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A Guide to Selecting Ceramic Grades Dale R. Hill Applications Engineer GREENLEAF CORPORATION Saegertown, PA.

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Presentation on theme: "A Guide to Selecting Ceramic Grades Dale R. Hill Applications Engineer GREENLEAF CORPORATION Saegertown, PA."— Presentation transcript:

1 A Guide to Selecting Ceramic Grades Dale R. Hill Applications Engineer GREENLEAF CORPORATION Saegertown, PA

2 Work Materials Nickel-Based Alloys Inconel Waspaloy Hastelloy Cobalt-Based Alloys Stellite Haynes Alloys Weld Overlays 400 and PH Series Stainless Steels (post heat treat) Hardened Steels (45 – 65 R/c) Nodular and Chrome Irons Powdered Metals Selecting Ceramic Grades

3 Ceramic Tool Materials Alumina Oxide (White Ceramic) Alumina Oxide + TiC (Black Ceramic) Alumina Oxide + SiC (Whiskered) Silicon Nitride - Sialon Selecting Ceramic Grades

4 Tool Application Alumina Oxide + SiC (Whiskered) – All Materials Alumina Oxide (White Ceramic) – Gray Cast Iron Alumina Oxide + TiC (Black Ceramic) – Hardened Steels and Irons Selecting Ceramic Grades

5 Focus Materials Nickel-Based Alloys Inconel Waspaloy Hastelloy Cobalt-Based Alloys Stellite Haynes Alloys 400 and PH Series Stainless Steels (post heat treat) Selecting Ceramic Grades

6 First Choice… Alumina Oxide + SiC Whiskers Greenleaf ® Grades WG-300 - WG-600 - WG-700 High Cutting Speed Resists Catastrophic Failure Predictable Performance Selecting Ceramic Grades

7 The fracture toughness of WG ceramics is enhanced by the phenomenon of whisker pull-out. A close examination of the fracture surface at 3000x will reveal not only a clear indication of the whiskers randomly dispersed throughout the matrix, but also the obvious hexagonal holes where whiskers have actually been pulled out in the fracture process. A large amount on energy is required to pull the whiskers out. This greatly enhances the fracture toughness and thereby the high predictability of the inserts. The fracture toughness of WG ceramics is enhanced by the phenomenon of whisker pull-out. A close examination of the fracture surface at 3000x will reveal not only a clear indication of the whiskers randomly dispersed throughout the matrix, but also the obvious hexagonal holes where whiskers have actually been pulled out in the fracture process. A large amount on energy is required to pull the whiskers out. This greatly enhances the fracture toughness and thereby the high predictability of the inserts. Selecting Ceramic Grades

8 Focus Materials Hardened Steels and Irons (45 – 65 R/c) Weld Overlays Focus Materials Hardened Steels and Irons (45 – 65 R/c) Weld Overlays Selecting Ceramic Grades

9 Machining Hardened Materials with Greenleaf ® Ceramic Inserts WG Ceramics can be successfully applied to the machining of materials other than nickel alloys. Some application areas include hardened alloy steels, hard irons, die and mold steels, and hard weld overlays. Common materials include : 4150, 52100, D2, A2, H13 Steels Chilled Cast Iron, White Iron, Ni-hard, 400 Series Stainless, Weld Overlay Selecting Ceramic Grades

10 In addition to WG-300, WG-600 & WG-700, Greenleafs GEM-7 composite ceramic has an important place in the machining of hard materials. WG Ceramics & GEM-7 can be cost effective alternatives to CBN in the heavy roll turning, and die & mold industries. GEM-7: Hot pressed Al 2 O 3 + TiC, is used primarily for turning steels and irons above 32 Rc. It offers high wear resistance and moderate strength. GEM-7 can also be used on heat-resist alloys for light finishing work. GEM-19: Cold pressed and sintered Al 2 0 3 offers high abrasion wear resistance. It is best applied in grooving operations on gray cast irons. Selecting Ceramic Grades

11 C-CDH42 T4B GEM-7 – 400 SFPM,.012 IPR @.150 DOC (120 m/min, 0,3 mm/rev @ 3,8 mm DOC) Forged Steel @ 55 Hr/c Selecting Ceramic Grades

12 DESIGNATIONAPPLICATION AREA AFor light finishing and grooving, also added to some negative lands BUsed in addition to heavy machining chamfers and lands T2AFor scale cuts, light interruptions, weld overlays, turning and milling of hardened materials T4BHeavy machining inserts under ¾ IC (19mm), Roll turning,4V, CDH22, CDH33 T5BHeavy machining inserts over ¾ IC (19mm), Roll turning, LNMNs, SNGN 866s T7ASimilar application to T2A, use in heavier feed areas T10BHeavy machining inserts over ¾ IC (19mm), Roll turning in Severe Conditons, CDH43, CDH53 Edge Prep for Heavy Machining Selecting Ceramic Grades

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14 GEM-19 is best used on work material less than 35 Rc, while GEM-7 works best on work materials above 35 Rc.

