2Mineral DefinitionA naturally occurring, inorganic solid that has a crystalline structure and a definite chemical composition.There are about 3,000 known mineralsOf that, 20 minerals make up most rocks
3A) Minerals are Naturally Occurring: That means that minerals must be found in nature…They aren’t man-made.Bricks, cement, steel and glass are man-made and are not minerals.
4B) Minerals are Inorganic: Minerals contain no carbon and cannot arise out of materials that was once a part of living things.Coal is not a mineral because it comes from the remains of living things.
5C) Minerals are Solid:Minerals have a definite volume and shape and are always a solid.
6D) Minerals Have a Crystalline Structure: The particles in a mineral have a pattern that repeats over and over to form a solid called a crystal.
7The Chemical Composition of Minerals: A mineral always contains certain elements in definite proportions.An element is a substance composed of a single kind of atom.All atoms of the same element have the same chemical and physical properties.
8continued Chemical Properties Almost all minerals are compounds, where two or more elements are combined to make a new substance.Some minerals are made up of compounds, and some minerals are made up of pure elements (or atoms of one kind).Elements such as copper, silver and gold are considered minerals.
9Physical Properties of Minerals (For Identifying Minerals) HardnessColorStreakLusterDensityCrystal SystemsCleavage and FracturesSpecial Properties
10Physical properties: 1. Hardness This is a mineral’s resistance to being scratched This should not be confused with brittleness. A diamond is very hard and will scratch a hammer but a hammer will smash a diamond.Mohs Scale is a scale from 1-10 that rates a mineral’s hardness. The scale goes from the softest minerals to the hardest, which is a diamond.
12Physical properties: 2. Color This is the color a mineral appears to the eye.It is not always reliable by itself, but can be used with other characteristics.
13Physical properties: 3. Streak The color of powder left when the mineral is scratched on an unglazed tile (this is the mineral’s true color)
14Physical properties: 4. Luster Luster describes a minerals appearance. Specifically, how light reflects from the mineral.1. Metallic shines like a metal2. Non-metallic has a glassy, earthy, or pearly appearance
15Here are Some Terms Used to Describe Luster Adamantine Transparent to translucent. Very brilliant and shiny. Example: diamond.Dull Very low reflectivity. Like unglazed pottery.Greasy Appears to be covered with grease.Metallic Reflective and opaque. Like metal. Example: pyrite.Pearly Similar to the inside of a sea shell.Pitchy Similar to tarResinous Similar to honey. Example: amberSilky Similar to silk cloth.Submetallic Reflective and nearly opaque. Splinters may be translucentVitreous Similar to glass. Example: quartz.Waxy Appears to be covered with wax.
16Physical properties: 5. Density Density is the mass per unit volumeWith minerals, we use the specific gravity (comparing a mineral’s density to the density of water, which is a ratio and includes no units)
22Physical properties: 8.Transparency Transparency describes how well light passes through a mineral sample. There are three degrees of transparency: transparent, translucent, and opaque.You can see objects through a transparent mineral.You can see light, but no objects through a translucent mineral.You can't see anything through an opaque mineral.
23Special Properties of Minerals Magnetism is a special property of some minerals, especially magnetite. Samples are attracted by a magnet. Lodestone, a special form of magnetite, is a magnet itself.Double refraction - Iceland spar, the transparent variety of calcite shows double refraction.
24Special Properties of Minerals Effervescence is a reaction to a weak acid if calcium carbonates are present.Electronics-grade manufactured quartz is used in a large number of circuits for consumer electronics products such as computers, cell phones, televisions, radios, and electronic games, to name just a few.
25Special Property: Fluorescence The light from ultraviolet lamps reacts with the chemicals of a mineral and causes the mineral to glow; this is called fluorescence.If the mineral continues to glow after the light has been removed, this is called phosphorescence
27CalciteCaCO3 (carbonate) Color: white, colorless, gray, red, brown, green, or black Streak: white to grayish Hardness: 3 Specific gravity: 2.71 Cleavage: perfect Fracture: subconchoidal Luster: vitreous, pearly, or dull Crystal form: trigonal/hexagonal Transparency: transparent to translucent Double refraction (You can see two images through a transparent piece of calcite.) Reacts in cool, weak hydrochloric acid. Calcite is the main mineral in limestone and forms in seawater or in the skeletons of living creatures.
28FeldsparSilicate (Different forms of feldspar include combinations of potassium, sodium, calcium, aluminum, silicon, and oxygen.) Color: white, reddish, colorless, yellow, gray, or green Streak: white Hardness: 6–6 1/2 Specific gravity: 2.55–2.63 Cleavage: perfect, right angles Fracture: uneven to conchoidal Luster: vitreous to pearly Crystal form: none Transparency: transparent to translucent Forms in many igneous and metamorphic rocks.
