3 Diesel in the Southeast -Where are diesel emissions concentrated in our region? Note urban areas and transportation corridors.
4 Air Quality in Region 4 Air quality concerns: - 70 Counties have monitors reading above the hr ozone of .075 ppm, population ~16 million people- 47 Counties not attaining PM2.5 standard, population ~8 million peopleOzone standard in AugustAnnual PM2.5 standard in November 2010Two pollutants of concern, diesel-wise: oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and fine particulate matter (PM)-NOx can lead to the formation of ground-level ozone/smog, and irritates the respiratory system-PM aggravates the respiratory system, and can cause a number of other health complications, including cancer and premature deathAmerican Lung Association data 2003-almost every R4 state has childhood asthma rates above the national average-sensitive populations (kids, elderly, existing respiratory diseases) especially at risk-many successes to date-but lots of work left to do-environmental effects too: particles contribute to formation of ozone, acid rain and haze
5 Why Reduce Diesel Emissions? Public Health concerns:Premature deathDiesel exhaust identified as an asthma trigger and a carcinogenOther respiratory system effectsEPA estimates that every $1 spent on clean diesel projects produces up to $13 of public health benefitsIdentified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an asthma trigger. Annually about 204,000 adults and 77,000 children suffer from asthma in South Carolina. Asthma and related conditions were the leading cause of children’s hospitalizations in 2000, with over 5000 hospital admissions. In 2000, the South Carolina Medicaid program expended more than $4.5 million for claims due to asthma diagnosis for children between 2 and 18 years old.
6 Why Reduce Diesel Emissions? Cont’d Children’s lungs still developing – more susceptible than healthy adults to exposure.Children breath 50% more air per pound of body weight than adults.Identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an asthma trigger. Annually about 204,000 adults and 77,000 children suffer from asthma in South Carolina. Asthma and related conditions were the leading cause of children’s hospitalizations in 2000, with over 5000 hospital admissions. In 2000, the South Carolina Medicaid program expended more than $4.5 million for claims due to asthma diagnosis for children between 2 and 18 years old.
7 Why Reduce Diesel Emissions? Cont’d High NOx emissions – critical to reduce to help meet tighter ozone standards.Large contributor to PM pollution - reductions will help to meet standards.Also Air ToxicsThese emissions can damage plants, animals, crops, and water resources.
8 Southeast Diesel Collaborative Public-private partnership to address the impacts of diesel engines and fuel use in the Southeast.Leverage resources to maximize benefitsLimit duplication of effortPool intellectual capital-Given the national clean diesel program, regional offices are using their resources to implement the sector-based strategy on a smaller scale
9 Collaborative Partners GovernmentFederal, State and local air quality, transportation, energy and agriculture agenciesIndustry representativesNon-governmental organizations (e.g., ALA, environmental orgs, community groups, academia, etc.)
10 SEDC Sector Strategy Public Fleets Non-Road Freight Ports to be addressed as opportunities ariseConstruction: Encourages reducing emissions from major public and private construction projects in non-attainment areasAgriculture: Promotes biofuels/renewables & retrofit in farming communitiesin non-attainment areas through collaborative partnershipCSB USA: Aims to modernize 100% of the nation’s school bus fleet by 2010Smartway: Challenges freight companies to improve the environmentalperformance of their fleetsWe chose sectors based on:Levels of emissionsPublic health impactsNon-attainment zonesProximity to sensitive populationsCost-effectiveness of reduction strategiesTimely opportunitiese.g. Expansion of ports and major road constructionSupport from stakeholders and the public
11 Non-Road Pilot projects Non-road retrofits can be some of the most cost effectiveContract languageEngage private sector in discussions, lots of interest here.There are roughly 2 million engines in the construction fleetConstruction equipment generated more than 30 percent of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM10) of all land-based, nonroad sources in 2005Nonroad retrofits can be some of the most cost effectiveFor example, a typical bulldozer emits as much particulate matter as 500 cars-Initially, we plan to target public entities (grants are easier, established relationships, etc)-Want to implement visible, replicable and innovative pilot projects to demonstrate the technology-NYC has LL 77 in place to require city-owned and contracted vehicles to be retrofitted with BAT-Want to get a sense of the private sector’s interest level and commitment to these types of programsFocus Area Goal: Secure funding to establish retrofit projects, work with DOTs to create contract provision language
12 For example, a 175 horsepower bulldozer emits as much particulate matter (PM) as 500 new cars. Retrofitted with a DPF – 50 new cars (~90% reduction)
14 National Clean Diesel Campaign (NCDC) EPA offers many strategies and programs to help make these engines cleaner, as well as funding to build diesel emission reduction programs that improve air quality and protect public health.To assist fleet owners, Congress authorized funding for clean diesel activities in the Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) as part of the 2005 Energy Policy Act.
