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A PRESENTION ON THE DESIGN OF AN OFFICE BUILDING By Kalpesh P.

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General information about the building Design of Slabs Design of Beams, columns and Foundation Design of shear and retaining walls Design of Stair case Green Engineering and Aesthetics Aspect Material (concrete) Usage Estimation References

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Building An office building Located in Syracuse A three-story of 58 ft high building Has three buildings separated by an expansion joint Two freight, Two passenger elevators Two stair cases Retaining wall – Height of 10 ft Materials used Concrete -6000psi and Steel-60000psi ACI and International building codes adopted

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Top View Shear Walls 10 2 s

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16 26 16 25 Flat Plate Flat Slab Slab with beams Slab on ground 25 Parapet 1 Staircase 2 Freight elevators 2 Passenger elevators

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Flat plate Flat Slab Flat Slab Slab with interior beam Slab with interior beam Slab on Ground Slab on Ground

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16 26 16 25 Flat Plate Flat Slab Slab with beams Slab on ground 25

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Expansion Joint

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Source by Design Handbook: section 4 http://www.copper.org/homepage.html

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Using Two-way slabs, Direct Design Method (ACI Code) Find a load combination Find a load combination Find a slab thickness Find a slab thickness Obtain a static moment (M o ) Obtain a static moment (M o ) Distribution of a static moment Distribution of a static moment Percentage of design moment resisted by column strip Percentage of design moment resisted by column strip Find A s, and Select steel for reinforcement Find A s, and Select steel for reinforcement Shear check Shear check

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BC W 25 ft W 7 8 9 Strip Design

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U = 1.2(D + F + T) + 1.6(L + H) + 0.5(L r or S or R) Dead load (D)=150 psf x thickness of slab Topping load (T)= 20 psf Live load (LL)= 50 psf Finishing load (F)= 20 psf Rain load (R)= 62.5 psf Snow load (S)= 46.2 psf Roof live load(L r )= 12.0 psf

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Types of Slab Flat Plate Flat Slab Slab with Beams Slab Thickness 987 Load combination (U) 226.25 psf 224 psf 203 psf Static Moment (M o ) 401.61 ft-k 397.62 ft-k 370.90 ft-k

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Flat plate

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6 7 8 9 10 Flat plate

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MTC is the same as MT but with bar #5 c/c 13.5 in CTCY is the same as CT1Y but with bar #4 c/c 12 in CTC is the same as CTY but with bar # 5 c/c 10 in CBC1Y is the same as CB1Y but with bar # 5 c/c 16 in Flat plate TypeStripPlaced @ Specification Bar No.Spacing (in), Length and type CTcolumntop5 CT1columntop5 CT2columntop5 CTYcolumntop5 CT1Ycolumntop5 CT2Ycolumntop5 CBcolumnbottom4 CB1columnbottom5 CBYcolumnbottom4 CB1Ycolumnbottom5 MBmiddlebottom4 MTmiddletop4 MT1middletop4 L= 15.4ft c/c 15 in L= 10.6 ft c/c 15 in L= 9.5 ft c/c 13 in L= 7.2 ft c/c 13 in L= 15.4 ft c/c 16in L=10.6 ft c/c 16in L= 15.4 ft c/c 14in L=10.6 ft c/c 14in L= 15.4 ft c/c 15in L=10.6 ft c/c 15in L= 7.5 ft c/c 12 in L= 25ft c/c 12 in L= 25ft c/c 20 in L= 26.5ft c/c 20 in L= 25ft c/c 11.5 in L= 25ft c/c 21 in L= 26.5ft c/c 21 in L= 12 ft c/c 12in L= 25.5ft c/c 24 in L= 17ft c/c 24 in L= 9.5 ft c/c 12in L= 7.2 ft c/c 12 in

