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**Design of Structural Systems CIE-600**

A PRESENTION ON THE DESIGN OF AN OFFICE BUILDING By Kalpesh P.

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**Presentation Outline General information about the building**

Design of Slabs Design of Beams, columns and Foundation Design of shear and retaining walls Design of Stair case Green Engineering and Aesthetics Aspect Material (concrete) Usage Estimation References

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**General Information Building Retaining wall – Height of 10 ft**

An office building Located in Syracuse A three-story of 58 ft high building Has three buildings separated by an expansion joint Two freight, Two passenger elevators Two stair cases Retaining wall – Height of 10 ft Materials used Concrete -6000psi and Steel-60000psi ACI and International building codes adopted

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Top View 10 Shear Walls 2 s

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**Views of the building Parapet 1’ 16’ 16’ Flat Plate Flat Slab 26’**

2 Freight elevators Staircase 2 Passenger elevators Parapet 1’ Staircase 16’ 16’ Flat Plate 26’ Flat Slab Slab with beams 25’ 25’ 25’ 25’ Slab on ground 25’ 25’ 25’ 25’ 25’ 25’ 25’ 25’ 25’ 25’ 25’ 25’

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**2. Slabs Design Flat plate Flat Slab Slab with interior beam**

Slab on Ground

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**Location of Design Slabs**

25’ 25’ 25’ 25’ 16’ 16’ Flat Plate 26’ Flat Slab Slab with beams 25’ 25’ 25’ 25’ Slab on ground 25’ 25’ 25’ 25’ 25’ 25’ 25’ 25’

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Top View

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**The use of expansion joint**

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**The use of expansion joint**

Source by Design Handbook: section 4

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**Design Procedure Using Two-way slabs, Direct Design Method (ACI Code)**

Find a load combination Find a slab thickness Obtain a static moment (Mo) Distribution of a static moment Percentage of design moment resisted by column strip Find As , and Select steel for reinforcement Shear check

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Panel Assignment

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Strip Design W W B C 7 9 8 25 ft 25 ft 25 ft

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**Combination Loads U = 1.2(D + F + T) + 1.6(L + H) + 0.5(Lr or S or R)**

Dead load (D) = psf x thickness of slab Topping load (T) = psf Live load (LL) = psf Finishing load (F) = psf Rain load (R) = psf Snow load (S) = psf Roof live load(Lr) = psf

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**Design Numerical Values**

Types of Slab Flat Plate Flat Slab Slab with Beams Slab Thickness 9” 8” 7” Load combination (U) psf 224 psf 203 psf Static Moment (Mo) ft-k ft-k ft-k

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**Flat plate 1 2 3 4 5 E C D A B CT1y MT1 CB1y CT1 MT CT2y CB CT2 CT CB1**

MB CTy CT2y CT2 CT CBy CB1y CB CB1 MT MT1 CT3 CB2 CB3 1 2 3 4 5 E C D A B Flat plate

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**Flat plate 6 7 8 9 10 F D E B C v MT1 C B1y CT1y CB1y M B CT1 CT2y MT**

CBC1y MT MTC CTcy C BCy F D E B C v M B C B1y CTC Flat plate

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**Flat plate Type Strip Placed @ Specification Bar No.**

Spacing (in), Length and type CT column top 5 CT1 CT2 CTY CT1Y CT2Y CB bottom 4 CB1 CBY CB1Y MB middle MT MT1 L= 15.4ft c/c 15 in L= 10.6 ft c/c 15 in L= 9.5 ft c/c 13 in L= 7.2 ft c/c 13 in L= 15.4 ft c/c 16in L=10.6 ft c/c 16in L= 15.4 ft c/c 14in L=10.6 ft c/c 14in L= 15.4 ft c/c 15in L=10.6 ft c/c 15in L= 7.5 ft c/c 12 in L= 25ft c/c 12 in L= 25ft c/c 20 in L= 26.5ft c/c 20 in L= 25ft c/c 11.5 in L= 25ft c/c 21 in L= 26.5ft c/c 21 in L= 12 ft c/c 12in L= 25.5ft c/c 24 in L= 17ft c/c 24 in L= 9.5 ft c/c 12in L= 7.2 ft c/c 12 in MTC is the same as MT but with bar #5 c/c 13.5 in CTCY is the same as CT1Y but with bar #4 c/c 12 in CTC is the same as CTY but with bar # 5 c/c 10 in CBC1Y is the same as CB1Y but with bar # 5 c/c 16 in

