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Presentation on theme: "COLD ROLLING OILS."— Presentation transcript:


2 Contents Our Lab Mill Trials at RDCIS Introduction
Emulsion Management Popular Brands of Rolling Oils in India Rolling Mills in India Rolling Oil Potential Introduction Mechanism of Roll Lubrication Requirements of a Rolling Oil Trends (Past/Present/Future) Evaluations of Rolling Oil

3 Cold Rolling Oil An Oil / Emulsion introduced at the Roll-bite in the process of Cold Rolling to control Friction at the interface of Work Rolls and Strip

4 Various Processes in Steel Rolling

5 Type of Cold Rolling Mills

6 Why Cold Rolling? Limitation of HSM to produce thinner gauge with
Superior surface finish desired mechanical & metallurgical properties Potential application of the product in consumer goods industry Newer cold rolled products are being continuously developed both in bare & coated variety

7 Type of Cold Rolling Mills
2 Hi Mill Suitable for hot or cold rolling of ferrous and nonferrous metals. Ideal for breakdown, run down, tempering and skin pass operations. 

8 Type of Cold Rolling Mills
4 Hi Mill Undesirable contact area results in a bending force which causes edge drop.

9 Type of Cold Rolling Mills
4 Hi Mill Used both as Non-reversing Mills for intermediate rolling and as Reversing Mills for finish rolling Smaller rolls reduce thickness of metal being rolled more easily and with much less pressure than large rolls of a 2-High Mill  This decreased pressure reduces roll bending and separating forces and permits rolling of wider and thinner materials with a more uniform gauge 4-hi mills are a cost-effective means for industry to product a wide range of sheet products . 90% of Mills are of this type.

10 Type of Cold Rolling Mills
Reversing Mills Advantages Less Capital Cost Occupy less space Any required gauge can be obtained Disadvantages Low output High Roll Consumption Continuous Mills Advantages Suitable for large outputs Higher gauge accuracy Disadvantages High capital cost Large production of one size product

11 Type of Cold Rolling Mills
4 Hi Tandem Mill

12 Type of Cold Rolling Mills
6 Hi Mill Provide improved flatness due to their workroll bending mechanism and intermediate roll adjustment in an axial direction. Main advantages are improved shape of rolled strip, increased reductions and greater rolling efficiency. Drawbacks : Complicated and hard to maintain roll cluster unit Cooling problems resulting from the smaller circumferential area of their working rolls.

13 Type of Cold Rolling Mills
6 HI Mill Undesirable contact area is virtually eliminated by shifting the intermediate rolls axially. This can be done quickly and easily, making the HC-MILL the ideal solution for the real world. Use of the HC-MILL not only significantly improves quality, but has significant ramifications for the system.

14 Type of Cold Rolling Mills
20 Hi Mill

15 Type of Cold Rolling Mills
20 Hi Mill

16 Tandem Mill – Continuous Mill
Modern Tandem Cold Mill consists upto 6 sets of independently driven pairs of Work rolls, each pair being supported by a large no. of back-up rolls Cumulative Mill reduction could be in the range of 50% - 90% Ensures high gauge accuracy and proper flatness Roll separating force involved in rolling 1250 mm wide strip may be as high as 1000T

17 Mechanism of Roll Lubrication
Friction is a necessity as a transmitter of Deformation Energy Optimization of friction Adequately high to Ensure traction in the Roll bite Low enough to optimize Mill Motor Power requirement

18 Mechanism of Roll Lubrication
Oil Pooling at the Bite Positive Pressure gradient at the inlet zone Viscous component of the oil diffuse more in the roll bite Higher Strip temperature ( oC) evaporates water in emulsion Fatty substance affinity to the strip/roll surface

19 Mechanism of Roll Lubrication
Vo>Vp>Vi At neutral Point Vx=Vp Contact angle is about 3-4 Degrees only Pressure on the rolls buildup from entry to the neutral point and then declines till exit.

20 Mechanism of Roll Lubrication
Lubrication Regimes in Pre-deformation Zone Elasto Hydrodynamic Deformation Zone Plasto Hydrodynamic Boundary EP Lubrication

21 Some Important Formulae

22 Some Important Formulae
Pressure Distribution

23 Functions of a Cold Rolling Oil
Lubrication: Control friction, wear and surface damage of rolls and strip Scavenging: Heat Dirt Wear Debris

24 Requirements of a Rolling Oil
Optimum lubricity, high film strength, shear stability, high plate-out characteristics High heat transfer co-efficient Optimum Emulsion stability/Good chemical stability Long emulsion life Easy maintenance High cleanliness properties Good Burn off characteristics Good emulsion detergency Minimum soap formation Easy disposal Environment friendliness Bio-degradable

