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HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 1 Chapter 15 THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Section 1: The Age of Invention Section 2: The Rise of.

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Presentation on theme: "HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 1 Chapter 15 THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Section 1: The Age of Invention Section 2: The Rise of."— Presentation transcript:

1 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 1 Chapter 15 THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Section 1: The Age of Invention Section 2: The Rise of Big Business Section 3: Labor Strives to Organize

2 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 2 Objectives: How did the development of steel and oil refining affect U.S. industry? How did the development of steel and oil refining affect U.S. industry? What innovations were made in transportation? What innovations were made in transportation? How did innovations in communications technology change business practices and daily life in the United States? How did innovations in communications technology change business practices and daily life in the United States? How did Thomas Edisons research laboratory change American life? How did Thomas Edisons research laboratory change American life? Section 1: The Age of Invention

3 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 3 Oil refining resulted in the production of kerosene for fuel and light resulted in the production of kerosene for fuel and light allowed the manufacturing of other petroleum products allowed the manufacturing of other petroleum products helped machinery operate helped machinery operate Section 1: The Age of Invention

4 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 4 Steel refining provided a strong, cheap source of building material provided a strong, cheap source of building material allowed expansion of the railroad industry allowed expansion of the railroad industry allowed construction of more complex machines and taller buildings allowed construction of more complex machines and taller buildings Section 1: The Age of Invention

5 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 5 Transportation innovations Railroads promoted western settlement, urban growth, and economic prosperity. Railroads promoted western settlement, urban growth, and economic prosperity. Automobiles became a substantial industry. Automobiles became a substantial industry. Airplanes introduced new possibilities. Airplanes introduced new possibilities. Section 1: The Age of Invention

6 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 6 Communications innovations The telegraph allowed businesses to place long- distance orders quickly. The telegraph allowed businesses to place long- distance orders quickly. The telephone helped both businesses and individuals to be in contact. The telephone helped both businesses and individuals to be in contact. The typewriter allowed the quick production of legible documents. The typewriter allowed the quick production of legible documents. Section 1: The Age of Invention

7 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 7 Thomas Edisons research laboratory the light bulb the light bulb the phonograph the phonograph early motion-picture camera early motion-picture camera Section 1: The Age of Invention

8 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 8 Objectives: What arguments did business leaders and social critics make about the role of government in business? What arguments did business leaders and social critics make about the role of government in business? How did business strategies change during the Second Industrial Revolution? How did business strategies change during the Second Industrial Revolution? How did entrepreneurs take advantage of changes in business organization? How did entrepreneurs take advantage of changes in business organization? How did new methods of marketing products change American life? How did new methods of marketing products change American life? Section 2: The Rise of Big Business

9 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 9 Concerning governments role in business Business leaders: Business leaders: Individuals should be self-reliant. Individuals should be self-reliant. Businesses prosper most without government interference. Businesses prosper most without government interference. Government interference reduces self-reliance. Government interference reduces self-reliance. Social critics: Social critics: Factory life and poor working conditions harms workers. Factory life and poor working conditions harms workers. All citizens should own all means of production. All citizens should own all means of production. Government assistance would prevent the best businesses from rising to the top. Government assistance would prevent the best businesses from rising to the top. Section 2: The Rise of Big Business

10 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 10 New business strategies incorporation incorporation vertical integration vertical integration horizontal integration horizontal integration technological innovation technological innovation Section 2: The Rise of Big Business

11 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 11 Entrepreneurs take advantage Carnegie created corporations and used vertical integration to dominate the steel industry. Carnegie created corporations and used vertical integration to dominate the steel industry. Rockefeller created corporations and used horizontal integration to dominate the oil industry. Rockefeller created corporations and used horizontal integration to dominate the oil industry. Vanderbilt bought and consolidated many railroad lines. Vanderbilt bought and consolidated many railroad lines. Westinghouse and Pullman introduced and controlled new railroad technologies. Westinghouse and Pullman introduced and controlled new railroad technologies. Section 2: The Rise of Big Business

12 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 12 New marketing methods use of brand names and special packaging use of brand names and special packaging advertising advertising department stores department stores catalogs catalogs chain stores chain stores Section 2: The Rise of Big Business

13 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 13 Objectives: Why did some Americans want trusts to be banned, and how did the government respond? Why did some Americans want trusts to be banned, and how did the government respond? What types of working conditions did laborers face in the new age of rapid industrialization? What types of working conditions did laborers face in the new age of rapid industrialization? How did the Knights of Labor attempt to address the needs of many workers? How did the Knights of Labor attempt to address the needs of many workers? How did businesses react to strikes in the late 1800s, and how did this affect unions? How did businesses react to strikes in the late 1800s, and how did this affect unions? Section 3: Labor Strives to Organize

14 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 14 The banning of trusts desired because of belief that without competition, large monopolies would have do reason to maintain quality or keep prices low desired because of belief that without competition, large monopolies would have do reason to maintain quality or keep prices low not accomplished despite passage of the Sherman Antitrust Act not accomplished despite passage of the Sherman Antitrust Act Section 3: Labor Strives to Organize

15 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 15 Working conditions low pay low pay long hours long hours unsafe environments unsafe environments possibility of racial discrimination possibility of racial discrimination Section 3: Labor Strives to Organize

16 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 16 The Knights of Labor included both skilled and unskilled workers included both skilled and unskilled workers included women and, later, African Americans included women and, later, African Americans organized strikes, marches, and demonstrations organized strikes, marches, and demonstrations educated and organized workers educated and organized workers Section 3: Labor Strives to Organize

17 HOLT, RINEHART AND WINSTON The American Nation HOLT 17 Strikes in the late 1800s Businesses responded with blacklists, yellow-dog contracts, lockouts, and violence. Businesses responded with blacklists, yellow-dog contracts, lockouts, and violence. Business tactics hurt many unions and caused skilled workers to break away from unskilled ones. Business tactics hurt many unions and caused skilled workers to break away from unskilled ones. Section 3: Labor Strives to Organize


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