Presentation on theme: "OSHA’S NEW STEEL ERECTION STANDARD"— Presentation transcript:
1OSHA’S NEW STEEL ERECTION STANDARD When industry and labor work together, we can save lives.The steel erection rule is the first OSHA safety standard developed under the Negotiated Rulemaking Act of 1990 and the Department's Negotiated Rulemaking Policy. The rule was developed by members of the Steel Erection Negotiated Rulemaking Advisory Committee(SENRAC), representing employers and employees significantly affected by the standard.SENRAC included representatives of the International Association of Bridge, Structural & Ornamental Iron Workers, United Steelworkers of America, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), International Union of Operating Engineers, AFL-CIO Building and Construction Trades Department, National Erectors Association, the Associated General Contractors of America and the Associated Builders and Contractors.
2Steel Erection Activities Every year, an average of 35 iron workers die during steel erection activities and 2,300 more suffer lost workday injuries,"
3StandardNew subpart R is the first OSHA safety standard developed under the Negotiated Rulemaking ActDeveloped by members of the Steel Erection Negotiated Rulemaking Advisory Committee (Senrac)
4The Final Rule Contains Requirements For: Hoisting and riggingStructural Steel AssemblyBeam and Column connectionsJoist ErectionSystems-engineered Metal Building ErectionFall ProtectionTraining
5The new standard covers all workers engaged in steel erection activities The Standard does not cover electric transmission towers, communication towers, broadcast towers, water towers or tanks
6Effective Dates Original effective date July 18, 2001 Revised effective date Jan. 18, 2002.The new effective date gives additional time to the industry to become familiar with the new requirements and to provide training to employees in the construction industry. OSHA is also preparing outreach and training material to assist industry in the training process.
7Additional TimeGives industry time to become familiar with the new requirements and to provide training to employees in the construction industry.Allow employers time to make the necessary changes to avoid costly re-fabrication of already made components and avoid serious delays to projects that would affect all trades involved in the construction process.
8QuestionIs the construction of a house framed with metal studs within subpart R?No. A housed framed with metal studs is not covered by the standard
9QuestionWhen would the installation of metal studs be covered by subpart R?The installation of metal studs is covered by Subpart R when the studs are integrated with the structural steel framing of a building.
10QuestionIs the installation of a standing seam metal roof on a wood framed structure covered by subpart R?Yes. The definition of metal decking includes standing seam metal roofs.
11QuestionA fabricated tank is installed on a pad. The tank has connection points for a catwalk pre-installed by the manufacturer. The catwalk will be installed by a crane crew after the tank is installed. Do the fall protection requirements of subpart R apply to the installation of the catwalk?
12AnswerYes. Catwalks has traditionally been considered miscellaneous metals, and the installation of miscellaneous metals is covered by Subpart R?
13Major causes of injuries and fatalities in the steel erection industry Working under loadsHoisting, landing and placing deckingColumn stabilityDouble connectionsLanding and placing steel jointsFalls to lower levels.The standard enhances protections provided to iron workers by addressing the hazards that have been identified as the major causes of injuries and fatalities in the steel erection industry. These are hazards associated with working under loads; hoisting, landing and placing decking; column stability; double connections; landing and placing steel joints; and falls to lower levels.The final rule protects all workers engaged in steel erection activities. It does not cover electric transmission towers, communications towers, broadcast towers, water towers or tanks.
15Competent PersonMeans one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.
16Controlling Contractor Means a prime contractor, general contractor, construction manager or any other legal entity which has the overall responsibility for the construction of the project -- its planning, quality and completion.
17Qualified personOne who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training, and experience, has successfully demonstrated the ability to solve or resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.
18Shear ConnectorHeaded steel studs, steel bars, steel lugs, and similar devices which are attached to a structural member for the purpose of achieving composite action with concrete.
19Site-Specific Erection Plan Requires pre-planning of key erection elements, including coordination with controlling contractor before erection begins, in certain circumstances.