25 Additional Requirements of a Rolling Oil
Good rust/corrosion protection capacity Good resistance to tramp oil contamination Easy removability after rolling Complete System Compatibility Rolling Mill & Strip Components Pickling Oil/acid traces carry over from pickling line Economical

26 Constituents of Cold Rolling Oils
Lubricant Base (80% - 90%) Natural Oils Fats & their Derivatives Mineral Oils Synthetic Esters Boundary Additives Molecules with permanent dipole moment like Derivatives of Fatty Oils (acids, alcohols, amines) Long chain acids are preferred Neutral soaps of Esters

27 Constituents of Cold Rolling Oils
Emulsifiers HLB Value Emulsion stability Oil Particle Size Plate Out Shear Stability Dispersant / Surfactants EP & AW Additives Chlorinated Paraffins Sulfurized Mineral Oils/Fats Chloro-sulphides Sulfur-phosphorus compounds Nitrogen-phosphorus compounds

28 Properties of Rolling Oils
Viscosity Higher Film thickness Viscosity Saponification Value Indicates amount of Esters present Higher SAP value means better lubricity Higher SAP may impair Cleanliness behavior of oil Free Fatty Acid (FFA) Help decreasing friction due to adsorption on strip & roll surface thus provide good boundary lubrication Prone to oxidation, polymerization and formation of sticky deposits on storage. Affects Cleanliness behavior of oil

29 Properties of Rolling Oils
Iodine No. Indicates degree of un-saturation of fatty materials/esters Pour Point Lower value is desired May help cooling efficiency Too low pour oils using short chain compounds may possess poor lubricity & load bearing ability pH Value Vital for emulsifier’s effectiveness Affected by Carryovers from pickling lines Water Quality Tramp Oils Degeneration/Oxidation of the Rolling Oil itself

30 Properties of Rolling Oils
Ash Content Low ash formulations are preferred Oil Particle Size Greatly affects Lubricity, Plate-out, Iron Content of emulsion Indication of shear stability of the oil Parameters Sheet Rolling Tin Plate Rolling Mean Particle Size, µ 2 - 5 ESI,% Oil Plate-out, mg/m2 Iron Content, ppm

31 Trends Palm Oil High Mol. Wt. Polymers Synthetic Esters Natural Oil/
Fats/ Derivatives High Mol. Wt. Polymers Fatty Oils & Mineral Oils Synthetic Esters

32 Evaluations of Rolling Oils
Laboratory Tests Physico-chemical Tests Functional Tests Tribological Tests Lab. Mill Trial Industrial Trials

33 Laboratory Tests of Rolling Oils Physico-chemical Tests
Ash Content, % Wt Carbon Residue, CCR, % Wt Flash Point, COC, oC Free Fatty Acid, Oleic % Iodine Number Kinematic 40 oC, cSt pH of 2% Emulsion in Distilled Water Pour Point, oC Saponification Value, mg of KOH/gm

34 Laboratory Tests of Rolling Oils Functional Tests
Burn-Off Characteristics Emulsion Stability Index Mean Particle Size, µm Plate-out Characteristics Cleanability Iron Corrosion HLB Value Staining Tendency

35 Tribological Test Rigs
Contact Configuration Type of Contact Soda Pendulum Pin on Two Pairs of Balls Point Contact Amsler Wear Test 4 Pairs of Crowned Discs Line Contact SRV Test Rig Ball or Roller on Disc Point/Line Contact LFW1 Rig Ring on Block Ring Compression Test Ring on Platen Surface Contact Plint Tribometer Pin on Sheet

36 Tribological Test Rigs LFW 1 Oscillating Test
Test Description A steel block pressed against a lubricated oscillating ring. Test Result Static and dynamic friction coefficient µ, wear in mm, life time of lubricant Standards ASTM D 2714, ASTM D 2981, ASTM D 3704

37 Tribological Test Rigs LFW 1 Rotating Test
Test Description A steel block pressed against a lubricated rotating ring. Test Result Static and dynamic friction coefficient µ, wear in mm, life time of lubricant Standards ASTM D 2714, ASTM D 2981, ASTM D 3705

38 Tribological Test Rigs Falex Pin & Vee Block Tester
Test Description A lubricated, rotating steel shaft between two V-shaped steel blocks under specified load. Test Result Friction coefficient µ, wear in mm, endurance life in h, load carrying capacity N Standards ASTM D 2670, ASTM D 2625, ASTM D 3233, ASTM D 3704

39 Tribological Test Rigs Falex Pin & Vee Block Tester

40 Tribological Test Rigs Falex Pin & Vee Block Tester

41 Tribological Test Rigs SRV Tester

42 Tribological Test Rigs SRV Tester
Test Description Measure friction and wear under oscillatory or rotational motion. Test Result Coefficient of friction µ, wear rate in mm   Standards DIN 51834, ASTM D , DIN 50324

