Presentation on theme: "Belzona Solutions Storage Tanks"— Presentation transcript:
1Belzona Solutions Storage Tanks Good morning/afternoon, today I will give you a technical presentation on Storage Tanks and the Belzona solution to common problems with Storage tanks.
2Outline Overview of a Storage Tank Storage Tank Problem Areas Belzona Solutions for Storage TanksOverviewTank base corrosionBonding ApplicationsCorrosion protectionExternalInternalTo review what we will discuss today…
3Overview of a Storage Tank So we will begin with an overview of a storage tank.
4And on Zirku Island there are 6 of these tanks! What is a Storage Tank?A storage tank is a bulk storage container, usually for holding liquids, sometimes for compressed gasesStorage tanks are available in many shapesSome of the largest can be found in Zirku island in the UAE. They can hold 1.25m barrels of oil…And on Zirku Island there are 6 of these tanks!1.25m barrels = ~2billion litres…Average family car = 55litres SO…One of these tanks could hold enough fuel to fill every car in Ireland(1,876,168m cars in Ireland in 2011Storage tank is a general name used to describe a number of different storage vessels from common household oil tanks (on the left) up to large spheres used to hold natural gas as on the right.6 tanks on Zirku island = all the cars in the UK (17million!)
5What is a Storage Tank?One of the most common types of storage tank in industry are cylindrical storage tanksThese can be used to store a variety of materialsBut for this presentation we will focus on the most common type, large cylindrical storage tanks as in this example. These can be used to store chemicals, oil, ore slurries among other things. These tanks also come in several varieties which we will look at next.
6Storage Tank Types Five main types of cylindrical storage tank: Fixed Roof TankInternal Floating Roof TankExternal Floating Roof TankOpen Top TankPressurized TankVariable Vapor Space TankThere are 5 main types of cylindrical storage tanks…. (list the 5). It is important that we understand the different types of tank as each present different opportunities for Belzona materials.First we will look at some of the features common to most of these tank types.
7Fixed Roof Tank Overview For storing harmless liquids involving little or no pressure , and very high flash points. (e.g. fuel oil, water, bitumen etc.)Simple, mild steel, rectangular or cylindrical tanks fitted with a flat, dome or conical roof .First we will look at fixed roof storage tanks. Fixed roof tanks are meant for liquids with very high flash points, (e.g. fuel oil, water, bitumen etc.) Cone roofs, dome roofs and umbrella roofs are usual. These are insulated to prevent the clogging of certain materials, wherein the heat is provided by steam coils within the tanks. Dome roof tanks are meant for tanks having slightly higher storage pressure than that of atmosphere (e.g. slop oil).
8Floating Roof Tank Overview Variable Volume TanksInternal Floating Roof TypeExternal Floating Roof TypeEmpty Space (Ullage)The second type of tank we will examine is the floating roof tank. Why are there floating roof tanks? Floating roof tanks are most commonly used to store oil or oil products. In fixed roof tanks, if the level of the stored liquid is below full, there is space left which is filled with gas call Ullage. This space can fill with gasses which evaporate from the stored liquid. This can lead to losses and gas leakages. By allowing the roof level to vary with the level of the stored liquid, the ullage space is minimized as are these potential losses.External roof tanks are usually installed for environmental or economical reasons to limit product loss and reduce the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC), an air pollutant. Also, having less ullage or vapor space means less chance of explosion.Liquid
9External Floating Roof Tank (FRT) So, here are the main components of an eternal floating roof tank. The roof floats on top of the stored liquid. Rubber seals seal the edges of the roof as it rises and falls with the inside tanks walls. (1). As rainwater will gather on the top of the tank it is necessary to provide a way of draining it. This is done by a flexible hose which runs inside the tank. (2). When the tank reaches it’s lower limits of capacity and the roof sinks to the bottom, instead of resting on the tank floor, it ‘lands’ on fixed legs which are attached to the underside of the roof. (3). Other systems common with fixed storage tanks are the fire fighting systems and emission control devices. (4).
10Internal Floating Roof Tank (IFRT) And here is the internal floating roof. Internal floating roofs operate on the same principle as external floating roofs but also avoid some of the main drawbacks of external floating roofs. One of the main problems with external floating roofs is that they are susceptible to damage caused by rain, snow etc. Accumulation of condensation can lead to leaks and sinking of the roof. By protecting the floating roof element with a fixed roof we can avoid these problems albeit at higher construction costs. Also, by having a fixed roof in place, less equipment such as the EFRT drain which can be a major source of leakages and problems.