20Steel ErectionConstruction, alteration or repair of steel buildings, bridges and other structures, including the installation of metal decking and all planking used during the process of erection.
21Site Layout & Construction Sequence :Site Layout & Construction Sequence
22Controlling Contractor Steel Erector provided notification of:Concrete having attained sufficient strength.Alteration of anchor bolts.Adequate access to storage areas.That concrete has cured enough to support steel erection
23Hoisting operationsMust be pre-planned to reduce employee exposure to overhead loads.
24QuestionCan the controlling contractor contract with subcontractor to perform the work required by (a)? If so, is the controlling contractor still responsible for these duties after subcontracting them?Yes. The Controlling contractor is responsible for ensuring that the work was performed.
25QuestionDoes the written notification from the controlling contractor to the steel erector about concrete footing, etc. in (a) & (b) have to be maintained on site?Once the written notification is given to the erector, there is no requirement that it be maintained at the site.
26QuestionDoes the anchor bolt repair, replacement or field -modification approval from the Structural Engineer of Record (SER) required by (b)(1) have to be maintained on site?No. Once the written notification is given, it does not have to be maintained on site.
281926.753 - Hoisting and rigging (Supplement to the requirements of 1926.550) Sec Hoisting and rigging.The following provisions supplement the requirements of Sec regarding the hazards associated with hoisting and rigging. (a) General.(1) Pre-shift visual inspection of cranes.(i) Cranes being used in steel erection activities shall be visually inspected prior to each shift by a competent person; the inspection shall include observation for deficiencies during operation. At a minimum, this inspection shall include the following:(A) All control mechanisms for maladjustments;(B) Control and drive mechanisms for excessive wear of components and contamination by lubricants, water or other foreign matter;(C) Safety devices, including but not limited to, boom angle indicators, boom stops, boom kick-out devices, anti-two block devices, and load moment indicators where required;(D) Air, hydraulic, and other pressurized lines for deterioration or leakage, particularly those which flex in normal operation;(E) Hooks and latches for deformation, chemical damage, cracks, or wear;Construction Safety Council
29Pre-shift Inspection Requirements Pre-shift inspection must be done by a competent person.Rigging must be inspected prior to each shift by a qualified rigger
30Pre-shift visual inspection of cranes: all control mechanisms for maladjustments excessive wear of components and contamination by lubricants or other foreign mattersafety deviceshooks and latchespressurized lines for leakagewire ropeelectrical apparatushydraulic systemtiresground conditionshoisting equipment(F) Wire rope reeving for compliance with hoisting equipment manufacturer's specifications;(G) Electrical apparatus for malfunctioning, signs of excessive deterioration, dirt, or moisture accumulation;(H) Hydraulic system for proper fluid level;(I) Tires for proper inflation and condition;(J) Ground conditions around the hoisting equipment for proper support, including ground settling under and around outriggers, ground water accumulation, or other similar conditions;(K) The hoisting equipment for level position; and(L) The hoisting equipment for level position after each move and setup.(ii) If any deficiencies are identified, an immediate determination shall be made by the competent person as to whether the deficiency constitutes a hazard.(iii) If the deficiency is determined to constitute a hazard, the hoisting equipment shall be removed from service until the deficiency has been corrected.Construction Safety Council
31GeneralThe employer shall obtain and/or prepare a certification record of the pre-shift inspectionThe employer shall obtain and/or prepare a certification record of the pre-shift inspection required by paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section which includes the date the hoisting equipment items were inspected; the signature of the person who inspected the hoisting equipment items; and a serial number, or other identifier, for the hoisting equipment inspected.Construction Safety Council
32GeneralThe operator shall be responsible for those operations under the operator’s direct control(a)(1)(v) The operator shall be responsible for those operations under the operator's direct control. Whenever there is any doubt as to safety, the operator shall have the authority to stop and refuse to handle loads until safety has been assured.Construction Safety Council
33General Qualified rigger to inspect the rigging prior to each shift Headache ball not used to transport personnelOnly use of personnel platforms in accordance with (g)Construction Safety Council
34Safety Latches Safety latches on hooks shall not be deactivated. when hoisting can be performed more safely; orqualified rigger provides equivalent protection and is included in a site-specific erection planConstruction Safety Council
35Responsibilities During Crane Operations Safety latchesEmployees engaged in initial steel erection or hooking/unhooking to work under loads in some specific instances.Operators are responsible for operations under their control and have the authority to stop and refuse to handle loads until safety has been assured.
