Presentation on theme: "Dr. Robert Whiting – 16 th May 2012 Review of POPs inventories under LR-TAP."— Presentation transcript:
Dr. Robert Whiting – 16 th May 2012 Review of POPs inventories under LR-TAP
Introduction to the project Aims of the study: To look at consistency of sources per POP across all countries To look at variability of emissions and emission factors from selected sources Benchmarking to assess the uncertainty in the data presented. I would also like to thank Kristina Juhrich of UBA,Dessau for her help and support during this review.
Cop here Copy here Review of sources for dioxins and furans Key Sources from LR-TAP 2010 gridded data: Residential combustion of fuels (775 g I-TEQ) Iron and Steel production (284 g I-TEQ) NFR 6D Other waste (likely accidental fires) (129 g I-TEQ) Waste incineration (total) (125 g I-TEQ) Small scale waste burning (116 g I-TEQ) Power Stations – Public Power (97 g I-TEQ) Key source for x1 country each Road transport – (35 g I-TEQ) NFR 3D3 – Chemical Production (15 g I-TEQ)
Review of sources for dioxins and furans
Review of sources for PCBs Key Sources from LR-TAP 2010 gridded data: NFR 2F – dielectric equipment (1643 kg) Residential combustion of fuels (579 kg) Iron and Steel Production (480 kg) Power Stations – Public Power (356 kg) NFR 6D Other waste (likely accidental fires) (62kg) Key source for x1 country each Road transport (all vehicle types) (134 kg) Stationary combustion of fuels – food sector (1.5kg) NFR 3D3 – Chemical Production (30 kg) NFR 1A2fii – Mobile machinery industry (2.2kg)
Review of sources for PCBs
Review of sources for HCB From 28 reporting nations we have 17 biggest sources:
Review of sources for HCB
Review of sources for PAH Key Sources from LR-TAP 2010 gridded data: Residential combustion of fuels (925 tonnes) Field burning (229 tonnes) Small scale waste burning (38 tonnes) Stationary combustion of fuel for non-ferrous metal (41 tonnes) Road transport (all vehicle types) (33 tonnes) Stationary combustion of fuels in industry (32 tonnes) Commercial and Institutional Combustion of fuels (29 tonnes) Agricultural combustion of fuels (24 tonnes) Power Stations – Public Power (16.8 tonnes) Key source for x1 country each NFR 3C chemical Production – (789 tonnes)
Review of sources for PAH
Summary – Review of sources Highest level of consistency for sources appears to be with PAH and then PCDD/F. HCB has the highest levels of unconsistency in the selection of sources across reporting countries Highest level of reporting for sources is typically tied to activity rich sources such as combustion plants and industrial/domestic fuel source Key gaps for sources are in data scarce sources such as accidental fires, domestic waste burning and also di-electric equipment for PCBs
Examples of approaches – Accidental fires and domestic waste burning Accidental fires UK statistics for numbers of fires by domestic, other building and vehicle. Based on fire models we make assumptions for the spread of fire as: Domestic Dwellings: 49.8% confined to 1 item = 1 Kg 37.8% confined to 1 room = 750 kg 7.2% entire building = 12,500 kg 3.8% no fire damage = 0 Kg 1.4% fire spreads to another building = 12,500 Kg Literature review to identify emission factors Example: approach to accidental fires and backyard burning
Examples of approaches – Accidental fires and domestic waste burning Domestic waste burning 2010 national survey about UK waste burning habits to gauge demographic pattern In terms of frequency and nature of material burnt, Gauged the number of household with viable burning site, assumed to be 7% of Households Based on the national survey the average frequency of burning events was calculated assumed to be 13 events per annum. Based on national survey assumed quantity per event was estimated as 6.75kg of waste. Based on national survey total quantity burnt apportioned by waste type (green waste, paper and cardboard, treated wood and plastic) Literature emission factors applied to each waste component and aggregated. Example: approach to accidental fires and backyard burning
Examples of approaches – PCBs in di-electric equipment Two alternative approaches to calculating PCB emissions from di-electric equipment. Method 1 – Stockpile approach Estimates are made for quantity of PCB containing equipment still on market in Leak rate is applied based on EMEP guidebook factor (0.06 kg/t transformers and 1.6 kg/t capacitors per annum) Assumed life-span of equipment up to 35 years Stockpile reduces per annum based on (total stockpile/35) – this is accelerated for 2000 when 90% is removed due to PCB removal policy Method 2 – Population approach Estimates are made on per/capita emission factor from guidebook vs national population. Stockpile reduces based on lifespan of equipment – up to 35 years. Assumes 90% removal at 2000 for PCB removal policy.
Examples of approaches – PCBs in di-electric equipment
Review of selected sectors PCDD/F from Iron and Steel PAH from Domestic Combustion
PCDD/F from Iron and Steel Production Key Iron and Steel producing countries based on the countries reporting to LR-TAP: Germany Italy France Canada Spain UK Austria Reference: World Steel Organisation:
PCDD/F from Iron and Steel Production
PAH (sum of 4) from Domestic Combustion Methodology for deriving emission factors for PAH in domestic fuel combustion : NFR reported emissions of PAH as sum of 4 from domestic combustion sector (1A4bi) NCV (Net Calorific Values) for solid fuels, biomass and other fuels. Liquid fuels and gaseous fuels not assumed to generate PAH Total activity calculated based on fuel statistics, and NCV to calculate total TJ per country Derived emission as mg/TJ for NFR 1A4bi
PAH (sum of 4) from Domestic Combustion
Thank you for your attention and any questions
AEA Robert Whiting Environmental Consultant AEA The Gemini Building Fermi Avenue Harwell Oxford Didcot OX11 0QR Tel: +44 (0) E: W: Copyright AEA Technology plc This presentation is submitted by AEA. It may not be used for any other purposes, reproduced in whole or in part, nor passed to any organisation or person without the specific permission in writing of the Commercial Manager, AEA Technology plc.