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DERA - Reducing Diesel Emissions

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Presentation on theme: "DERA - Reducing Diesel Emissions"— Presentation transcript:

1 DERA - Reducing Diesel Emissions
Adam Page SC DHEC – Bureau of Air Quality July 28, 2010

2 Need for Emissions Reductions

3 Diesel in the Southeast
-Where are diesel emissions concentrated in our region? Note urban areas and transportation corridors.

4 Air Quality in Region 4 Air quality concerns:
- 70 Counties have monitors reading above the hr ozone of .075 ppm, population ~16 million people - 47 Counties not attaining PM2.5 standard, population ~8 million people Ozone standard in August Annual PM2.5 standard in November 2010 Two pollutants of concern, diesel-wise: oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and fine particulate matter (PM) -NOx can lead to the formation of ground-level ozone/smog, and irritates the respiratory system -PM aggravates the respiratory system, and can cause a number of other health complications, including cancer and premature death American Lung Association data 2003 -almost every R4 state has childhood asthma rates above the national average -sensitive populations (kids, elderly, existing respiratory diseases) especially at risk -many successes to date -but lots of work left to do -environmental effects too: particles contribute to formation of ozone, acid rain and haze

5 Why Reduce Diesel Emissions?
Public Health concerns: Premature death Diesel exhaust identified as an asthma trigger and a carcinogen Other respiratory system effects EPA estimates that every $1 spent on clean diesel projects produces up to $13 of public health benefits Identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an asthma trigger. Annually about 204,000 adults and 77,000 children suffer from asthma in South Carolina. Asthma and related conditions were the leading cause of children’s hospitalizations in 2000, with over 5000 hospital admissions. In 2000, the South Carolina Medicaid program expended more than $4.5 million for claims due to asthma diagnosis for children between 2 and 18 years old.

6 Why Reduce Diesel Emissions? Cont’d
Children’s lungs still developing – more susceptible than healthy adults to exposure. Children breath 50% more air per pound of body weight than adults. Identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as an asthma trigger. Annually about 204,000 adults and 77,000 children suffer from asthma in South Carolina. Asthma and related conditions were the leading cause of children’s hospitalizations in 2000, with over 5000 hospital admissions. In 2000, the South Carolina Medicaid program expended more than $4.5 million for claims due to asthma diagnosis for children between 2 and 18 years old.

7 Why Reduce Diesel Emissions? Cont’d
High NOx emissions – critical to reduce to help meet tighter ozone standards. Large contributor to PM pollution - reductions will help to meet standards. Also Air Toxics These emissions can damage plants, animals, crops, and water resources.

8 Southeast Diesel Collaborative
Public-private partnership to address the impacts of diesel engines and fuel use in the Southeast. Leverage resources to maximize benefits Limit duplication of effort Pool intellectual capital -Given the national clean diesel program, regional offices are using their resources to implement the sector-based strategy on a smaller scale

9 Collaborative Partners
Government Federal, State and local air quality, transportation, energy and agriculture agencies Industry representatives Non-governmental organizations (e.g., ALA, environmental orgs, community groups, academia, etc.)

10 SEDC Sector Strategy Public Fleets Non-Road Freight
Ports to be addressed as opportunities arise Construction: Encourages reducing emissions from major public and private construction projects in non-attainment areas Agriculture: Promotes biofuels/renewables & retrofit in farming communities in non-attainment areas through collaborative partnership CSB USA: Aims to modernize 100% of the nation’s school bus fleet by 2010 Smartway: Challenges freight companies to improve the environmental performance of their fleets We chose sectors based on: Levels of emissions Public health impacts Non-attainment zones Proximity to sensitive populations Cost-effectiveness of reduction strategies Timely opportunities e.g. Expansion of ports and major road construction Support from stakeholders and the public

11 Non-Road Pilot projects
Non-road retrofits can be some of the most cost effective Contract language Engage private sector in discussions, lots of interest here. There are roughly 2 million engines in the construction fleet Construction equipment generated more than 30 percent of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and particulate matter (PM10) of all land-based, nonroad sources in 2005 Nonroad retrofits can be some of the most cost effective For example, a typical bulldozer emits as much particulate matter as 500 cars -Initially, we plan to target public entities (grants are easier, established relationships, etc) -Want to implement visible, replicable and innovative pilot projects to demonstrate the technology -NYC has LL 77 in place to require city-owned and contracted vehicles to be retrofitted with BAT -Want to get a sense of the private sector’s interest level and commitment to these types of programs Focus Area Goal: Secure funding to establish retrofit projects, work with DOTs to create contract provision language

12 For example, a 175 horsepower bulldozer emits as much particulate matter (PM) as 500 new cars.
Retrofitted with a DPF – 50 new cars (~90% reduction)

13 Funding Opportunities…

14 National Clean Diesel Campaign (NCDC)
EPA offers many strategies and programs to help make these engines cleaner, as well as funding to build diesel emission reduction programs that improve air quality and protect public health. To assist fleet owners, Congress authorized funding for clean diesel activities in the Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA) as part of the 2005 Energy Policy Act.