36Responsibilities During Crane Operations Prohibit the use of cranes to hoist personnel unless ALL provisions of are met except (g)(2)When working under loads requirements in this section must be followed.Multiple lift rigging is permitted as long as the requirements in this erection are met. [.753(d)].
37Working Under LoadsMaterials being hoisted shall be rigged to prevent unintentional displacement;Hooks with self-closing safety latches or their equivalent shall be used to prevent components from slipping out of the hook; andAll loads shall be rigged by a qualified rigger
38QuestionDoes the standard permit a qualified rigger to design and assemble a “multiple lift rigging” assembly on the jobsite by mixing components from one rigging supplier or by mixing components from several rigging suppliers?Yes
39QuestionHow often must the multiple lift rigging assembly be inspected?Before every shift.
40QuestionThe crane is rented, and the operator is supplied by the crane rental company. The steel erector designates the operator as the competent person for the purposes of the pre-lift inspection requirements. Is the steel erector still responsible for the pre-lift inspection?Yes
41Structural Steel Assembly and Stability :Structural Steel Assembly and Stability
421926.754 Structural Steel Assembly Structural stability shall be maintainedAdditional requirements shall apply for multi-story structures:The permanent floors shall be installed & no more than eight stories between the erection floor and the upper-most permanent floor.No more than four floors or 48 feet (14.6 m), whichever is less, of unfinished bolting or welding above the foundation or uppermost permanently secured floorFully planked or decked floor or nets shall be maintained within two stories or 30 feet (9.1 m), whichever is less, directly under any erection work being performed.
431926.754(c): Walking/Working Surfaces Shear connectors (such as headed steel studs, steel bars or steel lugs), reinforcing bars, deformed anchors or threaded studs shall not be attached to the top flanges of beams, joists or beam attachments so that they project vertically from or horizontally across the top flange of the member until after the metal decking, or other walking/ working surface, has been installed.
44Installation of shear connectors on composite floors, roofs and bridge decks. When shear connectors are used in construction of composite floors, roofs and bridge decks, employees shall lay out and install the shear connectors after the metal decking has been installed, using the metal decking as a working platform. Shear connectors shall not be installed from within a controlled decking zone (CDZ), as specified in § (c)(8).
45Slip resistance of skeletal structural steel. Workers shall not be permitted to walk the top surface of any structural steel member installed after July 18, 2007 that has been coated with paint or similar materialThe results shall be available at the site and to the steel erector.unless documentation or certification that the coating has achieved a minimum average slip resistance of .50 when measured with an English XL tribometer or equivalent tester on a wetted surface at a testing laboratory is provided.
46Plumbing-up Equipment: turnbucklesproperly securedsecured to prevent unwindingplaced so employees can get to connection pointsremoved only under the supervision of a competent person(d) Plumbing-up.(1) Connections of the equipment used in plumbing- up shall be properly secured.(2) Plumbing-up equipment shall be removed only with the approval of a competent person.When deemed necessary by a competent person, plumbing-up equipment shall be installed in conjunction with the steel erection process to ensure the stability of the structure.When used, plumbing-up equipment shall be in place and properly installed before the structure is loaded with construction material such as loads of joists, bundles of decking or bundles of bridging.Plumbing-up equipment shall be removed only with the approval of a competent person.Construction Safety Council
47Question(b)(3) requires a fully planked or decked floor or nets within 2 stories or 30 feet, whichever is less. Can an employer’s requirement that workers be protected by fall arrest equipment at all times above 6 feet take the place of nets and temporary floors?Yes. If he establishes, communicates & enforces policy.