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**Flat Plate 9’ 3 1 2 Column Strip 9’ 3 1 2 Middle Strip**

#5 15’ , L = 15.4’ #5 15’ , L = 10.6’ #4 12’, L = 7.5’ #5 13’ , L = 9.5’ #5 13’ , L = 7.2’ #5 15’ , L = 15.4’ #5 15’ , L = 10.6’ #5 16’ , L = 15.4’ #5 16’ , L = 10.6’ 9’ #5 21’ , L = 25’ #5 21’ , L = 26’ #4 12’, L = 25’ 3 1 2 #5 20’ , L = 25’ #5 20’ , L = 26’ #4 24’ , L = 17’ #4 24’ , L = 25’ Column Strip #5 15’ , L = 15.4’ #5 15’ , L = 10.6’ #4 12’, L = 7.5’ #4 12’, L = 7.5’ #4 12’, L = 12’ #4 12’, L = 12’ 9’ 3 1 2 #4 24’ , L = 17’ #4 24’ , L = 25’ #4 24’ , L = 17’ #4 24’ , L = 25’ #5 20’ , L = 25’ #5 20’ , L = 26’ #4 24’ , L = 17’ #4 24’ , L = 25’ Middle Strip

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**Flat Slab 1 2 3 4 5 E C D A B CT1y MT1 CB1y CT1 MT CT2y CB CT2 CT CB1**

MB CTy CT2y CT2 CT CBy CB1y CB CB1 MT MT1 CT3 CB2 CB3 1 2 3 4 5 E C D A B Flat Slab

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**Flat Slab 6 7 8 9 G F v E D C B 10 MT1 C B1y CT1y CB1y M B CT1 CT2y MT**

CBC1y MT MTC CTcy C BCy F D E B C v M B C B1y CTC 9 10 G Flat Slab

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**Flat Slab Type Strip Placed @ Specification Bar No.**

Spacing (in), Length and type CT column top 5 CT1 CT2 CTY CT1Y CT2Y CB bottom 4 CB1 CBY CB1Y MB middle MT MT1 L= 17ft c/c 13 in L= 11 ft c/c 13 in L= 9.1 ft c/c 12 in L= 6 ft c/c 12 in L= 17 ft c/c 14in L=11 ft c/c 14in L= 17 ft c/c 12in L=11 ft c/c 12in L= 17 ft c/c 13in L=11 ft c/c 13in L= 6.5 ft c/c 12.5 in L= 25ft c/c 11 in L= 25ft c/c 17 in L= 26.5ft c/c 17 in L= 25ft c/c 10 in L= 25ft c/c 19 in L= 26.5ft c/c 19 in L= 12 ft c/c 12.in L= 25ft c/c 27 in L= 22ft c/c 27 in L= 9.1 ft c/c 10 in L= 6 ft c/c 10 in MTC is the same as MT but with bar #5 c/c 13.5 in CBC1Y is the same as CB1Y but with bar # 5 c/c 16 in CTC is the same as CTY but with bar # 5 c/c 10 in MB1 is the same as MB but with bar #4 c/c 24 in CTCY is the same as CT1Y but with bar #4 c/c 12 in

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**Flat Slab 8’ 3 1 2 Column Strip 8’ 2’ 3 1 2 Middle Strip L = 4.2’**

#5 10’ , L = 9.1’ #5 10’ , L = 6’ #4 12.5’, L = 6.5’ #5 12’ , L = 9.1’ #5 12’ , L = 6’ #5 13’ , L = 17’ #5 14’ , L = 17’ #5 14’ , L = 11’ 8’ 3 1 #5 19’ , L = 25’ #5 19’ , L = 26.5’ 2 #4 11’, L = 25’ #5 17’ , L = 25’ #5 17’ , L = 26.5’ #4 27’ , L = 22’ #4 27’ , L = 25’ Column Strip #5 10’ , L = 9.1’ #5 10’ , L = 6’ #4 12.5’, L = 6.5’ #4 12.5’, L = 6.5’ #4 12’, L = 12’ #4 12’, L = 12’ 8’ 2’ 3 1 2 #4 27’ , L = 22’ #4 27’ , L = 25’ #4 27’ , L = 22’ #4 27’ , L = 25’ #5 17’ , L = 25’ #5 17’ , L = 26.5’ #4 27’ , L = 22’ #4 27’ , L = 25’ Middle Strip L = 4.2’ L = 4.2’

