Introduction Applicable code Parts of AST Types of AST Construction Typical damages of AST Cryogenic storage tank
Storage tanks are a familiar part of our industrial landscape. They are used to store a multitude of different products and come in a range of sizes, from small to truly gigantic. The ability to store large quantities of liquid and gaseous products was an essential element in the development of a number of industries. More recently the liquid natural gas (LNG) trade, accounting for the bringing to markets of some 20% of the worlds natural gas, would not be possible without the development of large scale cryogenic storage units at both export and import terminals.
Storage Tank Design ATM AWA API 650 P<2.5 Psi BS CODE 2654 EN 14015 LPT API 620 2.5 < P < 15 Psi EN 14620
Bottom Shell Roof Annular plate Annular plate Wind girder Wind girder Stairway Flash type-clean out fitting Rafter Girder Water spray sys. Water spray sys.
Foundation construction Shape of the bottom Type of the foundation construction Double bottom Material Detection Fixed roof shape Supporting Floating roof position construction
Foundation construction Shape of the bottom cone up cone down flat with slope flat without slop
Foundation construction Type of the foundation construction earth foundations without a ringwall reinforced concrete ring wall foundation reinforced concrete slab
Material ( steel, polymer) Detection passive system continuously activated vacuum system
Self-supporting roof cone roof - they are economical when the volumes are up to 2 000 m 3 dome roof - they are economical when the volumes are bigger than 2 000 m 3. Steel dome roof could be applied when the volumes are up to 70 000 m 3 ( diameter D < 65 m ). Supported roof cone roof – they can be applied in all existing volumes of the tanks; hanging roof - they are still experimental.
They are applied when store volatile products and/or the tanks themselves have big volumes According to their position: - external floating roof - internal floating roof According to their construction: - single deck floating roof; - double deck floating roof.
Expansion bellow Expansion bellow Anchor strap Anchor strap Suspended deck Suspended deck Cool down nozzle In tank pump In tank pump Insulation Base heating system Base heating system LTD measurement
What makes ammonia storage special? Flammability Toxicity Latent heat Electrical conductivity Stress corrosion cracking The truly lethal nature of the gas means that special measures are required for the design, construction and especially the operation of storage facilities.
Prestressed concrete has become the most commonly used Material for the outer containers of full containment low temperature tanks.