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#4 bars@ 12, L = 7.5 #4 bars@ 24, L = 17 #4 bars@ 24, L = 25 #4 bars@ 24, L = 17 #4 bars@ 24, L = 25 #4 bars@ 12, L = 12 #5 bars@ 15, L = 15.4 #5 bars@ 15, L = 10.6 #4 bars@ 12, L = 7.5 #5 bars@ 20, L = 25 #5 bars@ 20, L = 26 #4 bars@ 24, L = 17 #4 bars@ 24, L = 25 #5 bars@ 13, L = 9.5 #5 bars@ 13, L = 7.2 #4 bars@ 12, L = 25 #5 bars@ 15, L = 15.4 #5 bars@ 15, L = 10.6 #5 bars@ 16, L = 15.4 #5 bars@ 16, L = 10.6 #5 bars@ 21, L = 25 #5 bars@ 21, L = 26 #5 bars@ 20, L = 25 #5 bars@ 20, L = 26 #4 bars@ 24, L = 17 #4 bars@ 24, L = 25 #5 bars@ 15, L = 15.4 #5 bars@ 15, L = 10.6 #4 bars@ 12, L = 7.5 9 12 3 12 3 9 Column Strip Middle Strip Flat Plate

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Flat Slab

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G 6 7 8 9 10 Flat Slab

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MTC is the same as MT but with bar #5 c/c 13.5 inCBC1Y is the same as CB1Y but with bar # 5 c/c 16 in CTC is the same as CTY but with bar # 5 c/c 10 inMB1 is the same as MB but with bar #4 c/c 24 in CTCY is the same as CT1Y but with bar #4 c/c 12 in Flat Slab TypeStripPlaced @ Specification Bar No.Spacing (in), Length and type CTcolumntop5 CT1columntop5 CT2columntop5 CTYcolumntop5 CT1Ycolumntop5 CT2Ycolumntop5 CBcolumnbottom4 CB1columnbottom5 CBYcolumnbottom4 CB1Ycolumnbottom5 MBmiddlebottom4 MTmiddletop4 MT1middletop4 L= 17ft c/c 13 in L= 11 ft c/c 13 in L= 9.1 ft c/c 12 in L= 6 ft c/c 12 in L= 17 ft c/c 14in L=11 ft c/c 14in L= 17 ft c/c 12in L=11 ft c/c 12in L= 17 ft c/c 13in L=11 ft c/c 13in L= 6.5 ft c/c 12.5 in L= 25ft c/c 11 in L= 25ft c/c 17 in L= 26.5ft c/c 17 in L= 25ft c/c 10 in L= 25ft c/c 19 in L= 26.5ft c/c 19 in L= 12 ft c/c 12.in L= 25ft c/c 27 in L= 22ft c/c 27 in L= 9.1 ft c/c 10 in L= 6 ft c/c 10 in

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#4 bars@ 12.5, L = 6.5 #4 bars@ 27, L = 22 #4 bars@ 27, L = 25 #4 bars@ 27, L = 22 #4 bars@ 27, L = 25 #4 bars@ 12, L = 12 #5 bars@ 12, L = 9.1 #5 bars@ 12, L = 6 #4 bars@ 11, L = 25 #5 bars@ 13, L = 17 #5 bars@ 14, L = 17 #5 bars@ 14, L = 11 #5 bars@ 19, L = 25 #5 bars@ 19, L = 26.5 #5 bars@ 17, L = 25 #5 bars@ 17, L = 26.5 #4 bars@ 27, L = 22 #4 bars@ 27, L = 25 #5 bars@ 10, L = 9.1 #5 bars@ 10, L = 6 #4 bars@ 12.5, L = 6.5 8 12 3 12 3 8 Column Strip Middle Strip Flat Slab 2 L = 4.2 #5 bars@ 10, L = 9.1 #5 bars@ 10, L = 6 #4 bars@ 12.5, L = 6.5 #5 bars@ 17, L = 25 #5 bars@ 17, L = 26.5 #4 bars@ 27, L = 22 #4 bars@ 27, L = 25