48QuestionIf a roof opening is 11 inches by 25 feet, does it need to be covered for steel erection purposes.No. The definition of an opening refers to a gap whose least dimension is 12 inches or more.
50General requirements for erection stability Columns anchored by a min. of 4 bolts and designed to resist a 300# eccentric load at 18” from the column face.Columns set on level finished floors, pre-grouted leveling plates, leveling nuts, or shim packs.Unstable columns shall be evaluated by a competent person.Sec Anchor bolts. (a) General requirements for erection stability.(1) All columns shall be anchored by a minimum of 4 anchor bolts. Each column anchor bolt assembly, including the welding of the column to the base plate, shall be designed to resist a pound (136.2 kg) eccentric load located 18 inches (.46 m) from the column face in each direction at the top of the column shaft.(2) Columns shall be set on level finished floors, pre-grouted leveling plates, leveling nuts, or shim packs which are adequate to transfer the construction loads.(3) Unstable columns shall be evaluated by a competent person and be guyed or braced where deemed necessary.(b) Repair, replacement or field modification.(1) Anchor bolts shall not be repaired, replaced or field-modified without the approval of the project structural engineer of record.(2) Such approval under paragraph(b)(1) of this section shall state whether the repair, replacement or modification has made guying or bracing of the column necessary. (3) Prior to the erection of a column, the controlling contractor shall provide written notification to the steel erector if there has been any repair, replacement or modification of the anchor bolts of that column.Construction Safety Council
51(b)Repair, replacement or field modification (1)Need approval of the project structural engineer.(2)Approval shall state whether guying or bracing is necessary.(3)Controlling contractor shall provide written notification to the steel erector.Project structural engineer of record, would be defined by OSHA to mean the registered, licensed professional responsible for the design of structural steel framing and whose seal appears on the structural contract documents.Construction Safety Council
52QuestionTo make a field repair to an anchor rod, must there be a written order from the project’s engineer of record?No. The standard does not require that the approval be in writing.
54Beams and ColumnsGeneral. Secured with at least two bolts per connection.Diagonal bracing. With bracing, secured by at least one bolt per connection.
55Beams and ColumnsDouble connections at columns and/or at beam webs over a column. At least one bolt or similar connection device is present.
56Beams and ColumnsColumn splices. Designed to resist a 300# eccentric load located at 18” from column face.Perimeter columns. Must extend a min. of 48” above the finished floor for safety cables.(e) Perimeter columns. Perimeter columns shall extend a minimum of 48 inches (1.2 m) above the finished floor to permit installation of perimeter safety cables prior to erection of the next tier except where structural design and constructibility do not allow. (See appendix F to this subpart.)(f) Perimeter safety cables.(1) Perimeter safety cables shall be installed at the perimeter during the structural steel assembly of multi-story structures.(2) Perimeter safety cables shall consist of 1/2-inch wire rope or equivalent installed at inches above the finished floor and at the midpoint between the finished floor and the top cable.(3) Holes or other devices shall be provided by the fabricator/ supplier and shall be in or attached to perimeter columns at inches above the finished floor and the midpoint between the finished floor and the top cable to permit installation of perimeter safety cables except where structural design and constructibility allow.