15 C-CDH515 T4B GEM-7 – 300 SFPM,.006 IPR @.125 DOC (91 m/min, 0,15 mm/rev @ 3,2 mm DOC) Forged Steel @ 62 Hr/c Selecting Ceramic Grades

16 C-CDH515 T4B GEM-7 – 300 SFPM,.006 IPR @.125 DOC (91 m/min, 0,15 mm/rev @ 3,2 mm DOC) Forged Steel @ 62 Hr/c Selecting Ceramic Grades

17 Milling with Ceramic Tools Focus – Hardened Materials Milling with Ceramic Tools Focus – Hardened Materials Selecting Ceramic Grades

18 Recommended Grade Choice… Alumina Oxide + Sic (Whiskers) Greenleaf Grade WG-300 & WG-600 Selecting Ceramic Grades Milling Hardened Materials

19 C-4 Series Ceramic Milling Cutters Excelerator ® Milling System Greenleaf C4, CP4 and Excelerator milling cutters are designed for high RPM applications. Selecting Ceramic Grades Available in Inch or Metric diameters from 3/8 inch (10mm) to 12 (305mm).

20 Selecting Ceramic Grades Greenleaf s Excelerator Ball End Mill offers the ability to use ceramic or carbide inserts in the same cutter body. Available in Inch or Metric Diameters….375 -.500 -.625 -.750 & 1.0 10mm - 12mm - 16mm - 20mm & 25mm Greenleaf s Excelerator Ball End Mill offers the ability to use ceramic or carbide inserts in the same cutter body. Available in Inch or Metric Diameters….375 -.500 -.625 -.750 & 1.0 10mm - 12mm - 16mm - 20mm & 25mm

21 T2A.006 -.008 (0,15mm x 0,2mm) wide Negative Land plus a.0005 -.001 (0,01mm – 0,02mm) Hone Greenleaf ® Standard Edge Preps T1A.002 -.004 (0,05mm x 0,1mm) wide Negative Land plus a.0005 -.001 (0,01mm – 0,02mm) Hone Selecting Ceramic Grades NOTE – Ceramic Ball End Mill Inserts are A Hone only!

22 C404 Cutter w / RNGN45 T2A WG-300 -- 850 SFPM,.004 IPT @.07 DOC (260 m/min, 0,1 mm/tooth @ 1,78 mm DOC) P20 Tool Steel @ 55 Hr/c Selecting Ceramic Grades

23 WOC Programmed feed per tooth is affected by chip thinning in two directions. Axial Chip Thinning - Depth of Cut (DOC) Radial Chip Thinning - Width of Cut (WOC) DOC Selecting Ceramic Grades

24 As the depth of cut is reduced the lead angle is increased on a round insert. This will create a thinner chip, which should be compensated for by increasing the feed rate. The lead angle of a round insert is variable based on the depth of cut. Selecting Ceramic Grades

25 100 % Chip Load 90 o Lead Chip thickness is factored by the width & depth of cut, and further reduced by the lead angle. Selecting Ceramic Grades 45 o Lead 70 % Chip Load The lead angle affects a square insert by spreading the chip out over a longer surface.

26 Maximum insert life can be achieved with a step-over width of 40 – 60%. As the width of cut decreases, you should increase feed to maintain acceptable average chip thickness. Width and depth of cut combined with feed rate control chip thickness. WOC Selecting Ceramic Grades

27 Internal and External Circular Interpolation Decrease Feed Increase Feed Selecting Ceramic Grades

28 The Excelerator Milling flyer has application data & tips for Hard Milling. Starting Speed, Feed and Depth of Cut are based on material hardness and insert size. Selecting Ceramic Grades

29 Classification of Greenleaf ® Ceramics Super Alloys Hardened Steel Machining Cast Iron Machining Oxide Ceramic (White) Al2O3 Black Ceramics Al2O3 + TiC Whisker Reinforced Ceramic Silicon Nitride GEM-19GEM-7 WG-300 WG-600 WG-700 GSN100 Sialon Ceramics SIALOX Selecting Ceramic Grades

30 Greenleaf ® ceramic inserts can be used in a variety of high productivity machining in a wide range of materials. The key to success is the proper application of the principles discussed in the WG-300 Application Guide. 1. Use a toolholder system designed for ceramic inserts. 2. Use the strongest insert shape possible. 3. Use the largest corner radius possible. 4. Use the correct edge preparation for the application. 5. Use the thickest inserts available for roughing. 6. Use toolholders and bars with the largest cross section. 7. Consider heavy metal or carbide bars whenever possible. 8. Keep toolholder overhang to a minimum. 10. Rethink the process Guidelines to Remember


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