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**Slab with Beams 1 2 3 4 5 E D C B A CT1 CT1 CT2 MT1 CB CT2 MT1 CT1 CT**

MB1 MB MB1 MB MB1 MT1 CB1 MT1 CB1 CB1 CB1 D MT CT MT CTy MT CT CT CB CT CB CT CB1 CT1 CB1 CT CT1 CBy MT MT MT CB MB MB1 Slab with Beams CB MB MB MB MB1 CB CB MT1 MT1 CT CT C CT MT CT MT CT CT1 CB1 CT CB CT CB CT CB1 CT1 CB MT MT MT CB MB MB1 MB CBy CB MB CB MB MB1 MT1 MT1 CT CT CT CT CT B MT MT CT1 CB1 CT CB CT CB CT CB1 CT1 MT MT MT CB1 CB1 MB1 MB1 MB MB1 MB CB1 CB1 CB1 MB1 MT1 MT1 A CT1 CT1 CT1 CT1 MT1 CT MT1 CT1 MT1 CB1 CT CB CB CT MT1 CB1

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**Slab with Beams 6 7 8 9 G F v E D C B 10 MT1 MT1 MT1 MT1 MT1 CB1 CT CB**

MB MB1 MB MB C B1 MB MB1 CB1 CB1 CB1 MT1 MT1 CT2 CT F MT CT MT MT MT CB1 CT CT CTy CB1 v CB CB CT MT MT M B MB1 MT1 MB MB MB MB1 MT1 Slab with Beams CB CB CB MT1 CB CB E CTy MT CT MT CT CT MT CT MT CB CT CB CT CB1 CT1 CB1 CT CT1 CB MT MT MT CB MB MB1 CB MB CB MB CB MB MB1 MT1 MT1 CT MB MB D CT CT2 MT CT MT CT CT1 CB1 CT CB CT CB CT CT CB1 CT1 CBy MTw MT MT CBy MB CBy MB MBw CB MB MBw CBy MB MT1 MT1 CTy C CTy CTy MT CT MT CT CT CB1 CT MT CT1 MTC CT CB CT CB CT CB1 MT MT MT CT1 C BC CBC MB MB MBw MB1 CB CB1 CBC MB MB1 MT1 MT1 B CT1 MT1 CT1 MT! CT1 MT1 CT1 CT1 CT CT MT1 CB1 CB CT CB CB1

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**Slab with Interior Beams**

Type Strip Specification Bar No. Spacing (in), Length and type CT column top 3 CT1 CB bottom CB1 MT middle MT1 MB MB1 L= 15.4ft c/c 17 in L= 10.6 ft c/c 17 in L= 9.5 ft c/c 17 in L= 7.2 ft c/c 17 in L= 25ft c/c 8.5 in L= 25ft c/c 17 in L= 26.5ft c/c 17 in L= 12 ft c/c 6.5 in L= 7.5 ft c/c8.5in L= 25.5ft c/c 17 in L= 17ft c/c 17 in L= 25.5ft c/c 15 in L= 17ft c/c 15 in MTC is the same as MT1 but with bar #5 c/c 10.5 in MTW is the same as MT but with bar # 4 c/c 20 in MBW is the same as MB but with bar #4 c/c 24

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**Slab with Beams 7’ 3 1 2 Column Strip 7’ 3 1 2 Middle Strip**

#3 17’ , L = 9.5’ #3 17’ , L = 7.2’ #3 8.5’, L = 7.5’ #3 17’ , L = 9.5’ #3 17’ , L = 7.2’ #3 15’ , L = 15.4’ #3 15’ , L = 10.6’ #3 17’ , L = 15.4’ #3 17’ , L = 10.6’ 7’ #3 17’ , L = 25’ #3 17’ , L = 26.5’ #3 8.5’, L = 25’ 3 1 2 #3 17’ , L = 25’ #3 17’ , L = 26’ #3 15’ , L = 17’ #3 15’ , L = 25.5’ Column Strip #3 17’ , L = 9.5’ #3 17’ , L = 7.2’ #3 8.5’, L = 7.5’ #3 8.5’, L = 7.5’ #3 6.5’, L = 12’ #3 6.5’, L = 12’ 7’ 3 1 2 #3 15’ , L = 17’ #3 15’ , L = 25.5’ #3 17’ , L = 17’ #3 17’ , L = 25.5’ #3 15’ , L = 17’ #3 15’ , L = 25.5’ #3 17’ , L = 25’ #3 17’ , L = 26’ Middle Strip