11Other Tank Types Open top tank Pressurised Tanks Other types of storage tank can include gas storage tanks (on the bottom) and open top tanks such as the wine fermenters visible on top.
12Storage Tank Problem Areas So now that we understand the basics of storage tank construction, we will look at some of the most common problems with storage tanks. When we think of storage tanks, we think about large fixed stationary structures without moving parts. So where could a problem occur?? Well….
13What is the Problem? Leaks leading to Wastage Lost resources Environmental damagePotential disaster“Statistics indicate as many as 25% of all Underground storage tanks (USTs) may now be leaking”Maryland Real Estate AgencyThe main problem in leaks. This can be caused by different factors, the most prevalent being corrosion. All the Belzona solutions provided for storage tanks prevent leaks by one means or another, either internal or external corrosion protection, plate bonding or tank base sealing. We will explain all these in the next section. A quarter of underground storage tanks are leaking according to Maryland real estate agencies. Where do we find underground storage tanks? (Ask the audience) In every filling station there is an underground storage tank.SOURCE:Many storage tanks such as crude oil storage tanks are full of combustible materials, they are potential time bombs. For example, in 2005 a storage tank at Buncefield in the UK exploded, it was the largest explosion to happen in the UK after WWII. This year (May 2011), four people were killed when an oil tank exploded in Wales.“Almost 10,000 gasoline and oil spills, some of them more than a decade old, are contaminating the underground aquifers that supply drinking water” Scientific Journal
14What is the Problem? Corrosion is the main cause of these leaks So there are serious implications for the correct maintenance of these tanks. As previously mentioned the main cause of leaks is corrosion. Damage by impact such as a fork truck driving into the tank and puncturing the side wall is uncommon but has happened. Other causes could include environmental damage as in the second picture which was taken in the southern US after hurricane Katrina but we cannot influence that so we will focus on what we are good at - preventing corrosion.Other causes could be environmental damage or damage due to impact
15Belzona Solutions For Storage Tanks Now that we understand the problems we can target them. What are the Belzona solutions for these problems?
16Belzona Solutions Overview Plate BondingSTORAGE TANKInternal ProtectionExternal ProtectionThere are four primary areas we look at from a Belzona application point of view.Internal Corrosion Protection, External Corrosion Protection, Cold Bonding (leak sealing, plate bonding, bonding supports, leaks, reinforcement etc.) and Tank Base CorrosionTank Base Sealing
17Belzona Solutions Overview STORAGE TANKFirst I will detail Belzona’s tank Base sealing system.Tank Base Sealing
18Problem Areas Tank Base Corrosion of tank wall and chine angle Deterioration of sealCorrosion of tank baseTank WallWater / moisture ingress under the tank base through this joint, when the tank moves the capillary action squeezes the water under the baseDeterioration of the tank base can lead to costly replacement, leakage and clean up costs. As can be seen in this picture (the final picture), the concrete plinth has deteriorated and broken up. Rainwater will no longer flow away from the chine angle (the angle at the base of the tank between the tank wall and the concrete base) but will sit here at the interface between the tank wall and the base. As the tank expands and contracts naturally, water will be ‘drawn’ in at this joint by capillary action causing further corrosion at the chine angle and also further under the tank base.Concrete or AsphaltTank base
19Tank Base Traditional Repairs MasticsAsphalt & BitumenTraditional repair materials are not without problems…Mastics are commonly used but are susceptible to degradation due to UV exposure. As the tank naturally moves the degraded mastics crack and lose their sealing capability.Bitumen is commonly installed on construction of the tank. Similar to mastics they can degrade with time and break apart.
20Problem Areas Tank Base Steel Skirts Steel skirts are sometimes installed as another option. These are not without their problems also. If the option is to weld the steel skirt on to the existing chine angle hot work is involved. Bonding the skirt on using the aforementioned traditional materials reintroduces the problems with these materials. Also, unless protected, the steel will corrode and the problems will repeat.