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CT1 MB MB1 MB MB1 MB MB1 CT CTy CT CBy CB CB1 CB CB1 CT CB1 MT MB MB1 MB MB1 MT MB1 MB MB1 MB MB1 MT MT1 CT1 CT CB CB1 CT1 MT1 CT1 MT1 CT1 MT1 CT CB CT CB CT CB1 CT1 CT CB CT CBy CT CB1 CT CB CB1 CT CT2 CB CB1 CT2 MT1 1 2 34 5 E C D A B Slab with Beams

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G 6 7 8 9 10 MT1 CT1 CT MB MBw MB MBw MB MB1 MB MB1 CTy CT2 CT CBy CB CBy CB CBC CB CB1 CT CB1 CB CB1 MT MTC MT MTw MT MB MB1 MB MB1 MT MB MB1 MT MT1 CT1 CT CBCB1 CT1 MT1 CT1 MT1 CTy CBy CT CB CTy CBC CB CT1 CTy CBy CT CB CT C BC CB CT CB CB1 MT1 MT! MT1 F D E B C v M B MB1 MB MB1 MT CB1 MT CB MT CB1 MT C B1 MT1 CB MT1 CB1 CB MT1 CB MT MBw MB1 CT CTy CT2 CT MT1 C B1 CT CT2 MT1 MB CT Slab with Beams

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TypeStripPlaced @ Specification Bar No.Spacing (in), Length and type CTcolumntop3 CT1columntop3 CBcolumnbottom3 CB1columnbottom3 MTmiddletop3 MT1middletop3 MBmiddlebottom3 MB1middletop3 L= 15.4ft c/c 17 in L= 10.6 ft c/c 17 in L= 9.5 ft c/c 17 in L= 7.2 ft c/c 17 in L= 7.5 ft c/c8.5in L= 25ft c/c 8.5 in L= 25ft c/c 17 in L= 26.5ft c/c 17 in L= 12 ft c/c 6.5 in L= 25.5ft c/c 17 in L= 17ft c/c 17 in L= 25.5ft c/c 15 in L= 17ft c/c 15 in MTC is the same as MT1 but with bar #5 c/c 10.5 in MTW is the same as MT but with bar # 4 c/c 20 in MBW is the same as MB but with bar #4 c/c 24 Slab with Interior Beams

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#3 bars@ 8.5, L = 7.5 #3 bars@ 17, L = 17 #3 bars@ 17, L = 25.5 #3 bars@ 15, L = 17 #3 bars@ 15, L = 25.5 #3 bars@ 6.5, L = 12 #3 bars@ 17, L = 9.5 #3 bars@ 17, L = 7.2 #3 bars@ 8.5, L = 25 #3 bars@ 15, L = 15.4 #3 bars@ 15, L = 10.6 #3 bars@ 17, L = 15.4 #3 bars@ 17, L = 10.6 #3 bars@ 17, L = 25 #3 bars@ 17, L = 26.5 #3 bars@ 17, L = 25 #3 bars@ 17, L = 26 #3 bars@ 15, L = 17 #3 bars@ 15, L = 25.5 #3 bars@ 17, L = 9.5 #3 bars@ 17, L = 7.2 #3 bars@ 8.5, L = 7.5 7 12 3 12 3 7 Column Strip Middle Strip Slab with Beams #3 bars@ 17, L = 9.5 #3 bars@ 17, L = 7.2 #3 bars@ 8.5, L = 7.5 #3 bars@ 17, L = 25 #3 bars@ 17, L = 26 #3 bars@ 15, L = 17 #3 bars@ 15, L = 25.5

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Slab thickness = 6 Slab thickness = 6 Using minimum shrinkage and temperature reinforcement (A s = 0.0018bh) Using minimum shrinkage and temperature reinforcement (A s = 0.0018bh) Rebar # 3 @ 10 on center in two directions Rebar # 3 @ 10 on center in two directions Placing rebar at 2 lower the top of the slab Placing rebar at 2 lower the top of the slab

