Presentation on theme: "Do Now 1. Where did the Industrial Revolution begin?"— Presentation transcript:
1Do Now 1. Where did the Industrial Revolution begin? 2. What kind of conditions were needed for industrialization?
2Industrialization in the United States 1865-1900 After the Civil War, the United States went through a period of industrializationBig businesses were formed, such as the banks, railroads, oil and coal companiesIndustrialization helped the U.S. grow, and many immigrants came to the U.S., but for workers life was very difficult
3The Growth of Big Business 1865-1900 As businesses grew, some began to develop ways to limit competitionCarnegie Steel—founded in the 1870s by Andrew CarnegieSteel was used for railroads and skyscrapers
4Vertical IntegrationCarnegie Steel used the vertical integration strategy to create a monopoly in the steel industryVertical integration is when a company owns all the factors of production (all the things you need to make a product)Carnegie Steel could produce steel cheaper than his competitors
5The Growth of Big Business Standard Oil Company—founded in the 1870s by John D. RockefellerOriginally produced kerosene as heating oilToday, the following companies used to make up Standard Oil:ExxonMobilChevronBP
6Horizontal Integration Standard Oil gained a monopoly through horizontal integrationHorizontal Integration is when one company buys or takes over its competitionThese monopolies were also known as trusts
7Do NowPut your answers on ½ sheet of paper. You will hand this in for a quiz grade!Explain the difference between horizontal and vertical integration.Do you think monopolies are good or bad for America? Give examples to support your answer.
8Social DarwinismMany industrial leaders viewed themselves in a positive way compared to everyone elseThey believed in “Social Darwinism”This idea means that those who get wealthy are better than those who don’tThis idea justified laissez-faire capitalism
9Robber BaronsMany industrialists, like Carnegie and Rockefeller, gained more wealth than they could ever spendThey gained wealth by cutting costs in any way possibleLow wages for workersPoor working conditionsUnethical business practicesThey often became known as “Robber Barons” because of this
10Captains of IndustrySome industrial leaders also were known as “Captains of Industry”Carnegie, Rockefeller, Vanderbilt and others used much of their wealth to contribute to societyThey were considered “philanthropists” (people who give away their money”Vanderbilt UniversityCarnegie HallRockefeller CenterRockefeller donated $450 million before he diedCarnegie donated enough money for 2,500 libraries to be built
11Do Now1. Explain why industrialists like Carnegie and Rockefeller would have supported the concept of Social Darwinism, while workers would have opposed it.2. a) Compare and contrast vertical and horizontal integration.b) How did they lead to the creation of monopolies?
12Gospel of WealthSome industrialists thought their wealth should not be left to their descendantsAndrew Carnegie wrote the “Gospel of Wealth” in 1889
13The Rise of Labor Unions A group of workers who unite to improve their wages, working conditions and benefitsThey were created because of low wages and poor conditions in industryWorkers had few rights and no protection from the government
14Labor Unions How did labor unions get better conditions, wages, etc? Collective bargainingNegotiations between the owners and workersStrikesBoycotts“Whether you're a union member or not, you have benefited from labor unions. They have set a national and local standard for working conditions, i.e., the 40-hour work week, the five-day work week, collective bargaining, fair grievance procedures, minimum wage, acceptable working conditions, insurance, retirement packages, sick leave, paid vacations and much more.”--Green Bay Gazette, February 28, 2011List some of the benefits that all workers have gained as a result of labor unions.
15Labor Unions Two different types of labor unions emerged: 1. Unskilled UnionsUnions that allowed all workers to join regardless of skill or professionAllowed women and African-AmericansKnights of Labor2. Skilled UnionsWorkers organized by their particular skillEx. Carpenters, ironworkersThe American Federation of Labor (AFL)Founded by Samuel Gompers in 1886
16Important Labor Strikes Haymarket Strike 1886Homestead Strike 1892Pullman Strike 1894The government supported the owners, not the workers in labor disputes
17Do Now 1. Do you think this quote is from "In the first place, we should insist that if the immigrant who comes here in good faith becomes an American and assimilates himself to us, he shall be treated on an exact equality with everyone else, for it is an outrage to discriminate against any such man because of creed, or birthplace, or origin. But this is predicated upon the person's becoming in every facet an American, and nothing but an American...There can be no divided allegiance here. Any man who says he is an American, but something else also, isn't an American at all. We have room for but one flag, the American flag... We have room for but one language here, and that is the English language... and we have room for but one sole loyalty and that is a loyalty to the American people."1. Do you think this quote is fromA. before the Civil WarB. after the Civil WarC. the modern day2. Why do you think it’s from the time period you chose above?3. Which group of immigrants do you think this quote is about?
18This is a quote from Teddy Roosevelt in 1907 Do you think the quote reflects opinion towards immigrants today?
19For all the noise and anger that too often surrounds the immigration debate, America has nothing to fear from today’s immigrants. They have come here for the same reason that families have always come here–for the hope that in America, they could build a better life for themselves and their families. Like the waves of immigrants that came before them and the Hispanic Americans whose families have been here for generations, the recent arrival of Latino immigrants will only enrich our country--Barack Obama
20ImmigrationImmigration – when people leave their own country for a new countryUntil the 1840s, most immigrants came from Northwest Europe (England, Scotland, etc) and Africa (forced because of slavery)From the 1840s to 1860s, there were many immigrants from Ireland (largely Catholic)
21Immigration Why did many immigrants come to the United States? Freedom Better job opportunities
22ImmigrationAfter the Civil War ( ), millions of immigrants came to the U.S.Many came from Southern and Eastern Europe (Italy, Russia, the Balkans) and Asia (China)Many immigrants during this period experienced Nativism
23NativismNativism – discrimination by native-born Americans against immigrants1850’sthe Know-Nothing Party was created as an anti-immigrant political party (against Irish immigration)Why did nativism spread?Competition for factory jobsLower wagesEthnic, cultural, and religious differencesFear of new ideas like socialism, communism, and anarchy
24Immigration & Big Business Why would big business support more immigration?More workersLower wages (cheap labor)Over 12 million immigrants came to the U.S. through Ellis Island
25Immigration ReviewAt the turn of the century, why did most immigrants to the United States settle in cities?A. Jobs were readily available.B. Government relief programs required immigrants to settle in cities.C. Labor union leaders encouraged unrestricted immigration.D. Immigrants were not permitted to buy farmland.In the late 19th century, the pattern of United States immigration changed in thatA. far fewer immigrants arrived in the United States than in previous yearsB. most immigrants chose to settle in the rural, farming regions of the western United StatesC. increasing numbers of immigrants came from eastern and southern EuropeD. most immigrants were political refugees
26UrbanizationUrbanization – the movement of people from the country (rural) to the citiesWhy did people move to the cities?People moved to the cities because of the abundance of factory mobsImmigrants and farmersPolitical machines develop to help immigrants adjust to life in AmericaProvide basic services (jobs, housing) in exchange for political supportPolitical machines were very corrupt as a resultEx. Tammany Hall in NYC (Democrats)
27Urbanization Urbanization led to other negatives Poor living conditions (tenement buildings)Unsanitary conditions (no running water, or sewage systems) led to diseaseMany reformers helped immigrants adjust to American lifeJane Addams (Hull House)
28UrbanizationCreate a chart that lists the positive and negative effects of urbanization in America during the Industrial Revolution