21Problem Areas Tank Base Bonded Rubber Bonded rubber… which did not bond! All of these sealants suffer from deterioration due to UV or weathering. They are cheap to apply but often need applying every year leading to a significant cost over the years.Each time they fail they allow moisture under the tank and once reapplied do not allow the tank base to breath meaning that the tank base continues to corrode leading to the problems previously discussed. And the costs to the asset owner continues to mount…
22Problem Areas Tank Base Corrosion at the Chine Angle Tank needs to be cut open for plate entryNew base needs to be builtBase welded into positionHydro Test needs to be conductedApprox. Costs ( 30 Metre tank )£20,000 for cutting and entry / base removal£4,000 for sand-bit floor screed replacement£5,000 for flexible liner£20,000 for new bottom plates£50,000 for inspection and Hydro Test£99,000So once these traditional repairs have failed, what are the options to repair this damage? Well traditionally we would have welded new steel and replaced the damaged areas but, that comes with some massive inherent costs…Plus :Tank cleaning / waste disposal costsTank out of service for 3 months
23Tank Base Sealing using Belzona After examining the alternative solutions and their problems, we will now take a look at the Belzona solution to this problem, tank base sealing using Belzona 3111 flexible membrane.
24Belzona System Advantages What makes the Belzona system better? BreathableFlexibleWeather resistantExcellent adhesion…The advantage of the Belzona system is that not only does it seal the joint as the other systems do, it is flexible allowing it to move in tandem with the tank. It has excellent adhesion to steel and concrete and it is weather resistant meaning it will not degrade as the other materials did over time. Being a cold applied system, it avoids hot work and as it is breathable, it will allow any trapped moisture to escape from under the tank meaning trapped moisture will escape and not cause corrosion. Other advantages are that as this a water based system it is very safe to use.Those are the advantages, how is it applied?
25Tank skirt refurbishment & protection Surface Preparation by grit blastingConditioning using Belzona Surface ConditionersFirst layer of Belzona 3111 Flexible Membrane and Belzona 9311 Reinforcement SheetFinal Layer of Belzona 3111 for full system.In addition to the Belzona 3111(Flexible Membrane) system, Belzona 3211 (Lagseal) system can be used where a fire rating is desirable to the client. The application method is the same but used Belzona 3211 and Belzona 9321
26Tank skirt refurbishment & protection Surface Preparation by grit blastingGrit blasting to 75 micron profile on the steel tank wall & tank basePit filling using a Paste grade product or plate bonding if necessary on the tank outside wallsRebuilding of the concrete base with a Belzona 4000 series product if heavily damagedThe area must be prepared. The steel surfaces must be clean and free from corrosion and the plinth must be clean and free from any loose materials. Where the plinth is damaged the plinth must be built up to provide a good surface for the Belzona to bond too. The best method of doing this is usually by applying Belzona 4111, 4131 or 4141.Metal that has suffered from corrosion must be grit blasted to SA2.5 near white metal cleanliness.
27Tank skirt refurbishment & protection 2. Conditioning using Belzona 3921General Surface Conditioner (GSC)Belzona 3921 GSC is applied on all the areas where the system is to be appliedBond breaker tape is applied between the metal surface and the baseMasking tapes keep the application neat and tidyBond Breaker tape is critical to the success of this application. It is used to prevent the Belzona 3111 or Belzona 3211 from sticking to the surface in that area which in turn allows the Belzona to stretch/elongate over a 50mm width (rather than 1mm at most) ensuring that the Belzona does not break as the tank expands and contracts
28Tank skirt refurbishment & protection 3. First Layer of Belzona 3111 and Reinforcement sheetApplication of the first Belzona 3111 layer can commence when the Belzona 3921 has cured (at least 4 hours, no more than 2 days)Reinforcement sheet is used to control application thickness and provide strength and flexibilityThe Belzona 3111 or Belzona 3211 should be applied as per the product IFU or the method statement using the correct reinforcing sheet.B3111 is a water based product (emulsion). If it rains you have to walk away. The reinforcement sheet is primarily included to help control the thickness of the application.
29Tank skirt refurbishment & protection 4. Application of final layer of Belzona 3111Application of the final second layer of Belzona 3111The complete system fully seals the tank baseThe complete system fully sealing the tank floor. Many Know How In Actions have been produced using this system.