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Beams Edge beams Interior Beams Columns Column at a corner Exterior Columns Interior columns Footing Footing under a corner column Footing under an edge column Footing under an interior column Common footing

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Loading on beams: Depends on their location in a floor and along a story The loads may include Loads from Slabs Self weight of beams Weight of walls or attachments that directly lie or attached on the beams Parapet Walls Curtain walls Partition walls

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Load transfer from slabs Load transfer from curtain walls slabs

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Floor level Factored Design loads Due to parapet wall Udl- k/ft Due to self weight of beam stem/web Udl- k/ft Due to glass curtain walls Udl – k/ft Weight from slabs ( triangular) w (k/ft) Flat plate0.090.110.0722.82 Flat slab00.1250.1442.79 Floor with beams 00.1410.1892.61 Grade beams 00.2510.1170

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SAP 2000 is used for analysis

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Loading diagram (axis 1B-2B-3B-4B-5B) for the purpose of calculating additional moments due to self weight of beam Loading diagram (axis 1B- 2B-3B-4B-5B) for the purpose of calculating shear in internal beams due to loads from slab

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Longitudinal Reinforcement(edg e beams) Bending ( two types of sections need to be considered) Moments (kips-ft) Beams @level A1 suppor t A1-A2 span A2 suppor t A2- A3 span A3 suppor t A3-A4 span A4 suppor t A4- A5 span A5 suppor t Flat plate66.7576.01118.7459.64103.4959.64118.7476.0166.75 Flat Slab90.5365.43110.0060.2105.2660.211065.4390.53 Slab w/beams 74.4268.6111.7157.58100.7357.88111.7168.674.42 Ground18.219.7719.59.4519.299.4519.59.7718.21 Shear Reinforcment Vertical shear Torsional shear ( for the case of edge beams)

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Check depth for moment and shear capacity Calculate reinforcements Longitudinal reinforcement ( for moment and torsion if applicable) Shear reinforcements for ( vertical shear and torsion if applicable) The max torsion in the beams was found to be smaller than the torsion capacity requirement for the x-section for torsion to be neglected The shear reinforcement was found to be governed by the max spacing as per ACI requirement i.e. for #3 double leg stirrups @ 6.75 in on center- to-center

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Longitudinal Reinforcement bw(in)=12d(in)=13.5 Beam (bw=12 in; d=14.5in) A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 Support Moment -66.18 -119.6 -103 -119.6 -66.18 Span Moment 76.56 59.8 76.56 Req'd reinf.(in2), supp 1.1912 2.1528 1.854 2.1528 1.19124 Req'd reinf.(in2), span 1.2939 1.010620 1.293864 Min. reinf 0.54 Reinf Provide 1.19121.29392.15281.010621.8541.010622.15281.2938641.19124 Bar # used 778787877 area of bar 0.6 0.790.60.790.60.790.6 #bars req'd 1.98542.15642.72506331.684372.3468351.6843672.7250632.156441.9854 bars used2#72#7+1#63#82#72#8 + 1 #62#72#8 +1#72#7+1#62#7 Note: Similar tabular calculations are made for all beams

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INTERIOR BEAMS

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Loads Moments and axial forces from frame analyis Self-weight of columns Frame is braced Check slenderness of the column Calculated magnified moments Design for Reinforcement is made using STAAD.etc, using the ACI code

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Third story corner column Third story edge column First story interior column

