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Mian for typologists - the essentials Gabelentz Plenary ALT 10 Leipzig, August 18, 2013 With thanks to the AHRC (UK) (grant AH/K003194/1) Sebastian Fedden.

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Presentation on theme: "Mian for typologists - the essentials Gabelentz Plenary ALT 10 Leipzig, August 18, 2013 With thanks to the AHRC (UK) (grant AH/K003194/1) Sebastian Fedden."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Mian for typologists - the essentials Gabelentz Plenary ALT 10 Leipzig, August 18, 2013 With thanks to the AHRC (UK) (grant AH/K003194/1) Sebastian Fedden

3 Hans Georg Conon von der Gabelentz * March 16, 1840 in Poschwitz/Altenburg December 11, 1893 in Lemnitz In der schildernden Darstellung werden die Einzelsprachen und Sprachfamilien unter den Gesichtspunkt der allgemeinen Sprachwissenschaft gerückt. (Die Sprachwissenschaft, 2. Auflage, 1901: 479) Language description puts individual languages and language families in the purview of general linguistics. [Translation mine] 2

4 3 Phonetics/ Phonology MIAN Morphology Syntax

5 Mian Ok family (ok water, river) Trans New Guinea (TNG) (Pawley 2005; Ross 2005; Wurm 1982) Telefomin District, Sandaun Province, PNG Two dialects: – Eastern dialect has approx. 1,400 speakers – Western dialect (aka Suganga) has approx. 350 speakers First contact in the mid-1930s (Kienzle and Campbell 1938; Campbell 1938: 245) 4

6 Map 1. Putative subgroups within Trans New Guinea (from Ross 2005: 34) 141 st parallel 5

7 Map 1. Putative subgroups within Trans New Guinea (from Ross 2005: 34) 141 st parallel 6

8 The Ok family Ok Lowland OkMountain Ok BiminTelefolTifalFaiwol Mian Yonggom Ninggerum Muyu Ngalum Ok-Oksapmin Oksapmin Morop Figure 1. Based on Healey (1965), Voorhoeve (2005), Loughnane and Fedden (2011) 7

9 Multi-lingual environment Neo-Melanesian Pidgin (Tok Pisin): by now practically everybody Telefol: only old male speakers, decreasing importance Growing importance of English 8

10 Essential Mian in one sentence unáng=i káawa=o woman=PL.ANsteel.axe=N2 om-ûb-o-sese-bl-Ø-io=be F_CL.SG.O-give.PFV-3SG.F.R-RECP-exist-IPFV-2/3PL.AN.SBJ=DECL The (two) women are giving a steel axe to each other. 9

11 Essential Mian in one sentence unáng=i káawa=o woman=PL.ANsteel.axe=N2 om-ûb-o-sese-bl-Ø-io=be F_CL.SG.O-give.PFV-3SG.F.R-RECP-exist-IPFV-2/3PL.AN.SBJ=DECL The (two) women are giving a steel axe to each other. 10

12 PHARYGEALIZATION AND TONE Mian for typologists - the essentials 11

13 Pharyngealization Phonemic distinction between a pharyngealized /aˤ/ (spelled ) and a plain /a/ The contrast of a low, long, glottalized or pharyngealized vowel against another /a/ typical of Sepik languages; possibly a diffused feature (Bill Foley, p.c.) Minimal pairs: al faecesaal skin ayal lightayaal tree sp. Near-minimal pairs: am houseâam older sister mak otherdaak down 12

14 Pharyngealization Figure 2. Spectogramm of / L al/ faecesFigure 3. Spectogramm of / L aˤl/ skin Lower frequency of the third and a higher frequency of the first formant (Ladefoged and Maddieson 1996) 13 F1 F3

15 Harmonic structure of al faeces 14 H1 H2

16 Harmonic structure of aal skin 15 H1H2

17 A tone typology (Donohue 1997) Types are based on the domain of contrast which is phonemically exploited, rather than the number and identity of tones in a system Syllable tone system: TT T T T T | | | σ σ σ Word tone system: T T T | | | ω ω ω | /\ / | \ σ σ σσ σ σ E.g. Mandarin, Cantonese Vietnamese, Igbo, Chuave (Papuan, Chimbu Province), and Sikaritai (Lake Plains, Irian Jaya) E.g. Swedish, Mende, Shanghai, Mian and Kewa (Papuan, Enga Province, PNG) 16

