swinging U U U Roll-Up or sliding R - 10U Upward- Acting or Sectional N / A R - 10 Note: 2009 IECC / ASHRAE 90.1 only provides U-Factors Upward-Acting or Sectional is new and unique to VT code Building Envelope - Opaque Assemblies Note:

54 53 Building Envelope - Fenestration Category2005 CBES2009 IECC2011 CBES Vertical Fenestration (Maximum %) 50%40% Framing Materials other than Metal with or without Metal Reinforcement or Cladding U-0.35 Metal framing with or without Thermal Break Curtain Wall/Storefront U-0.45 U-0.42 Entrance Door U-0.80 All Other U-0.50U-0.55U-0.50 SHGC-All Frame Types PF < 0.25 U < PF < 0.5 U-0.55NRU-0.55 PF >= 0.5 NR Skylights (Maximum %) 5%3% Skylights, Glass U-0.60 U-0.50 SHGC-0.40 Skylights, Plastic U-0.60 Plastic Not Specified SHGC-0.62 Plastic Not Specified

55 Air Leakage 2005 CBES and 2009 IECC: broad language 2011 CBES: Mandatory continuous air barrier Air barrier compliance options –Option 1: Materials –Option 2: Assemblies –Option 3: Building Test (0.31 cfm/ft 2 of shell 50 Pa) Air Barrier penetrations-explicit language on air sealing Fenestration air leakage table Context Substantial part of joint DOE/NBI/AIA proposal to 2012 IECC Originally adapted from MA building code, so field-tested and regionally appropriate Building Envelope

56 Vestibules 1.Revised to reflect changes in proposed 2012 IECC a. Utilizes new definition of Building Entrance 2.VT - specific: a. If vestibule is tempered, max temperature setting of 55° F; Cooling prohibited b. If tempered, shall be constructed according to envelope provisions c. If tempered, thermostat shall be programmable and inaccessible to pu blic Context 1.Improved language from model IECC codes 2.TAP recommended changes due to extensive issues with energy use due to heating and cooling of vestibules Building Envelope


58 Building Mechanical Systems Overview of changes due to 2009 IECC Revises equipment efficiency tables for water-chilling packages; minimum equipment efficiencies changed Requires snow melt control Requires demand control ventilation (DCV) for certain spaces Removes exception for energy recovery ventilation for lab fume hood systems 15,000 cfm Lowers the system capacity for economizer requirement for most climate zones Introduces fan power limitations Introduces supply air temperature reset controls for multiple- zone systems 57

59 Electric Resistance Space Heating Prohibition on electric resistance space heating a. Carried over from 2005 VT CBES Ventilation a. References ASHRAE rather than IMC b. Added language emphasizing ventilation rates to be based on expected occupancy levels versus default IMC / ASHRAE 62.1 rat es Context 1.Important prohibition on electric resistance heating that has worked for VT 2. Prevents designers from using worst-case ventilation rates when better information is available Building Mechanical Systems

60 : Demand Controlled Ventilation 2005 CBES had no DCV requirement 2011 CBES (2009 IECC): DCV must be provided for each zone with spaces > 500 ft² and average occupant load > 40 people / 1000 ft² of floor area where HVAC system has: An air-side economizer, or Automatic modulating control of outdoor air damper, or Design outdoor airflow > 3,000 cfm Demand control ventilation (DCV): ventilation system capability that provides for automatic reduction of outdoor air intake below design rates when actual occupancy of spaces served by system is less than design occupancy Building Mechanical Systems

61 : Duct and Plenum Insulation and Sealing 2005 CBES (Also 2009 IECC): Minimum R-5 (unconditioned space) and R-8 (outside building) 2011 CBES : All supply and return ducts located in unconditioned spaces shall be insulated to meet same R- value requirement that applies to immediately proximal surfaces. Context: Altered to align with RBES Public comments raised to address this language Clarify Feasibility Building Mechanical Systems

62 : Systems Performance Verification and Completion 1.Buildings 50,000 SF 2.Requirements for independent, third-party commissioning agents to perform basic functional testing to verify efficient as-designed operation of systems specified in other parts of code, limited to: a. Economizers b. VAV fan control c. Part-load hydronic controls 3.Prescriptive testing requirements FAIL Building Mechanical Systems

63 Systems Performance Verification and Completion (Continued) Context IECC dedicates separate chapter to commissioning (Cx) requirements 2.Cx for buildings > 50K ft 2 as starting point for code requirements 3.Current proposal provides testing ground for future Cx requirements in VT, utilizing only large buildings 4.Feedback from use of 2012 IECC and VT requirements will be helpful for next update of VT code 5.Performance verification should ensure systems comply with code intent and operating at maximum energy efficiency 6.Performance verification improves building performance, hopefully reduces contractor call-backs, issues Building Mechanical Systems

64 63 Revised Economizers and Economizers (Complex HVAC Systems) 1.Economizers required on all systems 54,000 Btu / h (2005 CBES 65,000 Btu/h) 2.Defined allowable economizer sequences to align w/ASHRAE Clarified section using improved language from 2012 IECC proposals a. Design Capacity b. Maximum Pressure Drop c. Integrated Economizer Control Context 1.Matches 2009 IECC capacity threshold 2.Need to clarify 2005 VT CBES and Economizer sections in 2009 IECC vague 3.National IECC code also using these changes to align w/ ASHRAE 90.1 Building Mechanical Systems

65 VAV Fan Control / Hydronic Systems Controls / Added: Static Pressure Sensor Location language 2. Revised: Hydronic variable flow systems language 3. Added: Chilled and Hot Water Temperature Controls Context 1.Language not in 2009 IECC but existed in ASHRAE Language taken from Language taken from Building Mechanical Systems


67 66 Service Water Heating Electrical Water Heating Limitation Added: Electric service water heating units shall be limited to a maximum of 5 kW total power input Context: Carried over from 2005 VT CBESES Yes, that is David Hasselhoff


69 Major changes to electrical power / lighting due to 2009 IECC Adds high-efficacy lighting requirement for dwelling units Requires separate controls for daylight zones Allows for use of photocell in tandem with other controls on certain exterior lighting applications Adds exempted lighting applications that can be excluded from total connected interior lighting power calculations Revises additional lighting power allowance calculations for retail areas Creates four exterior lighting zones based on lighting need 68 Electrical Power and Lighting

70 69 Interior Lighting Power Allowances 1.Building Area Method and Space by space Method included 2.LPD values taken from proposed 2012 IECC values Context VT CBES contained both methods but 2009 IECC still only used Building Area Method a IECC will have both methods VT CBES values identical to 2009 IECC a IECC values include revised categories, higher efficiency for certain categories, and scaled back values for others b VT CBES will be aligned with 2012 IECC and ASHRAE Electrical Power and Lighting

71 70 Interior Lighting Power Allowances Changes to Building Area Method Spaces All others unchanged from 2005 CBES Some changes in space-by-space types: Revised categories, higher efficiency for certain categories, and scaled back values for others 2005 CBES 2009 IECC2011 CBES Office Retail Fire Station Warehouse Electrical Power and Lighting

72 71 Motors and Transformers 1.Added NEMA efficiency tables for motors 2.Added NEMA efficiency tables for transformers Context 1.VT CBES included these. Maintained in 2011 VT CBES. Motor tables are included in ASHRAE VT CBES included these. Maintained in 2011 VT CBES. Electrical Power and Lighting

73 72 Questions?

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