30Belzona Solutions Overview Plate BondingSTORAGE TANKIn this section we will discuss is plate bonding. Plate bonding is a common but very simple and effective solution to thin and through wall defects. We will show later on in this section also how bonding is not limited to bonding of reinforcement plates but it can also be used to bond equipment in place. First let us look at bonding versus a more traditional method such as welding a plate in place.
31Forces are transferred through the HEAT AFFECTED zones only Welding or Bonding?Welding a doubler plate is a recognised technique. But, as is demonstrated in this picture, it causes the formation of areas affected by the heat of the welding machine. These heat affected zones are the only points at which the loads are transferred between the doubler plate and the tank wall. Also, if there is a through wall leak, the gap between the doubler plate and the tank wall will fill up with fluid and potentially cause crevice corrosion. Galvanic corrosion can also occur at the weld.Forces are transferred through the HEAT AFFECTED zones only
32100% contact so, forces are transferred through the ENTIRE BONDED AREA Welding or Bonding?In bonding however, the bonded area transmits the load over the whole area. There is no heat stressing. As the Belzona materials do not corrode or induce galvanic corrosion in the base material, further corrosion is prohibited. 100% solids materials mean no shrinkage and an excecllent bond.100% contact so, forces are transferred through the ENTIRE BONDED AREA
33Plate Bonding Advantages Very High Adhesion Impressive Impact ResistanceEasy to do on site - technology developed for use offshoreNo welding or similar problemsTried and tested solution…Compared to original 8mm deck, the composite plate can withstand greater static loading and higher impact loads before failureIn shear the composite sandwich is comparable to an equivalent weldThe composite sandwich provides the most reasonable compromise between cost and performance. It is considered robust enough to withstand the rigours of laydown area operationsPlate bonding can be carried out by either bonding using a Belzona paste grade or using a combination of bonding and gluing by injecting a fluid grade product for instance. The advantages of using Belzona to bond are that we will achieve excellent adhesion, avoid hot work, save time, safer application, simple, requires no special equipment, cold curing, can be carried out using different products for contaminated surface or faster or slower curing products for example. As with the tank sealing application, many examples exist already of bonding applications using Belzona materials. Let us look at a few in the next slides…
34Bonding ApplicationsA versatile and effective solution to many common problemsNot limited to plate bonding for leak sealing…Although leak sealing is one of the main reasons we use plate bonding in industry, we can also use it to bond new equipment in place as in this example taken from a water storage tank in a Coke production plant. Corrosion around the nozzle caused leakage. A new nozzle was bonded on using Belzona 1111.
35Bonding ApplicationsLeak sealing is one of the main reasons for carrying out plate bonding operationsCorrosion of the metal floor in this storage tank caused a severe leakage of oil into the environment. Welding was out of the question. The tank could not be drained so the leak could not be stoppedThe surfaces were grit blasted to the usual Belzona standards. Belzona 1111 was then applied to the plate as a dam. Belzona 1831 was then applied to the middle of the plate and the plate was forced onto the tank surface and allowed to cure. In order to hold the plates in place, mechanical stands were used to pin it in place. For smaller plates, temporary magnetic clamps can also be used.The Belzona solution employed here required no welding, stopped the live leak and protected the area
36Bonding ApplicationsMetal reinforcement prefabricated and bonded into place using Belzona 1321 injection technique. Bonding is not limited to bonding equipment using paste grade products. By applying a dam of paste grade product around this new equipment and introducing injection ports we can give 100% contact using an injected fluid grade product.
37Bonding ApplicationsBonding applications are not just confined to leak sealing and corrosion protectionSupports, walkways, stairs and lifting equipment can also be bonded using the same techniqueRelocation of two 22-ton riveted storage tanks.The plant was in desperate need of moving these tanks before putting them in service as water storage tanks.Calculations of the mechanical properties of Belzona1111 showed that 420 tons could be supported. This presented a safety margin of approximately 1,170%
38Other Bonding Applications Bonding can also be used to attach many other pieces of equipment such as…Wind Girders…As mentioned earlier, bonding applications are not only limited to bonding doubler plates onto tank walls. Bonding can also be used to attach a range of equipment such as… (list the three examples above).Stairways and walkways…Deluge systems…
39Other Leak Sealing Applications Leak sealing of a floating roof - just like any equipment which floats, if a leak occurs in a floating roof, it could sink!If there is a hole in the hull of a boat – it will sink! The same applies to a floating roof, it a hole occurs from corrosion, mechanical damage etc, the fluid inside the tank can seep through, sinking the roof. In this example a hole appeared on the floating roof of a tank. After surface preparation was carried out (pic1), the hole was plugged using Belzona B1291 (pic2). This patch was then permanently sealed using B1221 (pic3). Finally a layer of B2311 was applied to provide a flexible seal over the top of the repaired area.