18 Tone in New Guinea Map 2. Tone languages in New Guinea (Donohue 2003: 330; conservative estimate) Within TNG - Ok - Mek - Engan, e.g. Kewa (Franklin 1971) - Chimbu-Wahgi, e.g. Kuman (Hardie 2003), Golin (Evans and Stoakes 2004), Dom (Tida 2006) - Gorokan, e.g. Fore (Scott 1990) - Turama-Kikorian, e.g. Kairi (Rumu) (Newman and Petterson 1990) Outside TNG - Skou (Donohue 2003) Phonemic tone in many TNG languages Not reported for the languages of the Sepik-Ramu area (Foley 1991: 19), the Bismark Archipelago, and the Solomon Islands 17

19 Tone in Mian Only a few of the logically possible tonal melodies occur in mono- and polysyllabic words – L (low), e.g. am house, ibal dust; fu cook (v.) – H (high), e.g. ān arrow, ēimawe haze, *verbs – LH (rising), e.g. áam pandanus, unáng woman, káawa steel axe, *verbs – LHL (peaking), klâ properly, alukûm all; -ûb- give (v.) – HL (falling), e.g. bòks box, usàn tail; hà break (v.) 18

20 Tone association / LH unaŋ/ woman LH L H L H |/ /|/ unaŋunaŋunaŋ [unáŋ] woman 19

21 Tone association / LH unaŋ/ woman LH L H L H |/ /|/ unaŋunaŋunaŋ [unáŋ] woman Figure 4. Waveform and fundamental frequency for / LH unaŋ/ woman 20

22 Segments attracting tone / LH ka ʕ wa/ steel axe LH L H L H | | | kaˤwa kaˤwa kaˤwa * * * [kʰaˤwá] steel axe 21

23 Segments attracting tone / LH ka ʕ wa/ steel axe LH L H L H | | | kaˤwa kaˤwa kaˤwa * * * [kʰaˤwá] steel axe Figure 5. Waveform and fundamental frequency for / LH kaˤwa/ steel axe 22

24 Segments attracting tone / LH ka ʕ wa/ steel axe LH L H L H | | | kaˤwa kaˤwa kaˤwa * * * [kʰaˤwá] steel axe Also in : -ngáamein yellow (ADJ) -máamein maternal uncle (N) -gâala tear down (V) Figure 5. Waveform and fundamental frequency for / LH kaˤwa/ steel axe 23

25 Interplay between segmental and suprasegmental specification Segmental feature attracts tone Related phenomenon in Warembori (Donohue 1999: 8-9) – Normal and heavy set of nasal and voiced stops, which are pronounced identically, but heavy series attracts stress 24

26 NOUN CATEGORIZATION GENDER AND CLASSIFIERS Mian for typologists - the essentials 25

27 Our example sentence unáng=i káawa=o woman=PL.ANsteel.axe=N2 om-ûb-o-sese-bl-Ø-io=be F_CL.SG.O-give.PFV-3SG.F.R-RECP-exist-IPFV-2/3PL.AN.SBJ=DECL The (two) women are giving a steel axe to each other. 26

28 Combining gender and classifiers Typologically relatively rare Recent research has turned up more and more languages that combine gender and classifiers – Papuan Mian (Trans New Guinea, Fedden 2011) Tidore (West Papuan, van Staden 2000) – South American Miraña (Witotoan, Seifart 2005) Tariana (Arawak, Aikhenvald 1994, 2000) – Australian Enindhilyakwa (Non-Pama-Nyungan, van Egmond 2008) 27

29 Mian gender M, F, N1, N2 in the 3 rd person – Marked on: Free pronouns, articles, demonstratives, person affixes on the verb Nominal gender typical of Mountain Ok languages (Healey 1965a; Healey and Steinkraus 1972; Weber 1997) Not typical of TNG languages, which have pronominal gender (M/F), if at all 28

30 Agreement target: article a.naka=ea/the mannaka=i (the) men b.unáng=oa/the womanunáng=i (the) women c.tóm=ea/the stonetóm=o (the) stones d.káawa=oa/the steel axekáawa=o (the) steel axes 29

31 Controller genders SingularPluralAssignment Masculine=e=iMales Feminine=o=iFemales Neuter 1=e=o Inanimates Neuter 2=o Inanimates: locations, body decoration, weather phenomena, illnesses, abstract nouns, some tools and weapons (e.g. káawa steel axe) Neuter 1 and neuter 2 are non-autonomous values (Zaliznjak 1973[2002]: 69–74) 30

32 Gender syncretism MianSGPL MAC FBC N1AB N2BB SingularPluralAssignment Masculine=e=iMales Feminine=o=iFemales Neuter 1=e=oInanimates Neuter 2=o Inanimates: locations, etc. 31

