4Spacious Skies & Tilted Axes Examine Three Regions:Eurasia (Diffusion from Fertile Crescent)AfricaThe AmericasFirst, Eurasia …
5Spacious Skies & Tilted Axes From Guns, Germs and Steel, p 177
6Spacious Skies & Tilted Axes Reasons for Rapid Diffusion in Eurasia:Similar growing conditionsLittle preemptive domesticationEast/West Axis Predominant in Eurasia
7Spacious Skies & Tilted Axes Why was East/West Axis Important:Locations distributed East to West share the same latitude, generally leading to other similarities:Same day lengthSeasonal variationsRainfall & temperaturesSimilar diseasesTypes of vegetation
9Spacious Skies & Tilted Axes Africa and Americas had Limited Diffusion due to North-South OrientationExcept for a few animals, the FC package did not arrive in S. Africa until Europeans arrived in 1652Except for Mexican corn, little diffusion occurred between: US – Mexico – AndesNote: Evidence of little preemptive diffusion in Africa and Americas
10Spacious Skies & Tilted Axes Caveat:Latitude is not the only factorLocal topography and ecology play a roleNorth AmericaFC -> IndiaFC -> ChinaFC -> Africa
11Spacious Skies & Tilted Axes Extension:The principle of East/West diffusion applies to agriculture and much moreWheel (ox carts)Writing (royal propaganda, food inventories & bureaucratic record keeping)While not directly related to ag diffusion, technological transfers followed the spread of food production.