40Internal and External Tank Linings We have discussed tank base sealing and then plate bonding. Now we will have a look at internal and external lining of storage tanks using Belzona coatings.
41Why Think About Lining Any Tank? Limitations of ConventionalMaterials of ConstructionCarbon SteelOverlaid Carbon SteelStainless SteelDuplex SteelsCorrosionGalvanicPittingCarbon steel will suffer a verity of corrosion mechanisms which can cause structural problems or loss of containment. Coating are widely use to prevent these. Other types of steel are often used in an attempt to prevent these mechanisms, typically these are considerably/many time more expensive and are themselves susceptible to stress corrosion cracking and bacterial (MIC – Microbial Influenced Corrosion) corrosion and in many cases will still require coating.More and more often customers are opting for the cheaper option of using carbon steel and coating them as opposed to using the more expensive exotic metals.CreviceStressBacterial
42Tank Construction Considerations Riveted or Welded seams?Check radii prior to applicationGrind smooth any irregularitiesUse a paste grade product to smooth and fair surface irregularitiesBefore application of a coating it is important that the tank construction is considered. Has it been riveted or welded together? If it has been welded are the welds protruding or irregular they should be faired using a paste grade material. A radius gauge should be used to check the profile of welds, joints, furniture or any edge or irregularity in the surface prior to coating application.
43Internal and External Linings Application Method Grit Blast steelCheck for contaminationPit fillingStripe coatingFirst coat applicationSecond coat applicationFinal inspectionThe method of application for both internal tank linings and external tank coatings is very similar. The basic application steps are as follows (list). It is important to conform to the Belzona Instructions For Use leaflets when applying any Belzona product in case there are special hold points.
44Belzona Solutions Overview STORAGE TANKExternal ProtectionIn this section we will look at the Belzona solution for external tank protection…
45External Protection Belzona 6111/5111 External corrosion can lead to thinning of the tank walls and potential leaksGrit blast steelFill in pitting if necessaryApply Belzona 6111 Liquid Anode for steel protectionApply two coats of Belzona 5111 Ceramic claddingExternal corrosion. The Belzona 5111/6111 system comprises two coats of Belzona 5111 and 2 coats of Belzona This system offers outstanding corrosion resistance and a durable, stain and UV resistance, aesthetic finish.Corrosion of Storage Tank caused by atmospheric effects due to the tank being previously uncoated. Protection of tank using the Belzona Metal Protection system of B6111 Liquid Anode and B5111 Ceramic Cladding. Chosen for its long term corrosion protection. The customer was assured of long term protection for his tanks from external corrosion expected to exceed 20 years in service.Result is not only corrosion protected but is also stain and UV resistant and aesthetically pleasing
46Belzona Solutions Overview STORAGE TANKInternal ProtectionIn the final section in this presentation we will examine the internal tank lining options offered by Belzona.
47Product Range Internal Lining Products Product ReferenceOperating temperatureSprayableSpark & thickness testableChemical resistanceErosion resistant581150ºC (122°F)YeslimitedNo132190ºC (194°F)excellent134160ºC (140°F)43115891good1391S110ºC (230°C)1391120ºC (248°F)1391T13921521150ºC (302°F)1591180ºC (365°C)Belzona produce a large range of Internal Lining solutions. The choice of product depends on the application situation. Do you require…Chemical resistance?A spray applied coating?High Temperature resistance?Erosion Resistance…We split the internal linings into high and low temperature range linings. The split occurs at 90 degrees C because this is traditionally the temperature limit for glass flake coatings, which are our main competitors in internal linings. This matrix provides a breakdown of the main internal linings provided by Belzona. As you can see we there are many, many options. We will not detail each product and it’s application but rather look at one or two examples of high and low temperature internal linings.