15 Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) 2 Main Components:National Clean Diesel Program- 3 Components: Funding Assistance Program, Emerging Technologies, and Innovative Finance Program (http://www.epa.gov/cleandiesel/grantfund.htm)State Clean Diesel Grant Program- Funds are distributed directly to the States to establish their own diesel emissions reduction programs. (DHEC)
17 Why Target the Legacy Fleet? As a result of EPA regulations, diesel engines manufactured today are cleaner than ever.Although more stringent emissions standards are taking effect for on road and off road engines the “Legacy Fleet” is still in circulation.These engines will continue to emit large amounts of pollutants for years to come having negative public health impacts as well as affecting many areas in our state and their ability to stay in attainment with National Ambient Air Quality Standards.
18 Eligible Entities Private Organizations Universities Businesses County, City, or other local government
19 Project Possibilities Eligible Fleets and Equipment:Buses, medium-duty or heavy-duty trucksMarine engines or locomotivesOff-road engines or vehicles used in construction, agriculture, mining, handling of cargo, or energy production (ex: generator sets)
21 State DERA ProgramDHEC has received over $2 million in funding from EPA, which has been leveraged to over $3 million to reduce emissions from on-road, non-road, marine and stationary diesel engines.Projects include retrofits, engine replacements or repowers, idle reduction, or use of cleaner fuels.Estimated reductions of 2000 tons of NOx and 78 tons of PM over the lifetime of the equipment from DHEC specific funding.
22 DERA (cont’d)Majority of funding awarded via competitive grant process; some targeted projects.Funding has been distributed to SC Public Railways, SC Trucking Assn., SC Dept. of Ed., SC Forestry, USC, SRS, Vulcan, CMC Steel, Bowers Nursery, Sutton Const., Carolina Contracting, Hanson Aggregates, Moran Towing, Blythewood High School, Charleston Co. School District, Greenville, Anderson, Lexington and Spartanburg Counties, the cities of Charleston and Columbia
23 Selection Criteria Awards based on: Matching/In-kind fundsExpected benefits (emissions reductions)Cost-effectiveness (emissions vs. cost of implementation)Location of the planned projectSustainability and innovation
24 Currently…We just received our FY09 allocation and have ~$300,000 available for projectsWe will receive our FY10 allocation later this Fall. ~$300,000 available for projectsTracking and Monitoring FY08 grants and 09 ARRA DERA grants- for updates
26 Statewide Clean Diesel Efforts Over $11 million worth of projects are being implemented in SC using $6.2 million of federal funding from Clean School Bus USA and Diesel Emission Reduction Act (DERA) funding and $4.8 million in participant matching funds.SC Dept. of Education & SC State Ports Authority received funding via EPA Region 4 grant process in 2009.SC SPA has received 2 grants (08 and 09) totaling $2.75 million and has leveraged the projects to total over $5 million.SC Dept. of Education received a grant for $500,000 and leveraged the project to total $800,000
27 Statewide Clean Diesel Efforts (cont’d) SC Dept of Education received Clean School Bus USA grants in 2005 and 2007 for $499,000 and $244,500 respectively and leveraged the projects to total approximately $750,000 and $500,000 respectively.These projects included engine retrofits and idle reduction technologies on school buses.
28 Statewide Clean Diesel Efforts (cont’d) SC also received 4 grants from the Grade+ Program through funding from Mecklenburg County, NC, who received an ARRA DERA grant.York County, Chester County, Lake Wylie Marina, and Ideal Logging, Inc.These were repower and replacement projects totaling over $222,000 and were leveraged to total over $790,000.
30 South Carolina Clean School Bus USA One of the largest school bus retrofit programs in the country$2M: several projects totaling almost 2000 school bus retrofitsUsed Department of Education leadership to leverage biodiesel for other state agenciesWe’ve been very active with the Clean School bus USA program and again have been able to leverage our small EPA funds in to larger projects.We’re are particularly proud of two efforts. The first is that Georgia was able to use our CSBUSA grant to leverage over $1 million in CMAQ funding to help fund other ULSD efforts in the region. Now all 13 nonattainment county school fleets will be operating on ULSD and entire school year before the fuel is required.The other key event is that one of initial grantees (under the diesel retrofit program) was the recipient of the 1st annual EPA Children’s Health Award. The Western North Carolina Air Qualtiy Agency has provided technical assistannce to people in evry Region 4 state.Again and example of leveraging the expertise.