57Multiple Lift RiggingMultiple lift rigging. OSHA would define this term to mean a rigging assembly manufactured by wire rope rigging suppliers that facilitates the attachment of up to five independent loads to the hoist rigging of a crane.Construction Safety Council
58Multiple Lift Rigging multiple lift rigging assembly is used; maximum of five members is hoisted per lift;only structural members are lifted; andemployees engaged in the lift have been trained in the procedures in (c)(1)(c) Multiple lift rigging procedure.(1) A multiple lift shall only be performed if the following criteria are met: (i) A multiple lift rigging assembly is used; (ii) A maximum of five (5) members is hoisted per lift; (iii) Only structural members are lifted; and (iv) All employees engaged in the multiple lift have been trained in these procedures in accordance with Sec (c)(1).(2) Components of the multiple lift rigging assembly shall be specifically designed and assembled with a maximum capacity for total assembly and for each individual attachment point. This capacity, certified by the manufacturer or a qualified rigger, shall be based on the manufacturer's specifications with a 5 to 1 safety factor for all components.(3) The total load shall not exceed: (i) The rated capacity of the hoisting equipment specified in the hoisting equipment load charts; or (ii) The rigging capacity specified in the rigging rating chart.(4) The multiple lift rigging assembly shall be rigged with the members: (i) Attached at their center of gravity and maintained reasonably level; (ii) Rigged from the top down; and (iii) Rigged at least 7 feet (2.1 m) apart.(5) The members on the multiple lift rigging assembly shall be set from the bottom up.(6) Controlled load lowering shall be used whenever the load is over the connectors.Construction Safety Council
59rigged at least 7 feet apart (4)The multiple lift rigging assembly shall be rigged with the members:rigged at least 7 feet apartrigged from the top downattached at their center of gravity and maintained levelConstruction Safety Council
60Multiple Lift RiggingComponents of the multiple lift rigging assembly shall be specifically designed and assembled with a maximum capacity for total assembly and for each individual attachment point.Capacity must be certified by the manufacturer or a qualified rigger and have a 5 to 1 safety factorConstruction Safety Council
61Multiple Lift Rigging The total load shall not exceed: The rigging capacityThe rated capacity of the hoisting equipmentThe multiple lift rigging assembly shall be rigged with the members:attached at their center of gravity and maintained level;rigged from the top down; andrigged at least 7 feet apartConstruction Safety Council
62Multiple Lift RiggingThe members on the multiple lift rigging assembly shall be set from the bottom up.Controlled load lowering shall be used whenever the load is over the connectors.Controlled load lowering. OSHA would define this term to mean lowering a load by means of a mechanical hoist drum device that allows a hoisted load to be lowered with maximum control using the gear train or hydraulic components of the hoist mechanism. Controlled load lowering requires the use of the hoist drive motor to lower the load.Construction Safety Council
64Open Web Steel JoistsRequirements minimizing collapse of lightweight steel joists by addressing need for erection bridging and method of attachment.Requirements for bridging terminus anchors with illustrations and drawings in a non-mandatory appendix (provided by SJI).New requirements to minimize collapse in placing loads on steel joists.
65QuestionIf workers are on a one story building that is 20 feet tall (top of steel) and the joist require horizontal bridging, is fall protection required for employees installing bridging?Yes.
66Systems-Engineered Metal Buildings :Systems-Engineered Metal Buildings
67Systems-Engineered Metal Buildings Requirements to minimize collapse in the erection of these specialized structures which account for a major portion of steel erection in this country.
68Systems-Engineered Metal Buildings Structural column shall have a minimum of 4 anchor bolts.Rigid frames shall have a minimum of 50% of install & tightened on both sides of the web adjacent to each flange before hoisting equipment is released.Construction loads may not be placed on structural steel framework unless it is adequately secured.
69Systems-Engineered Metal Buildings Steel joist secured before releasing hoisting cables, allowing employees on joist, or placing construction loads on joist.Purlins & Girts may not be used as anchorage points without written approval from qualified person.Permanent bridging installed and fall protection provided before purlins are used as a walking/working surface.
71Falling Object Protection All materials, equipment, and tools that are not being used must be secured against accidental displacement.Controlling contractor must bar other construction processes below steel erection, unless overhead protection is provided.
