Presentation on theme: "Teacher Demonstration Kit Introductory Presentation Presidents Council of Student Advisors."— Presentation transcript:
Teacher Demonstration Kit Introductory Presentation Presidents Council of Student Advisors
Presentation Overview What is Materials Science Ceramics Metals Polymers Composites What Does this Kit Provide Items Included in the Kit Important Demo Information Introductory/Supplemental Information for Each Demo Lesson PCSA Website Information References Acknowledgments
What is Materials Science Materials science is the study of solid matter Investigating the relationship between the atomic or molecular structure of a material and its micro- and macroscopic properties Examining and understanding what influences the properties of a material so that the right material can be selected for a particular application A material will typically fall into one of four classes: Ceramics Metals Polymers Composites Metals Ceramics Polymers Composites
What is a ceramic? Inorganic, nonmetallic solid created through heating and then cooling What are some unique properties of ceramics? Ceramics are generally brittle, hard, and strong in compression, but not other types of loading They are generally better at withstanding corrosive environments and high temperatures What are some common ceramic materials? Silica (sand) Alumina CorningWare ® Porcelain What is Materials Science Ceramics Alumina labware Ceramic coffee mugsPorcelain vase CorningWare ®
What is Materials Science Metals What is a metal? Elements or compounds that have good electrical and thermal conductivity What are some unique properties of metals? Metals are metallically bonded, and therefore their outer electrons can easily be removed They are generally malleable and ductile, and have higher densities than nonmetals What are some common metal materials? Elements: iron, copper, gold, silver, tin Alloys: steel, nitinol Metal bridge supports Metal tools
What is a polymer? Chemical compound with a structure of many repeating sub-units, often called monomers What are some unique properties of polymers? They tend to form glasses and semi-crystalline structures rather than crystalline Polymers are strong, flexible, non-reactive, and moldable What are some common polymer materials? Polvinyl chloride (PVC) Wool Shellac Rubber Nylon What is Materials Science Polymers PVC PipeWoolShellac
What is a composite? A material created from the combination of 2 or more different materials What are some unique properties of composites? Composites exhibit characteristics different from the characteristics of the individual materials included Properties can be tailored for a specific application by changing the amounts of individual materials included What is Materials Science Composites ++= + Portland cementWater Fine aggregate: Sand Coarse aggregate: Gravel Concrete
What is Materials Science Composites What are some common composites? Concrete Most widely used man-made material Composed of Portland cement, water, and aggregate Wood Natural composite made of cellulose fiber cells that are held together with a natural glue called lignin Tires Composed of rubber and one or more types of fibers Rubber holds the air inside while the fibers withstand the stresses imposed on the tire as the car is being driven Concrete Wood Tires
What Does this Kit Provide An introduction to materials science through interactive teacher-led demos Hot or Not: ceramics lesson that demonstrates materials can be designed to withstand very high temperatures Candy Fiber Pull: ceramics lesson that demonstrates the unique properties of glass by examining the solid-liquid and liquid-solid transitions of a glass-like system Piezoelectric Materials: ceramic/polymer lesson that demonstrates the piezoelectric effect in several materials and explains why this property exists in certain materials Shape Memory Alloy: metals lesson that demonstrates how the motion of atoms under added heat can change a metals shape Making Plastic: polymer lesson that demonstrates the process of making a polymer (plastic) from common ingredients
Items Included in the Kit 1 refractory brick 1 propane torch head 1 beaker 1 set of beaker tongs 6 nitinol wire 6 steel wire 2 piezoelectric polymer films 2 piezoelectric ceramic disks 4 light-emitting diodes (LEDs) 8 alligator clip sets 2 candy molds Flash drive with lesson documents Refractory brick Beaker Propane torch head Candy mold Steel wire LED Piezoelectric ceramic disk Piezoelectric polymer film Beaker tongs Flash drive Candy mold Alligator clip set Nitinol wire
Important Demo Information This kit is designed for the teacher to be running the experiment Involving students in the steps needed to perform the demo will help keep them engaged and interested – ask for volunteers to help with different parts of the demo Suggestions for how to incorporate student participation can be found in the Teacher Instructions and Teacher Discussion Questions for each lesson Have students bring in items needed for the demo to help peak the students interest