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Column@ level Column type Design actionsMagnified actions Reinforcement required P (kips)M x (k-ft)M y (k-ft)M x (k-ft)M y (k-ft) Third st.short41.166.75 8#8 bars Second st.short84.4449.75 4#8 bars First stslender127.6724.26 4#8 bars foundationshort141.394.88 4#8 bars Column@ level Column type Analysis actionsMagnified actions Reinforcement required P (kips)M x (k-ft)M y (k-ft)M x (k-ft)M y (k-ft) Third st.short81.040114.897.43114.896#8 bars Second st.short163.654.1256.8713.956.874#8 bars First stslender244.142.3528.4828.66 4#8 bars Foundationshort255.48021.65 4#8 bars Column@ level Column type Design actionsMagnified actions Reinforcement required P (kips)M x (k-ft)M y (k-ft)M x (k-ft)M y (k-ft) Third stor.short144.670013.1 4#8 bars Second st.short287.930027.68 4#8 bars firstslender425.20075.17 8#8 foundatio n short427.50044 8#8 bars CORNER COLUMN EDGE COLUMN INTERIOR COLUMN

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Corner Column Interior Column Edge Column

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Loading Loading from Column Surcharge load Floor loading Soil load resting on the footing

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Bearing pressure distribution Loading Critical section for two way shear Critical section for one way shear Critical section for bending

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Purpose Behavior of wall Components Design Sequence Drainage System Reinforcement Detailing

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Retaining structures hold back soil or other loose material where an abrupt change in ground elevation occurs. Behavior of Retaining wall Wall – T at rear face & C at front face. Heel - T at upper face & C at bottom face. Toe- T at bottom face & C at upper face. Shear Key – provides to resistance to sliding.

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Loads: Due to surcharge - 0.363 kip/ft 2 ( Acting Downward) Active earth pressure – 2.4kip/ft 2 (Acting Horizontally) Determined the dimensions of retaining wall. Checked length of heel & toe for stability against sliding & overturning. F.O.S against overturning =3.92>2 F.O.S against sliding = 2>1.5 Calculated base soil pressure. Base Soil Pressure: P max = 1.66 Ksf P min = 0.62 Ksf Provided Shear Key. Checked Stem thickness. Checked Heel & Toe thickness. Reinforcement: ComponentMain Reinforcement Distribution Reinforcement Shrinkage Reinforcement Distribution Reinforcement Stem#5@8#3@11#3@12#3@11 Heel#5@8#4@8#4@12 Toe#5@8#4@8#4@12

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Purpose To release the hydrostatic pressure. Provided perforated 8 diameter pipe laid along the base of the wall &surrounded by gravels(stone filter)

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Introduction Specification of Elevator Design Consideration Shear wall slab & footing Reinforcement detailing

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To resist lateral forces due to wind To provide additional strength during earthquake Shear walls often are placed in Elevator or Staircase areas Elevator Specification No. of person Rated capacity(kg) Rated speed(m/ s) Car internal Ceiling height Passenger Elevator 1510001.55.9x4.927.3 Freight Elevator -12001.57.22x7.4

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Calculated wind load which is 26psf by using ACI code( P s =λ I P s30) V u < φV n Calculated maximum shear strength permitted by φV n = φ 10 fc h w d Calculated shear Strength provided by concrete is Vc = 3.3 fc h w d + N u d/4 l w Vu<<φVc (No Shear reinforcement required) Calculating Area of steel which is governed by Minimum Reinforcement in wall in our case Section has been checked by PCAcol. Provided Minimum wall Reinforcement governed by ACI. Vertical reinforcement Ast = 0.0012.b.d Provided #3@ 10 Horizontal reinforcement Ast = 0.002.b.d Provided #3@ 6

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Slab Design Steps Load – 250k As = Reinforcement provided #5@ 6 (Both Direction) Footing Design Steps Loads & moments calculated at the base of footing Calculated factored Soil pressure = Factored load/Area Desiged footing as a strip Integrated 3 beams

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Staircase Shear Wall Footing for shear wall

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Staircase is designed as cantilever Stairs Load Calculated using Total Load= (L.L+ Floor to Floor Finish + Self Weight of Waist Slab + Weight of Step) Moment was calculated and tension is on the top Steel Area = A st =M u / φ F y (d-0.5a) Shrinkage and Temperature reinforcement is calculated using Area of Shrinkage = 0.0018 x b x d Development Length Check was made by using formula