15 Diesel Emissions Reduction Act (DERA)
2 Main Components: National Clean Diesel Program - 3 Components: Funding Assistance Program, Emerging Technologies, and Innovative Finance Program ( State Clean Diesel Grant Program - Funds are distributed directly to the States to establish their own diesel emissions reduction programs. (DHEC)

16 Legacy Fleet = Target

17 Why Target the Legacy Fleet?
As a result of EPA regulations, diesel engines manufactured today are cleaner than ever. Although more stringent emissions standards are taking effect for on road and off road engines the “Legacy Fleet” is still in circulation. These engines will continue to emit large amounts of pollutants for years to come having negative public health impacts as well as affecting many areas in our state and their ability to stay in attainment with National Ambient Air Quality Standards.

18 Eligible Entities Private Organizations Universities Businesses
County, City, or other local government

19 Project Possibilities
Eligible Fleets and Equipment: Buses, medium-duty or heavy-duty trucks Marine engines or locomotives Off-road engines or vehicles used in construction, agriculture, mining, handling of cargo, or energy production (ex: generator sets)

20 Project Possibilities (cont’d)
Eligible Projects include: Retrofit technologies ( Engine repowers, rebuilds, or replacements Idle reduction technologies (APUs, Truck Stop Electrification… Emerging technologies ( Cleaner Fuels

21 State DERA Program DHEC has received over $2 million in funding from EPA, which has been leveraged to over $3 million to reduce emissions from on-road, non-road, marine and stationary diesel engines. Projects include retrofits, engine replacements or repowers, idle reduction, or use of cleaner fuels. Estimated reductions of 2000 tons of NOx and 78 tons of PM over the lifetime of the equipment from DHEC specific funding.

22 DERA (cont’d) Majority of funding awarded via competitive grant process; some targeted projects. Funding has been distributed to SC Public Railways, SC Trucking Assn., SC Dept. of Ed., SC Forestry, USC, SRS, Vulcan, CMC Steel, Bowers Nursery, Sutton Const., Carolina Contracting, Hanson Aggregates, Moran Towing, Blythewood High School, Charleston Co. School District, Greenville, Anderson, Lexington and Spartanburg Counties, the cities of Charleston and Columbia

23 Selection Criteria Awards based on:
Matching/In-kind funds Expected benefits (emissions reductions) Cost-effectiveness (emissions vs. cost of implementation) Location of the planned project Sustainability and innovation

24 Currently… We just received our FY09 allocation and have ~$300,000 available for projects We will receive our FY10 allocation later this Fall. ~$300,000 available for projects Tracking and Monitoring FY08 grants and 09 ARRA DERA grants - for updates

25 Statewide Clean Diesel Efforts

26 Statewide Clean Diesel Efforts
Over $11 million worth of projects are being implemented in SC using $6.2 million of federal funding from Clean School Bus USA and Diesel Emission Reduction Act (DERA) funding and $4.8 million in participant matching funds. SC Dept. of Education & SC State Ports Authority received funding via EPA Region 4 grant process in 2009. SC SPA has received 2 grants (08 and 09) totaling $2.75 million and has leveraged the projects to total over $5 million. SC Dept. of Education received a grant for $500,000 and leveraged the project to total $800,000

27 Statewide Clean Diesel Efforts (cont’d)
SC Dept of Education received Clean School Bus USA grants in 2005 and 2007 for $499,000 and $244,500 respectively and leveraged the projects to total approximately $750,000 and $500,000 respectively. These projects included engine retrofits and idle reduction technologies on school buses.

28 Statewide Clean Diesel Efforts (cont’d)
SC also received 4 grants from the Grade+ Program through funding from Mecklenburg County, NC, who received an ARRA DERA grant. York County, Chester County, Lake Wylie Marina, and Ideal Logging, Inc. These were repower and replacement projects totaling over $222,000 and were leveraged to total over $790,000.


30 South Carolina Clean School Bus USA
One of the largest school bus retrofit programs in the country $2M: several projects totaling almost 2000 school bus retrofits Used Department of Education leadership to leverage biodiesel for other state agencies We’ve been very active with the Clean School bus USA program and again have been able to leverage our small EPA funds in to larger projects. We’re are particularly proud of two efforts. The first is that Georgia was able to use our CSBUSA grant to leverage over $1 million in CMAQ funding to help fund other ULSD efforts in the region. Now all 13 nonattainment county school fleets will be operating on ULSD and entire school year before the fuel is required. The other key event is that one of initial grantees (under the diesel retrofit program) was the recipient of the 1st annual EPA Children’s Health Award. The Western North Carolina Air Qualtiy Agency has provided technical assistannce to people in evry Region 4 state. Again and example of leveraging the expertise.