31 Regulatory Strategy DONE DONE DONE Diesel engines in all mobile source applications-Regulations adopted; now focused on implementation:Rulemakings underway for:Current RegulationsVery large public health and environmental benefits will resultBy 2030, PM reduced by ~250,000 tons/year, NOx by ~4 million tons/yearHeavy-duty trucks & busesLight – duty VehiclesNonroad MachinesDONEDONEDONELoco-motivesMarine VesselsOcean-going Ships
32 Reconciling Diesels with the Environment: EPA’s National Clean Diesel Campaign Tier 2 Light-Dutyfinal rule 1999fully phased in 2009Diesels held to same stringent standards as gasoline vehiclesHeavy-DutyHighwaysales 800,000 / yr40B gallons / yrfinal rule 2000fully phased in 2010Locomotive/Marinesales 40,000 (1,000 locomotives) / yr6B gallons / yrfinal rule 2008fully phased in 2017Nonroad Dieselsales over 650,000 / yr12B gallons / yrfinal rule 2004fully phased in 2015
33 Marine RegulationsIn March 2008, EPA finalized a 3 part program that will dramatically reduce emissions from marine diesel engines below 30 liters per cylinder displacement.-includes recreational and small fishing boats to towboats, tugboats and Great Lake freighters, and marine auxiliary engines ranging from small generator sets to large generator sets on ocean-going vessels.)-PM emissions reduced by as much as 90 percent and NOx emissions by as much as 80 percent when fully implemented.Part 1: 1st ever national emission standards for existing marine diesel engines, applying to engines larger than 600kW when they are remanufactured – effective 2008.Part 2: Tier 3 emissions standards for newly-built engines - phase in began in 2009.Part 3: Tier 4 standards for newly-built commercial marine diesel engines above 600kW - phasing in beginning in 2014.
34 Nonroad Diesel Rule Health Benefits premature deaths12,000nonfatalheart attacks15,000ER visits bykids w/ asthma6,000hospitaladmissions8,9001 millionThese are estimates for because we all know that diesels last forever and turnover is slow….-Even with more stringent standards set to take effect millions of in-use engines will continue to emit large amounts of pollutionPollution will continue to contribute to numerous instances of premature mortality, asthma attacks, lost work days and many other health impacts-To deal with this issue, EPA is promoting the VOLUNTARY Diesel Retrofit Programlost work days10,00020,000# prevented annually (in 2030)$80B annual benefits vs. $2B cost (in 2030)
35 Mobile Source Diesel Emissions Inventory by Sector (2004) NOx(6.3 million tons)PM 2.5(305,000 tons)freight32%transit0%school bus2%other highway3%ports5%other nonroad9%non-port marineagriculture19%construction21%freight56%ports4%school bus1%transitagriculture8%construction11%non-port marine13%other nonroadother highway3%
36 What is a Retrofit Technology? Retrofit technology can be: any change to an engine system above and beyond what is required by EPA regulations that improves the engine’s emission performance:Catalyst or filterEngine upgrade/repowerEarly engine replacementUse of cleaner fuels or additivesIdling control equipmentCombination of aboveThe NCDC promotes innovative strategies that improves a particular fleet’s environmental performanceNCDC’s website maintains a list of manufacturers and verified technology
37 Technology Verification EPA has a rigorous testing program for evaluating technologiesEPA works with technology vendors, engine manufacturers, MECAMemorandum of Agreement between EPA and CARBRetrofit technologies to reduce PM and NOx emissions currently verified by EPA & CARB:DPFs, DOCs, Crankcase Filtration, Emulsified Fuel, Biodiesel, EGR and SCR systems.Information about EPA’s Verification program:
38 Cost Estimates for PM Reduction Measures Cost per Measure% Reduction in PM EmissionsDiesel Oxidation Catalyst$500 - $2,00020-40%Particulate Matter Filter$5,000 - $10,00060-90%Crankcase Filtration (school buses)$500 - $1,0005-10%Idle Reduction (drayage trucks)$02%Direct Fired Heater (freight trucks)$1,0005%Clean Fuels: ULSD, CNG, Biodiesel (B20/B100), Emulsified Diesel FuelvariesTalk about cost effectiveness of retrofits
39 Technology Effectiveness Typical test filter – current standardsTest filter – Tier 4 PM standardsUnused test filter
40 In Conclusion Need exists to reduce non-road diesel emissions Good position to leverage existing successes to expand effortsRegion-wide network and technical resources already exist that can be utilized to achieve significant results in a timely mannerKeep working together to build on past successes
41 Contacts: www.scdhec.gov/dera Brian Barnes Adam Page Phone: (803)Adam PagePhone: (803)Lisa ClarkPhone: (803)
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