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**Slab on ground Slab thickness = 6”**

Using minimum shrinkage and temperature reinforcement (As = bh) Rebar # 10” on center in two directions Placing rebar at 2” lower the top of the slab

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**Design of Beams,Columns and Footings**

Edge beams Interior Beams Columns Column at a corner Exterior Columns Interior columns Footing Footing under a corner column Footing under an edge column Footing under an interior column Common footing

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**Graphical Representations**

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**Beam Design Loading on beams: Depends on The loads may include**

their location in a floor and along a story The loads may include Loads from Slabs Self weight of beams Weight of walls or attachments that directly lie or attached on the beams Parapet Walls Curtain walls Partition walls

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**Load Transfer to beams Load transfer from curtain walls slabs**

Load transfer from slabs

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**Summary of Loading on Edge Beams**

Floor level Factored Design loads Due to parapet wall Udl- k/ft Due to self weight of beam stem/web Due to glass curtain walls Udl – k/ft Weight from slabs ( triangular) w (k/ft) Flat plate 0.09 0.11 0.072 2.82 Flat slab 0.125 0.144 2.79 Floor with beams 0.141 0.189 2.61 Grade beams 0.251 0.117

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**Loaded Edge frame for analysis of Edge Beam actions**

SAP 2000 is used for analysis

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**Loaded frame for analysis of Interior Beam actions**

Loading diagram (axis 1B-2B-3B-4B-5B) for the purpose of calculating additional moments due to self weight of beam Loading diagram (axis 1B-2B-3B-4B-5B) for the purpose of calculating shear in internal beams due to loads from slab

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**Design Actions and sections**

Shear Reinforcment Vertical shear Torsional shear ( for the case of edge beams) Longitudinal Reinforcement(edg e beams) Bending ( two types of sections need to be considered) Moments (kips-ft) A1 support A1-A2 span A2 A2-A3 A3 A3-A4 A4 A4-A5 A5 Flat plate 66.75 76.01 118.74 59.64 103.49 Flat Slab 90.53 65.43 110.00 60.2 105.26 110 Slab w/beams 74.42 68.6 111.71 57.58 100.73 57.88 Ground 18.21 9.77 19.5 9.45 19.29

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**Procedures of Beam Design**

Check depth for moment and shear capacity Calculate reinforcements Longitudinal reinforcement ( for moment and torsion if applicable) Shear reinforcements for ( vertical shear and torsion if applicable) The max torsion in the beams was found to be smaller than the torsion capacity requirement for the x-section for torsion to be neglected The shear reinforcement was found to be governed by the max spacing as per ACI requirement i.e. for #3 double leg 6.75 in on center- to-center

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**Reinforcement summary for edge beams for frame shown earlier**

Longitudinal Reinforcement bw(in)= 12 d(in)= 13.5 Beam (bw=12 in; d=14.5in) A1 A2 A3 A4 A5 Support Moment -66.18 -119.6 -103 Span Moment 76.56 59.8 Req'd reinf.(in2), supp 1.1912 2.1528 1.854 Req'd reinf.(in2), span 1.2939 Min. reinf 0.54 Reinf Provide Bar # used 7 8 area of bar 0.6 0.79 #bars req'd 1.9854 2.1564 bars used 2#7 2#7+1#6 3#8 2#8 + 1 #6 2#8 +1#7 Note: Similar tabular calculations are made for all beams

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INTERIOR BEAMS

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**Column Design Loads Frame is braced Check slenderness of the column**

Moments and axial forces from frame analyis Self-weight of columns Frame is braced Check slenderness of the column Calculated magnified moments Design for Reinforcement is made using STAAD.etc , using the ACI code

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**Column Attachments Third story corner column Third story edge column**