48Product Range Internal Linings for Service Below 90°C Belzona 1321 (Ceramic S-Metal)Belzona 1341 (Super metal Glide)Belzona 4311 (CR-1)Belzona 5811 (Immersion Grade)Belzona 5891 (High Temperature Immersion Grade)Belzona 5892 (High Temperature Immersion Grade 2)We would use B1321 for instance if the tank contains a slurry material or a material containing solid particles. Belzona 1341 provides a hydrophobic finish. Belzona 4311 is used in cases where chemical resistance is required. Belzona 5811 is a cost effective immersion grade product also produced in drinking water approved variants. Finally, Belzona B5891 is a higher temperature variant of Belzona 5811 operating in immersion up to 90 degrees C in immersion. B5892 was developed to overcome some of the problems associated with B5891. It has a 24 hour over coating window, lighter colour for improved visibility and otherwise similar properties to B5891 to ensure no mix ups occur in application.
49Application Internal Linings for Service Below 90°C Crude oil storage tanks in Brazil.Although this entire tank has been coated many will only be coated on the base and a few meters up the wall as this is often the main area of corrosion due to the presence of water in the tank which of cause will sink to the bottom as corrode only the bottom section of the tankRefinery in Brazil – Crude Oil Tanks. Failure of the coating on a crude oil storage tank. The tank was coated with Belzona 5811 immersion grade selected as being the best repair and coating alternative. 20,000 barrel crude oil storage tank. Spray applied two coat system.
50Product Range Internal Linings for Service Above 90°C Belzona 1391 (Ceramic High Temperature)Belzona 1391T (Trowel able grade)Belzona 1391S (Spray applied version of Belzona 1391)Belzona 1392 (Ceramic High Temperature 2)Belzona 1521 (High Temperature Spray Applied Coating)Belzona 1591 (Ceramic Extreme High Temperature Coating)Belzona 1391 provides corrosion protection even at elevated temperatures. Belzona 1391T was developed as a hand applied or “trowel able” grade which did not require preparation or washing between coats. Belzona 1391S is a spray able variant of Belzona Belzona 1392 was developed specifically to withstand immersion in temperature in acids. Belzona 1521 was designed as a one or two coat spray applied high temperature coating for use in hydrocarbon applications. Finally, Belzona 1591 Extreme high temperature was designed for immersion in aqueous hydrocarbon solutions up to 180 degrees C.
51Application Internal Linings for Service Above 90°C Corrosion in the tank baseOnly the problem areas were coated saving time and moneyBelzona 1521 was chosen for it’s resistance to hydrocarbons, spray capabilities and performance in hot water/ hydrocarbon situationsOnly coated on the base and a few meters up the wall as this is often the main area of corrosion due to the presence of water in the tank which of cause will sink to theThe presence of water in the oil which separates out to the bottom of the tank creating the potential for corrosion to occurbottom as corrode only the bottom section of the tank. The bottom of the tank and 1.5metres up the sidewall were coated using B1521 High temperature Spray Applied coating. The Belzona 1521 was chosen for its proven performance in hot water / hydrocarbon immersion situations and its ability to be spray applied.
52Belzona Solution Corrosion Protection of small bore nozzles Small bore nozzles are difficult to blast properly, difficult to apply coating and cannot inspect properlySame Belzona adhesive can be used to form flange face providing complete protection.A cost effective alternative to CRA is to insert corrosion inert sleeve and bond into place using suitable Belzona materialFlange faces can be rebuilt or protected using Belzona. As long as the flange is structurally sound the sealing face can be rebuilt on a wide variety of flange faces using a number of different methods. Watch out that the compressive strength of the Belzona is not exceeded, if in doubt check with Belzona.It is impossible to properly inspect coatings on the inside of small bore nozzles and thus these areas cannot be guaranteed to be pinhole and holiday free and thus cannot be warranted. Belzona solution to this is to bond in a pre-cast sleeve (insert) of pure Belzona to ensure that no holidays are present. Inserts can be made from a Varity of Belzona materials depending upon the service they will see, made in accordance with Belzona System Leaflet TCC-16a. The bonding material can then be carried onto the coating on the inside of the tank and but to the flange face ensuring that the hole tank is protected. Bonding should be carried out in accordance with Belzona System Leaflet TCC-16b.
53Major Opportunity Worldwide TANKS A LOT!There are oil storage tanks in every country, even more local than that. Like we said, in underground tanks every filling station has them. This is truly a global opportunity with the same problems whether in France or in Fiji.