Important Demo Information For each demo, some items are provided in the kit and some will need to be purchased Items that must be purchased should be commonly available at a grocery or hardware store and were not included in the kit due to shipping issues or the need to replace these items after every demo For each demo, several documents are provided on the flash drive included in the kit Teacher Instructions Teacher Discussion Questions Student Questions Handout
The remainder of the presentation will focus on introductory/supplementary information for each demo
Hot or Not Ways to encourage student participation Allow students to read the temperature Allow older students to hold the propane torch Materials included in the kit 1 Refractory brick 1 Propane torch head Materials not included in the kit 1 Propane tank (1 liter) 1 Spark lighter or matches 1 Thermometer Refractory brick Propane torch head Propane tank Thermometer Spark lighter
Hot or Not Objective To demonstrate that materials can be designed to withstand very high temperatures Background Information When heat is transferred, it must have physical matter to move through Heat can transfer through conduction, convection, radiation, or advection For conduction, heat vibrates the atoms in a material which then transfers energy to other atoms in a process called thermal conductance Gases, such as air, contain very little matter in comparison with solids or liquids and insulate heat from flowing
Hot or Not Background Information, continued Refractory bricks are made from ceramic fibers that can withstand extreme temperatures without melting The bricks are very porous, meaning that they contain a large amount of trapped air between the ceramic fibers The trapped air slows the movement of heat through the material A similar material was used on the space shuttle to protect the ship and the crew from outside temperatures of > 1200°C achieved upon re-entry of the shuttle into Earths atmosphere Demo Description A torch will be used to heat one side of a refractory brick, demonstrating that the other side remains cool Thermal image showing temperature of underside of space shuttle
Hot or Not Keyword Definitions Heat – the energy (other than work) that is transferred from one body to another Temperature – the measurement of the amount of heat present in an object Insulator – material that resists the flow of heat (e.g. ceramics or plastics) Thermal conductor – material that aids in the flow of heat (e.g. metals) Refractory – a substance that is chemically and physically stable at high temperatures and is resistant to thermal shock Porous – having many small spaces (i.e. pores) that can hold a gas or liquid or allow gas or liquid to pass through
Hot or Not Real World Applications The NASA Space Shuttles used special lightweight, porous refractory tiles to prevent the aluminum frame from melting due to high temperatures during re-entry into Earths atmosphere. When melting a material, another material with a higher melting temperature is needed to hold it. Refractory bricks are used in foundries as molds for large metal pieces.
Hot or Not Supplementary Information Steps for assembling the propane torch Step 1: Remove the plastic cap from the propane tank Step 2: Check that the torch heads adjustment knob is turned to Off Step 3: Screw the torch head onto the propane tank Step 4: Turn the knob to open the valve until you hear hissing Step 5: Point the torch head in a safe direction away from you and ignite the gas by activating the spark lighter (or a match) 2 inches from the end of the torch head Step 6: Using the knob, adjust the flame until you have a pointed blue flame with a hint of yellow at the tip Step 7: When finished with the torch, turn off the flame and propane by turning the knob to the Off position
Hot or Not Supplementary Information, continued Pictures demonstrating the propane torch assembly and proper use Step 1Step 2Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Step 7
Hot or Not Supplementary Information, continued There are a variety of propane tanks available that are suitable for the torch head included in the kit One of the cheaper options is the green 1 liter propane tank found in the camping aisle of stores like Wal-Mart ® Likewise, a number of different thermometers will work for this demo The thermometer is placed on the cool side of the brick, therefore high temperatures should not be an issue Two suppliers of acceptable thermometers for this demo are: Amazon - Thermometer/dp/B00004XSC4/ Thermometer/dp/B00004XSC4/ McMaster Carr -
Candy Fiber Pull Ways to encourage student participation Ask students to help pull the fibers Turn this into a game to see who can get the longest fiber Materials included in the kit Beaker Beaker tongs Materials not included in the kit Hotplate Jolly Ranchers ® Popsicle sticks/wooden skewers Beaker Beaker tongs Hotplate
Candy Fiber Pull Objective To demonstrate the unique properties of glass by examining the solid-liquid and liquid-solid transitions of a glass-like system Background Information Glass is an amorphous solid, meaning its atomic arrangement has no long-range order Crystalline structure Amorphous structure