First story interior column

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**Column loadings & Reinforcements**

level Column type Design actions Magnified actions Reinforcement required P (kips) Mx(k-ft) My(k-ft) Third st. short 41.1 66.75 8#8 bars Second st. 84.44 49.75 4#8 bars First st slender 127.67 24.26 foundation 141.39 4.88 CORNER COLUMN level Column type Analysis actions Magnified actions Reinforcement required P (kips) Mx(k-ft) My(k-ft) Third st. short 81.04 114.89 7.43 6#8 bars Second st. 163.65 4.12 56.87 13.9 4#8 bars First st slender 244.14 2.35 28.48 28.66 Foundation 255 .48 21.65 EDGE COLUMN level Column type Design actions Magnified actions Reinforcement required P (kips) Mx(k-ft) My(k-ft) Third stor. short 144.67 13.1 4#8 bars Second st. 287.93 27.68 first slender 425.2 75.17 8#8 foundation 427.5 44 8#8 bars INTERIOR COLUMN

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Column Reinforcement Corner Column Edge Column Interior Column

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**Footing Loading &Design**

Loading from Column Surcharge load Floor loading Soil load resting on the footing

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**Critical Sections Bearing pressure distribution Loading**

Critical section for two way shear Critical section for one way shear Critical section for bending

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**FootingReinforcement**

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**Retaining wall Purpose Behavior of wall Components Design Sequence**

Drainage System Reinforcement Detailing

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**Purpose Behavior of Retaining wall**

Retaining structures hold back soil or other loose material where an abrupt change in ground elevation occurs. Behavior of Retaining wall Wall – T at rear face & C at front face. Heel - T at upper face & C at bottom face. Toe - T at bottom face & C at upper face. Shear Key – provides to resistance to sliding.

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**Design Sequence Loads:**

Due to surcharge kip/ft2 ( Acting Downward) Active earth pressure – 2.4kip/ft2(Acting Horizontally) Determined the dimensions of retaining wall. Checked length of heel & toe for stability against sliding & overturning. F.O.S against overturning =3.92>2 F.O.S against sliding = 2>1.5 Calculated base soil pressure. Base Soil Pressure: Pmax = 1.66 Ksf Pmin = 0.62 Ksf Provided Shear Key. Checked Stem thickness. Checked Heel & Toe thickness. Reinforcement: Component Main Reinforcement Distribution Reinforcement Shrinkage Reinforcement Stem Heel Toe

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Footing Detailing

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**Drainage System Purpose To release the hydrostatic pressure.**

Provided perforated 8” diameter pipe laid along the base of the wall &surrounded by gravels(stone filter)

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**Shear wall Introduction Specification of Elevator Design Consideration**

Shear wall slab & footing Reinforcement detailing

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**Introduction Elevator Specification**

To resist lateral forces due to wind To provide additional strength during earthquake Shear walls often are placed in Elevator or Staircase areas Elevator Specification No. of person Rated capacity(kg) Rated speed(m/s) Car internal Ceiling height Passenger Elevator 15 1000 1.5 5.9’x4.92’ 7.3’ Freight Elevator - 1200 7.22’x7.4’

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Design Consideration Calculated wind load which is 26psf by using ACI code( Ps =λ I Ps30) Vu< φVn Calculated maximum shear strength permitted by φVn = φ 10 √fc hwd Calculated shear Strength provided by concrete is Vc = 3.3 √fc hwd + Nu d/4 lw Vu<<φVc (No Shear reinforcement required) Calculating Area of steel which is governed by Minimum Reinforcement in wall in our case Section has been checked by PCAcol. Provided Minimum wall Reinforcement governed by ACI. Vertical reinforcement Ast = b.d Provided 10 Horizontal reinforcement Ast = b.d Provided 6’

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Shear wall detailing

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**Shear wall Slab & footing Design**

Design Steps Load – 250k As = Reinforcement provided 6” (Both Direction) Footing Loads & moments calculated at the base of footing Calculated factored Soil pressure = Factored load/Area Desiged footing as a strip Integrated 3 beams

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**Machine room Slab detailing**

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Shear wall Footing

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**Footing& Shear wall connection**

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Design Staircase Shear Wall Footing for shear wall

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**Design Steps Staircase is designed as cantilever Stairs**