43 Tribological Test Rigs Four Ball Machine
Test Description Wear properties and weld load of consistent lubricants in a four ball system (rotating ball on three fixed balls). Test Result Welding load in N, wear scare in mm Standards DIN 51350

44 Tribological Test Rigs Amsler Wear Test

45 Tribological Test Rigs Amsler Wear Test


47 Plint Tribometer

48 Emulsion Management Good emulsion management provides
Consistent performance of oil Longer emulsion life

49 Emulsion Management What all to manage of an emulsion? Concentration
Temperature pH Conductivity Oil Particle Size (OPS) Tramp Oil Iron fines Bacterial Count

50 Emulsion Concentration
Variations in actual production line may be high owing to: Disproportionate Oil addition Evaporation of Water Change in emulsion characteristics of oil Skimming of tramp oil Online oil concentration measurement helps The oil content directly relates to the velocity of sound in the fluid. A change of 1% oil content brings about an change of approx. 2 m/s.

51 Emulsion Temperature Higher emulsion temperature than desired
Brings down oil film thickness by decreasing viscosity Declines Cooling Efficiency Emulsifier’s behavior may get affected Normally kept within 45 – 55oC

52 Emulsion pH Emulsifier system is pH sensitive
Causes of pH disturbances Acid carry over from pickling line Inferior feed water for emulsion Tramp Oil mixing Preferred pH range: 5.0 – 7.0 pH < 5.0 Increase Particle size Corrosion Problem Erratic Rolling pH > 7.0 Reduce Particle size More metallic soaps Affects cleanliness

53 Emulsion Conductivity
Major contributors: H+, OH-, Cl-, SO42- Minor Contributors: Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ Conductivity of Emulsion < 200 µS/cm Should never exceed 500 µS/cm Conductivity of De-mineralized Water < 10 µS/cm Industrial Hard Water < 500 µS/cm

54 Tramp Oil Oil in emulsion that doesn't derive from the emulsion concentration itself is uncontrollable and therefore undesirable. Sources of tramp oil oil leaks from transmissions, hydraulic systems and other lubrication points

55 Negative effects of Tramp Oil
Loss of cooling & wetting properties Deplete emulsifiers Nullifying rust-inhibitors Cuts off air and thereby provides an excellent base for growth of anaerobic bacteria Reduce amount of sulfur additives Drop in pH Create bad smell Low pH increases ionization of heavy metal in coolant and this in turn may create unhealthy working atmosphere.

56 Desired Values of Some Important Emulsion Parameters
1 Chloride in Pickling Rinse Water < 60 ppm 2 Chloride on Pickled Strips < mg/ft2 3 Emulsion Conductivity < 500 mS/cm2 4 Hardness of Water < 250 ppm 5 Bacteria < 5 x 106 counts/ml 6 Yeast < 200 counts/ml 7 Tramp Oil < % 8 Iron in Emulsion < 200 ppm 9 pH Variation 10 Iron on CR Strip < 100 mg/m2 11 Oil on CR Strip 12 Carbon on Annealed Strip < 7 mg/m2

57 Emulsion Management FFA Analysis of Used Extracted Oil
Usually lower than Fresh Oil as some FFA are lost due to soap formation with Iron & hard water salts Lowered due to Mineral Oil Contamination May increase due to excessive bacterial activity

58 Emulsion Management Analysis of Used Extracted Oil SAP Value
Lowered with contamination of Tramp Oils % drop Indicates reduction of the active oil in emulsion Should not fall below 70% IR Spectroscopy Predicts Ester content & Fatty acid concentration Identify contamination

59 Cold Rolling Mills in India
No. of units Unit Capacity (TPA) Width Range (mm) Total capacity 20 up to 30,000 upto 450 240,000 16 up to 72,000 570,000 15 up to 300,000 1,420,000 5 1,310,000 2 > 1,000,000 > 1560 2,690,000 Total 6,230,000

60 Rolling Oil Potential in India
Specific Rolling Oil consumption in Cold Rolling: 1.2 kg/T of Rolled Sheet for Mineral Oils 0.6 kg/T of Rolled Sheet for Semi-synthetic/Synthetic Oils Considering the above, Cold Rolling Oil potential would be about 3500 – 5000 KL per Annum

61 Popular Cold Rolling Oils
Manufacturer Brand Name D A Stuart Rolkleen 1000, 2000, 3000 Quaker Chemicals Quakerol CA 29 B&L Balmerol Aquaroll 431, 432 Indian Oil Servo Steerol C4, C6 HPCL HP Cold Rolling Oil Houghton Houghto-Roll


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