73General requirements Anyone over 15 feet, except in (a)(3) (2)Fall protective systems shall conform to(3)Connectors and employees working in controlling decking zones protected from fall hazards as provided in (b) and (c) of this section.Sec Fall protection. (a) General requirements.(1) Except as provided by paragraph (a)(2) Protection from fall hazards required by this subpart shall consist of perimeter safety cable systems, guardrail systems, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest or fall restraint (positioning device) systems. Guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems and fall restraint (positioning device) systems shall conform to the criteria set forth in Sec(3) of this section, each employee covered by this subpart who is on a walking/working surface with an unprotected side or edge more than 15 feet (4.6 m) above a lower level shall be protected from fall hazards.Construction Safety Council
74ConnectorsProtected when more than two stories or 30 feet above a lower level;Complete connector training in accordance with ; andProvided with fall arrest or fall restraint systems when 15’ to 30’ above a lower level.Connector. OSHA would define this term to mean an employee who, working with hoisting equipment, is placing and connecting structural members and/or components.Each connector shall:(1) Be protected from fall hazards of more than two stories or 30 feet (9.1 m) above a lower level, whichever is less;(2) Have completed connector training in accordance with Sec ; and(3) Be provided, at heights over 15 and up to 30 feet above a lower level, with a personal fall arrest or fall restraint (positioning device) system and wear the equipment necessary to be able to be tied off; or be provided with other means of protection from fall hazardsConstruction Safety Council
75QuestionAt what height are connectors required to be protected from falls? Is there a conflict between (b)(1) & (b)(3)?30 feet or 2 stories.(b)(3) requires that employees be provided with fall protection equipment and be able to tie off at all times between feet
76Custody of Fall Protection Fall protection shall remain in an area to be used by other trades if controlling contractor:Has directed the steel erector to leave the fall protection in place.Has inspected and accepted control and responsibility of the fall protection prior to authorizing persons to work in the area.Construction Safety Council
77Working Under Loads Routes for suspended loads shall be pre-planned When working under suspended loads, the following must be meet:materials rigged to prevent unintentional displacement;self-closing safety latches shall be used;all loads rigged by qualified riggers.Construction Safety Council
78Controlled Decking Zone (CDZ) Controlled decking zone (CDZ) provisions to prevent decking fatalities.Deckers in a CDZ and connectors must be protected at heights greater than two stories or 30 feet. Connectors between 15 and 30 feet must wear fall arrest or restraint equipment and be able to be tied off or be provided another means of fall protection.Requires fall protection for all others engaged in steel erection at heights greater than 15 feet.
79: TrainingRequires qualified person to train exposed workers in fall protection.Requires qualified person to train exposed workers engaged in special, high risk activities
80Multiple Lift Rigging Procedure The nature of the hazard associated with multiple liftsProper procedures & equipment to perform multiple lifts required by (e)
81Connector ProceduresThe nature of the hazard associated with connecting.The establishment, access, proper connecting,techniques and work practices required by (c) & (b).
82Controlled Decking Zone The nature of the hazard associated with work within the controlled decking zone.The establishment, access, proper connecting,techniques and work practices required by (e) & (c).
83DISCLAIMERThis information has been developed by an OSHA Compliance Assistance Specialist and is intended to assist employers, workers, and others as they strive to improve workplace health and safety. While we attempt to thoroughly address recordkeeping, it is not possible to include discussion of everything necessary to ensure a healthy and safe working environment in a presentation of this nature. Thus, this information must be understood as a tool for addressing workplace hazards, rather than an exhaustive statement of an employer’s legal obligations, which are defined by statute,
84DISCLAIMERregulations, and standards. Likewise, to the extent that this information references practices or procedures that may enhance health or safety, but which are not required by a statute, regulation, or standard, it cannot, and does not, create additional legal obligations. Finally, over time, OSHA may modify rules and interpretations in light of new technology, information, or circumstances; to keep apprised of such developments, or to review information on a wide range of occupational safety and health topics, you can visit OSHA’s website at