Load Calculated using Total Load= (L.L+ Floor to Floor Finish + Self Weight of Waist Slab + Weight of Step) Moment was calculated and tension is on the top Steel Area = Ast =Mu/ φ Fy (d-0.5a) Shrinkage and Temperature reinforcement is calculated using Area of Shrinkage = x b x d Development Length Check was made by using formula

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**Bar size designation & Spacing**

Reinforcement Description Bar size designation & Spacing Location Main reinforcement in Tread 4.5” In the Tension zone of tread Main reinforcement in Midlanding 4.5” In Midlanding Span Shrinkage Cracking and temperature reinforcement 7” In Tread & Waist slab in both direction Shrinkage Cracking and temperature reinforcement is provided to minimize the cracking and tie the Structure together and achieve Structural integrity Development Length is provided because to develop the required stress in bar

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Shear Wall SHEAR WALL IS A STRUCTURAL ELEMENT USED TO RESIST LATERAL/HORIZONTAL/SHEAR FORCES PARALLEL TO THE PLANE OF THE WALL

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Design Steps Calculation of wind load which is 26psf by using ACI code Ps =λ I Ps30 Vu< φVn Calculating maximum shear strength permitted by φVn = φ 10 √fc hwd Calculating shear Strength provided by Vc = 3.3 √fc hwd + Nu d/4 lw Vu<<φVc (No Shear reinforcement required) Calculating Area of steel which is governed by Minimum Reinforcement in wall in our case Minimum Reinforcement Wall Vertical Reinforcement Ast = x b x d Therefore providing # 7” Horizontal Reinforcement Ast =0.002 x b x d Therefore providing 10”

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**Footing for Shear Wall Loading Loading from Wall Surcharge load**

Soil load resting on the footing

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Loading at the Footing

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**Footing for Shear Wall Design Steps**

Loading Moment calculated at the base of footing Find Area required =Load/Net Pressure Calculating factored Net Pressure Check for shear for the depth Vu < ø Vc Calculated Steel area using Ast= Mn/fyjd Comparing with the minimum steel we get the minimum reinforcement in the footing as 7” Here we are providing the shrinkage temperature reinforcement 7” Checked for Development Length is done

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**What is Green engineering?**

Green building is the practice of increasing the efficiency with which buildings use resources energy, water and materials Helps in Minimizing Environment aspect like generation of pollution at the source risk to human health and the environment

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**What Aspect we have considered in Green Engineering & what function does it play?**

Materials Function Application Glazing Curtain Wall System Weather protection & Insulation Glass on all exterior surface Roof Garden Plantation & Aesthetics On Roof Sewage Treatment Plant To Generate Methane as an energy Drainage Treatment of Building Paints Environmental Friendly All interior portion Lighting Less Energy Consumption Both Interior & Exterior Water Proofing Water proof structure For Concrete & Masonry

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**Glazing Curtain wall system**

Function & Control Airtight and weather resistant Air leakage control Rain Penetration Control by Pressure plate Heat Loss by Cap connection Condensation Control Fire Safety

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**Fixing System & Components**

Basically consist of component like Mullions vertical Frame & rails horizontal mullions Vision Glass, insulation Hardware components – Anchors, Aluminum connector, Settings blocks, Corner blocks, Pressure plates, caps, gaskets

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**Glass Size Specification**

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Roof Garden Function Environmental Friendly Fixing System Modules with Plantation Slip Sheet /Root Barrier Water Proof roof deck Load Consideration Load due to Modular system live roof plantation in the roof is taken consideration in slab design as 20 Psf

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**Sewage Treatment Plant**

Advantage It generates Methane which can be used as a Source of Energy. We can use the piping to send to appropriate location It is an Custom make and modular in size Maintenance and Operation cost is economical It maintains the BOD & COD level of Water is obtained

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**Schematic Representation of STP**

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**Other Green Engineering Component**

Paint Using low voltaic organic components paint is beneficial. Lighting Using T5 Lamps, low mercury lamps helps in reduction in energy consumption Waterproofing Aquafin-IC is used a penetrating, inorganic, cementitious material used to permanently waterproof

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**Concrete Estimation Components Quantity in (ft3) Slabs Beams Columns**

75000 Beams 6973 Columns 5488 Staircase 1750 Shear Wall with Staircase 5667 Shear Wall with Elevator(2) Footing for Shear Wall with Staircase 1200 Footing for Shear Wall with Elevator (2) Footing Under Column 7232 Retaining wall Total cft

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