Candy Fiber Pull Background Information, continued As glass is heated, its viscosity decreases until it flows like water Glass-liquid transition As glass cools, its viscosity slowly increases Liquid-glass transition Allows the glass to be molded into many different shapes Glass-liquid transition typically occurs due to heating Liquid-glass transition typically occurs due to cooling or compression Molten (liquid) glassSolid glass vases
Candy Fiber Pull Background Information, continued Cotton candy (and other candies) make use of the glass- liquid and liquid-glass transitions to form a desired shape Sugar is heated until reaching a molten (thick liquid) state The molten sugar is then squeezed through small holes of a spinner into a large bowl The thin sugar fibers solidify almost immediately in room temperature air, creating cotton candy When you eat the cotton candy, the heat from your tongue causes the fibers to dissolve into liquid form again Spinning cotton candy fibers (liquid-glass transition) Licking cotton candy fibers (glass-liquid transition)
Candy Fiber Pull Demo Description Jolly Ranchers ® will be heated until reaching a molten state to demonstrate the glass-liquid transition Using wooden skewers, candy fibers will be pulled from the beaker to demonstrate the liquid-glass transition The fiber will be almost instantly cooled once it is removed from the beaker due to the small diameter of the fiber and the temperature difference between the air and the molten Jolly Rancher ® Students can then eat the cooled fibers to again demonstrate the glass-liquid transition
Candy Fiber Pull Keyword Definitions Glass – an amorphous, brittle solid which exhibits a glass- liquid transition when heated Liquid – fundamental state of matter characterized as having a definite volume, but no shape Solid – fundamental state of matter characterized by structural rigidity Amorphous – non-crystalline material that lacks a long- range atomic order Glass-liquid transition – reversible reaction in amorphous materials from a hard, brittle state to a semi-liquid, molten state
Candy Fiber Pull Real World Applications Fiber optic communications use pulled (drawn) glass or polymer fibers to guide pulses of light over long distances, allowing for information and communication at the speed of light. Glass fibers can be used to make a lightweight composite known as Fiberglass. It is used in high-performance sports equipment, such as in alternating layers with epoxy resin in surf boards.
Candy Fiber Pull Supplementary Information This demo has the potential to get messy The best way to clean up the fibers is with hot water which will dissolve the sugary fibers If you have other beakers readily available in your classroom, use the beaker in the kit for this lesson only Keep this beaker for food use only so that students can eat the fibers without having to worry about contamination from the beaker If using this beaker for food use only, be sure to label it so that students dont accidentally use it for another experiment The beaker should be thoroughly washed (using soap/dishwashing liquid) after every use to avoid contamination
Piezoelectric Materials Ways to encourage student participation Allow each student to test the polymer film and ceramic disk so they can see that different materials can create the piezoelectric effect Materials included in the kit 2 Piezoelectric ceramic disks 2 Piezoelectric polymer films 4 Light emitting diodes (LEDs) 8 Alligator clip sets Materials not included in the kit 9 volt battery Musical greeting card Headphones Piezoelectric polymer film Piezoelectric ceramic disk LED Alligator clip set Voltmeter
Piezoelectric Materials Objective To demonstrate the piezoelectric effect in several materials and explain why this property exists in certain materials Background Information The piezoelectric effect When a mechanical stress is applied to piezoelectric materials, they generate a voltage The effect is reversible Caused by the structure of the material Piezoelectric materials are everywhere! Sensors, headphones, and ultrasonic transducers Piezoelectric materials are a necessary component of the electronics you use everyday! Headphones
Piezoelectric Materials Demo Description The piezoelectric effect of a ceramic disk and a polymer film will be examined LEDs will be used to demonstrate the piezoelectricity of these materials The influence of applied voltage on the polymer film will also be investigated Musical greeting cards and headphones will be used to demonstrate real-world applications of piezoelectric materials
Piezoelectric Materials Keyword Definitions Piezoelectric – effect of generating electric charge from applied force Ceramic – classification of materials which are inorganic, non-metal solids Polymer – classification of materials which are characterized by long, chain-like molecules that typically have repeating sub-units Structure – arrangement of atoms within a material Potential – difference in electric charges resulting in the capacity to do work Force – influence exerted on an object, such as pressure or tension
Piezoelectric Materials Real World Applications A piezoelectric device in the heel of your shoe may soon be able to harvest enough energy from walking to power your cell phone. A remote control whose signal is powered from the push of buttons rather than being powered by batteries.