29FluoriteCaF2 (halide) Color: purple, green, colorless, white, yellow, pink, red, blue, or black Streak: white Hardness: 4 Specific gravity: 3.1–3.3 Cleavage: perfect octohedral Fracture: conchoidal Luster: vitreous Crystal form: cubic or octahedral Transparency: transparent or translucent Forms in hydrothermal veins and around hot springs
30GypsumCaSO4•2H2O (Hydrated sulfate) Color: colorless, white, gray, greenish, yellowish, brownish, or reddish Streak: white Hardness: 2 Specific gravity: 2.32 Cleavage: perfect Fracture: splintery, fibrous Luster: vitreous or pearly Crystal form: tabular or diamond-shaped (monoclinic) Transparency: transparent to opaque Forms by evaporation around hot springs and in beds of clay
31HornblendeA combination of calcium, magnesium, iron, aluminum, silicon, and oxygen (silicate) Color: usually black, can be green or greenish brown Streak: white Hardness: 5–6 Specific Gravity: 3.28–3.41 Cleavage: perfect (rhombic) Fracture: uneven Luster: silky to glassy Crystal form: monoclinic Transparency: transparent to opaque Forms in igneous and metamorphic rocks
32CopperCu (native element) Color: copper red or pale rose red Streak: copper red Hardness: 2 1/2–3 Specific gravity: 8.9 Cleavage: none Fracture: jagged Luster: metallic Crystal form: cubic (but rare), usually forms dendritic or branching pattern Transparency: opaque Forms in basic volcanic rocks, and in the oxygen-poor environments where sulfide minerals are deposited
33PyriteFeS2 (sulfide) Color: pale yellow Streak: greenish black Hardness: 6–6 1/2 Specific gravity: 5.0 Cleavage: indistinct Fracture: conchoidal to uneven Luster: metallic Crystal form: cubic, crystal faces, often striated Transparency: opaque Gives off sparks when struck with a hard metal object. Found in igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks as an accessory mineral. May be found in hydrothermal veins. Also known as fool's gold
34HematiteFe2O3 (oxide) Color: brownish, bright red, blood red, brownish red, steel gray, or iron black Streak: brownish red Hardness: 5–6 Specific gravity: 5.26 Cleavage: none Fracture: uneven to subconchoidal Luster: metallic to dull Crystal form: trigonal/hexagonal Transparency: opaque Forms from hydrothermal fluid, sometimes replacing other minerals. May also form in igneous rocks
35BiotiteComposed of potassium magnesium, iron, aluminum, iron, silicon, oxygen (silicate) Color: black, dark brown, reddish brown, green, or very rarely white Streak: colorless Hardness: 2 1/2–4 Specific gravity: 2.7–3.4 Cleavage: perfect basal (pulls apart in thin sheets) Fracture: uneven Luster: vitreous Crystal form: monoclinic Transparency: transparent to nearly opaque Forms in both igneous and metamorphic rocks
36MagnetiteIron oxide (Fe3O4) Color: black Streak: black Hardness: 5 1/2–6 1/2 Specific gravity: 5.2 Cleavage: none Fracture: subconchoidal to uneven Luster: metallic on freshly broken surfaces Crystal form: none Transparency: opaque Forms in igneous rocks and in veins and replacement deposits. May be grainy. Highly magnetic
37QuartzSiO2 (silicate) Color: white, gray, red, purple, pink, yellow, green, brown, black, colorless Streak: white Hardness: 7 Specific gravity: 2.65 Cleavage: none Fracture: conchoidal Luster: vitreous Crystal form: hexagonal/trigonal Transparency: transparent to translucent One of the most common minerals. It occurs in igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks and in mineral veins with metal ores.
38A little more about Quartz: One of the most abundant minerals in the world (Quartz and feldspar fight for #1)Makes beach sandMakes glass (melted beach sand)Chemical formula: SiO2Since it is SiO2, there is twice as much oxygen as silicon.Crystal shape is a pyramid called a “tetrahedron”Tetra = 4hedron =“sided solid
40Rock and Mineral Definitions Cleavage The tendency of some minerals to break along certain planes. Crystal Habit The shape in which individual crystals grow and the manner in which crystals grow together in aggregates. Fracture The way in which a mineral breaks other than along planes of cleavage. Hardness The resistance of a minerals surface to scratching. Can be evaluated using the Mohs scale of hardness (see right column).
41Lava Magma flowing out of a volcano Lava Magma flowing out of a volcano. Luster The manner in which a mineral reflects light. Magma Molten rock. Temperatures in the range of 700*c to 1300*c. Consists of silicon, oxygen and other minerals. Mineral A naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a definite chemical composition and a crystalline structure. opaque A material that blocks the passage of light. Polymers Very large molecules. Silicates Minerals that contain both Si & O.
42Specific Gravity The weight of a substance relative to the weight of an equal volume of water. Streak The color of a fine powder of a mineral. Scratch a mineral sample on a streak plate to make streak. Translucent A material that permits the passage of light. Twinning 2 or more crystals that have grown together in a symmetrical way Viscosity Resistance to flow.