31 Regulatory Strategy DONE DONE DONE
Diesel engines in all mobile source applications- Regulations adopted; now focused on implementation: Rulemakings underway for: Current Regulations Very large public health and environmental benefits will result By 2030, PM reduced by ~250,000 tons/year, NOx by ~4 million tons/year Heavy-duty trucks & buses Light – duty Vehicles Nonroad Machines DONE DONE DONE Loco-motives Marine Vessels Ocean-going Ships

32 Reconciling Diesels with the Environment: EPA’s National Clean Diesel Campaign
Tier 2 Light-Duty final rule 1999 fully phased in 2009 Diesels held to same stringent standards as gasoline vehicles Heavy-Duty Highway sales 800,000 / yr 40B gallons / yr final rule 2000 fully phased in 2010 Locomotive/Marine sales 40,000 (1,000 locomotives) / yr 6B gallons / yr final rule 2008 fully phased in 2017 Nonroad Diesel sales over 650,000 / yr 12B gallons / yr final rule 2004 fully phased in 2015

33 Marine Regulations In March 2008, EPA finalized a 3 part program that will dramatically reduce emissions from marine diesel engines below 30 liters per cylinder displacement. -includes recreational and small fishing boats to towboats, tugboats and Great Lake freighters, and marine auxiliary engines ranging from small generator sets to large generator sets on ocean-going vessels.) -PM emissions reduced by as much as 90 percent and NOx emissions by as much as 80 percent when fully implemented. Part 1: 1st ever national emission standards for existing marine diesel engines, applying to engines larger than 600kW when they are remanufactured – effective 2008. Part 2: Tier 3 emissions standards for newly-built engines - phase in began in 2009. Part 3: Tier 4 standards for newly-built commercial marine diesel engines above 600kW - phasing in beginning in 2014.

34 Nonroad Diesel Rule Health Benefits
premature deaths 12,000 nonfatal heart attacks 15,000 ER visits by kids w/ asthma 6,000 hospital admissions 8,900 1 million These are estimates for because we all know that diesels last forever and turnover is slow…. -Even with more stringent standards set to take effect millions of in-use engines will continue to emit large amounts of pollution Pollution will continue to contribute to numerous instances of premature mortality, asthma attacks, lost work days and many other health impacts -To deal with this issue, EPA is promoting the VOLUNTARY Diesel Retrofit Program lost work days 10,000 20,000 # prevented annually (in 2030) $80B annual benefits vs. $2B cost (in 2030)

35 Mobile Source Diesel Emissions Inventory by Sector (2004)
NOx (6.3 million tons) PM 2.5 (305,000 tons) freight 32% transit 0% school bus 2% other highway 3% ports 5% other nonroad 9% non-port marine agriculture 19% construction 21% freight 56% ports 4% school bus 1% transit agriculture 8% construction 11% non-port marine 13% other nonroad other highway 3%

36 What is a Retrofit Technology?
Retrofit technology can be: any change to an engine system above and beyond what is required by EPA regulations that improves the engine’s emission performance: Catalyst or filter Engine upgrade/repower Early engine replacement Use of cleaner fuels or additives Idling control equipment Combination of above The NCDC promotes innovative strategies that improves a particular fleet’s environmental performance NCDC’s website maintains a list of manufacturers and verified technology

37 Technology Verification
EPA has a rigorous testing program for evaluating technologies EPA works with technology vendors, engine manufacturers, MECA Memorandum of Agreement between EPA and CARB Retrofit technologies to reduce PM and NOx emissions currently verified by EPA & CARB: DPFs, DOCs, Crankcase Filtration, Emulsified Fuel, Biodiesel, EGR and SCR systems. Information about EPA’s Verification program:

38 Cost Estimates for PM Reduction Measures
Cost per Measure % Reduction in PM Emissions Diesel Oxidation Catalyst $500 - $2,000 20-40% Particulate Matter Filter $5,000 - $10,000 60-90% Crankcase Filtration (school buses) $500 - $1,000 5-10% Idle Reduction (drayage trucks) $0 2% Direct Fired Heater (freight trucks) $1,000 5% Clean Fuels: ULSD, CNG, Biodiesel (B20/B100), Emulsified Diesel Fuel varies Talk about cost effectiveness of retrofits

39 Technology Effectiveness
Typical test filter – current standards Test filter – Tier 4 PM standards Unused test filter

40 In Conclusion Need exists to reduce non-road diesel emissions
Good position to leverage existing successes to expand efforts Region-wide network and technical resources already exist that can be utilized to achieve significant results in a timely manner Keep working together to build on past successes

41 Contacts: Brian Barnes Adam Page
Phone: (803) Adam Page Phone: (803) Lisa Clark Phone: (803)

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