Shape Memory Alloy Ways to encourage student participation Allow students to bend the wire and to put it in the hot water Materials included in the kit 6 Nitinol wire 6 Steel wire Beaker Beaker tongs Materials not included in the kit Hotplate Water Beaker Beaker tongs Steel wireNitinol wire Hotplate
Shape Memory Alloy Objective of this lab To demonstrate how the motion of atoms under added heat can change the shape of metals Background Information Nitinol is a nickel titanium alloy (~50%Ni, ~50%Ti) that has 2 phases high temperature phase – austenite low temperature phase – martensite When deformed at a low temperature and then heated, nitinol will return to the shape established at the high temperature as the atoms rearrange themselves back to their high temperature positions Nitinol phase transformation
Shape Memory Alloy Demo Description During this demo, a nano-scale change is impacting the macro-scale! Shape memory alloys return to their original shape when heated, while other alloys do not Nitinol wire, a shape memory alloy, will be subjected to heat treatment Steel wire will also be subjected to heat treatment The behavior of the two wires will be compared and the mechanisms behind each behavior will be discussed
Shape Memory Alloy Keyword Definitions Phase – region of a material that is chemically uniform, physically distinct, and usually mechanically separable Phase change – a change from one phase to another (often caused by a change in temperature) Thermal shape memory – ability of a material to remember its original, cold-forged shape and return to it when heated Alloy – a metal containing two or more elements Nanoscale – features smaller than 1/10 of a micrometer Macroscale – features measurable and observable with the naked eye Crystal structure – unique and orderly arrangement of atoms or molecules in a crystalline solid
Shape Memory Alloy Real World Applications Nitinol stents can be inserted into a blocked artery where the temperature of the blood is warm enough to trigger reversion to its original expanded shape, opening the artery enough for proper blood flow. NASA and several aircraft companies developed this jagged exhaust cone shape out of shape memory alloys, which change shape from the heat of the exhaust to reduce engine noise when running at full power.
Making Plastic Ways to encourage student participation Students can form a model polymer by connecting themselves in a human chain! Have students help with adding the milk and vinegar as well as stirring the solution Materials included in the kit 2 Candy molds Materials not included in the kit Milk Vinegar 2 Large pots Metal or plastic spoon Strainer/colander Tin foil/wax paper Paper towels Hotplate Tape Construction paper Popsicle sticks Hotplate Candy mold
Making Plastic Objective To demonstrate the process of making a polymer (plastic) from common ingredients Background Information The word polymer is derived from two Greek words: Polus = many Meros = parts The literal meaning of polymer is many parts, which refers to the fact that a polymer is composed of many repeating subunits The subunits are often referred to as monomers, or mers for short
Making Plastic Background Information, continued Atomic structure of a mer and a polymer Molecules are groups of atoms bonded together Polymers are large molecules arranged in different ways Tend to form long, chain-like molecules
Making Plastic Demo Description Students will learn about the atomic structure of polymers by forming a human chain in the shape of a mer and a polymer Next, a polymer will be made from milk and vinegar A thermal treatment will be used to break the milk down into small mer units Vinegar will be added to the milk to cause a reaction in the mer units The mer units will connect and form long chains (polymers) The polymer will be filtered to remove excess liquid and then poured into a mold Two candy molds are included in the kit, but other molds can be used as well Be creative!