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Description Bar size designation & Spacing Location Main reinforcement in Tread #7 @ 4.5 In the Tension zone of tread Main reinforcement in Midlanding #4 @ 4.5In Midlanding Span Shrinkage Cracking and temperature reinforcement #3 @ 7In Tread & Waist slab in both direction Shrinkage Cracking and temperature reinforcement is provided to minimize the cracking and tie the Structure together and achieve Structural integrity Development Length is provided because to develop the required stress in bar

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SHEAR WALL IS A STRUCTURAL ELEMENT USED TO RESIST LATERAL/HORIZONTAL/SHEAR FORCES PARALLEL TO THE PLANE OF THE WALL

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Calculation of wind load which is 26psf by using ACI code P s =λ I P s30 V u < φV n Calculating maximum shear strength permitted by φV n = φ 10 fc h w d Calculating shear Strength provided by Vc = 3.3 fc h w d + N u d/4 l w Vu<<φVc (No Shear reinforcement required) Calculating Area of steel which is governed by Minimum Reinforcement in wall in our case Minimum Reinforcement Wall st Vertical Reinforcement Ast = 0.0012 x b x d Therefore providing # 3@ 7 Horizontal Reinforcement Ast =0.002 x b x d Therefore providing #3@ 10

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Loading Loading from Wall Surcharge load Soil load resting on the footing

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Design Steps Loading Moment calculated at the base of footing Find Area required =Load/Net Pressure Calculating factored Net Pressure Check for shear for the depth V u < ø V c Calculated Steel area using A st = M n /f y jd Comparing with the minimum steel we get the minimum reinforcement in the footing as #5 @ 7 Here we are providing the shrinkage temperature reinforcement #5 @ 7 Checked for Development Length is done

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Green building is the practice of increasing the efficiency with which buildings use resources energy, water and materials Helps in Minimizing Environment aspect like generation of pollution at the source risk to human health and the environment

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Materials Function Application Glazing Curtain Wall System Weather protection & Insulation Glass on all exterior surface Roof GardenPlantation & AestheticsOn Roof Sewage Treatment Plant To Generate Methane as an energy Drainage Treatment of Building PaintsEnvironmental FriendlyAll interior portion LightingLess Energy Consumption Both Interior & Exterior Water ProofingWater proof structureFor Concrete & Masonry

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Function & Control Airtight and weather resistant Air leakage control Rain Penetration Control by Pressure plate Heat Loss by Cap connection Condensation Control Fire Safety

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Basically consist of component like Mullions vertical Frame & rails horizontal mullions Vision Glass, insulation Hardware components – Anchors, Aluminum connector, Settings blocks, Corner blocks, Pressure plates, caps, gaskets

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Function Environmental Friendly Fixing System Modules with Plantation Slip Sheet /Root Barrier Water Proof roof deck http://www.liveroof.com/ Load Consideration Load due to Modular system live roof plantation in the roof is taken consideration in slab design as 20 Psf

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Advantage It generates Methane which can be used as a Source of Energy. We can use the piping to send to appropriate location It is an Custom make and modular in size Maintenance and Operation cost is economical It maintains the BOD & COD level of Water is obtained

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Paint Using low voltaic organic components paint is beneficial. Lighting Using T5 Lamps, low mercury lamps helps in reduction in energy consumption Waterproofing Aquafin-IC is used a penetrating, inorganic, cementitious material used to permanently waterproof

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ComponentsQuantity in (ft 3 ) Slabs 75000 Beams 6973 Columns 5488 Staircase 1750 Shear Wall with Staircase 5667 Shear Wall with Elevator(2) 11861.54 Footing for Shear Wall with Staircase 1200 Footing for Shear Wall with Elevator (2) 2434.86 Footing Under Column 7232 Retaining wall 15688.52 Total 133294.9 cft

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