Making Plastic Milk + Heat C H H Organic Compounds broken down into small segments mers Vinegar Added Small segments bond together to form long tangled carbon chains C H H C H H C H H C H H C H H C C HH H C C HH H C C HH H C C HH H HH HH Plastic is Molded and Dried Demo Description, continued Schematic of plastic-making process
Making Plastic Keyword Definitions Polymer: chemical compound with a structure of many repeating sub-units Molecule: a group of 2 or more atoms that is electrically neutral and characterized by covalent chemical bonds Organic molecule: a molecule that contains carbon atoms Chemical reaction: the change of one substance or molecule into a new one that usually has different chemical properties than the original substance or molecule
Making Plastic Real World Applications Polymers injected into molds are used to make an enormous variety of products, from cell phone frames and cases to childrens toys, household appliances, and tools. Plastics are usually cheap and easy to manufacture and form, making them the material of choice for mass-produced products.
PCSA Website Information Additional information can be found on the PCSA website, including: Student Laboratory kit available for purchase FREE downloadable versions of the lesson documents for this kit and the Student Laboratory kit FREE downloadable supplementary kit for use with liquid nitrogen Videos demonstrating the labs and providing trouble shooting information (coming soon!) Check the website often for new information!
References Image References, continued NASA jagged exhaust cone - Cell phone cases - Phone-Case-for-iPhone-VARIOUS-COLOR-.htmlhttp://wenfengsheng2012.en.made-in-china.com/product/mvznUjqSsxhJ/China-Smooth-Plastic- Phone-Case-for-iPhone-VARIOUS-COLOR-.html Plastic toy cars - Kitchen utensils - Headphones - Tennis shoes - Remote control - Molten glass – Glass vases - Spinning cotton candy - Eating cotton candy - Fiber optics - Surfboard schematic - ALL other images were taken by the PCSA
Acknowledgments Special thanks to the following companies and individuals, whose generous donations ensure the continued operation of the PCSA, which allows for projects such as this kit to come to fruition!* Advanced Cerametrics, Inc. (2013) Almatis, Inc. (2013) Association of American Ceramic Component Manufacturers (AACCM) (2010, 2011) ACerS Basic Science Division (2010) Ceramco Inc. (2010, 2012, 2013) Corning Incorporated (2010) Deltech, Inc. (2011, 2013) ACerS Electronics Division (2010) Fusion Ceramics Inc. (2013) ACerS Glass and Optical Materials Division (2010) Jain, Dilip (2010) Kyocera International, Inc. (2010) Marra, Jim and Sharon (2010) *Donors from 1/1/2010 through 9/27/2013
Acknowledgments Special thanks, continued* Mo-Sci Charitable Foundation (2011, 2012, 2013) Mo-Sci Corporation (2011, 2012, 2013) ACerS New Mexico Section (2010, 2012, 2013) ACerS Nuclear and Environmental Technology Division (2010) Ohio State Universitys Center for Emergent Materials (2013) Okamura, Kiyohito (2010) ACerS Pacific Northwest Section (2012) Reldon & Hattie Cooper Charitable Fund (2010, 2011, 2012, 2013) Spahr, Charlie (2010, 2012) Superior Technical Ceramics (2012, 2013) Unifrax Corporation (2010) Zircoa, Inc. (2012) *Donors from 1/1/2010 through 9/27/2013
Acknowledgments The PCSA would also like to thank the following individuals for their valuable input and feedback in the creation of these lesson documents: Debbie Goodwin, ASM Master Teacher Andy Nydam, ASM Master Teacher Teacher attendees from the ASM Materials Camp ® Teachers Camps, June 24-28, 2013, and July 22 – 26, 2013, Columbus, Ohio D ISCLAIMER : ACerS Presidents Council of Student Advisors (PCSA) provides this introductory presentation in an editable PowerPoint format so that teachers may adapt the document for their classroom needs. The PCSA encourages teachers to download and modify this document as needed for their own classroom and to provide this document to other teachers who are interested. As a result, you may not be reading an original version of the document. Original versions of the document may be downloaded from This disclaimer should be present in every version of the document that is shared among teachers.www.ceramics.org/pcsasciencekits
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