33 Gender syncretism MianSGPL MAC FBC N1AB N2BB AndiSGPL IAA IIBB IIICC IVDD Cited from Corbett (1991: 198) SingularPluralAssignment Masculine=e=iMales Feminine=o=iFemales Neuter 1=e=oInanimates Neuter 2=o Inanimates: locations, etc. 32

34 Gender syncretism MianSGPL MAC FBC N1AB N2BB AndiSGPL IAA IIBB IIICC IVDD e o e o i o i o SingularPlural N2 F M N1 Target genders in MianCited from Corbett (1991: 198) SingularPluralAssignment Masculine=e=iMales Feminine=o=iFemales Neuter 1=e=oInanimates Neuter 2=o Inanimates: locations, etc. 33

35 Verbal classifiers M-CL, F-CL, Long, Bundle, Cover, Residue – Marked on: Verbs of object handling and movement, e.g. give, take, put, throw, lift, turn, fall (~50 verbs) Absolutive basis (Keenan 1984) Typologically, classification by verb extends: – Never to A (absolute universal) – Only to S or O (strong statistical universal) with some exceptions, e.g. S, O or LOC adjuncts in Enindhilyakwa (van Egmond 2008) 34

36 Verbal classifiers nē memâalo fút=e 1SG nowtobacco=SG.N1 tob-ò-n-i=a 3SG.LONG.O-take.PFV-SS.SEQ-1SG.SBJ=MED Now I take the tobacco leaf and then I... (Rolling smokes) Dried Nicotiana leaves bound together 35

37 Verbal classifiers SingularPluralAssignment M-classifierdob-dol- Males; plate, clothes, mosquito net, some bananas, some pandanus F-classifierom-dol- Females; inanimates: all nouns of N2 gender Longtob-tebel- Inanimates: arrow, pen, tobacco leaf, bone, tongs, bush knife, nail, belt Coveringgam-gemel- skin, palm bark, blanket Bundlegol-gulel- string bag, bundles Residueob-ol- tortoises; rest of inanimates 36

38 Overlapping categorization Feminine Residue F-classifier M-classifier Long Covering Bundle Neuter 2 Neuter 1 Masculine 37

39 Clear and intermediary cases Gender system fairly normal (with the wrinkle of the mismatch between controller and target genders) Verbal classifiers are a more mixed category More gender-like - Small finite set of categories - Bound form - Marked outside the noun More classifier-like - Marked once, on a single constituent type - Some nouns not classified - Form and function semantics - Multiple categorization is common 38

40 Multiple categorization A. som=e banana_bunch=SG.N1 dob-meki-n-e=be 3SG.M_CL.O-hang_up.PFV-REAL-3SG.M.SBJ=DECL I've hung up the banana bunch. 39 B.som=e banana_bunch=SG.N1 gol-meki-n-e=be 3SG.BDL.O-hang_up.PFV-REAL-3SG.M.SBJ=DECL I've hung up the banana bunch (that is supplied with some string or rope to hang it up on).

41 A case for Canonical Typology New 3-year long AHRC-funded project on Combining gender and classifiers in natural language 40

42 A case for Canonical Typology New 3-year long AHRC-funded project on Combining gender and classifiers in natural language – Inform the typology of different types of noun categorization systems in a language 41

43 A case for Canonical Typology New 3-year long AHRC-funded project on Combining gender and classifiers in natural language – Inform the typology of different types of noun categorization systems in a language – Use a canonical approach to mapping out the possibility space and focus on intermediate cases 42

44 RECIPROCALS Mian for typologists - the essentials 43

45 The sese-construction unáng=i káawa=o woman=PL.ANsteel.axe=N2 om-ûb-o-sese-bl-Ø-io=be F_CL.SG.O-give.PFV-3SG.F.R-RECP-exist-IPFV-2/3PL.AN.SBJ=DECL The (two) women are giving a steel axe to each other. 44

46 The sese-construction unáng=i káawa=o woman=PL.ANsteel.axe=N2 om-ûb-o-sese-bl-Ø-io=be F_CL.SG.O-give.PFV-3SG.F.R-RECP-exist-IPFV-2/3PL.AN.SBJ=DECL The (two) women are giving a steel axe to each other. Verb-marking reciprocal strategy 45

47 The sese-construction unáng=i káawa=o woman=PL.ANsteel.axe=N2 om-ûb-o-sese-bl-Ø-io=be F_CL.SG.O-give.PFV-3SG.F.R-RECP-exist-IPFV-2/3PL.AN.SBJ=DECL The (two) women are giving a steel axe to each other. Reciprocants have to be (i) subject and (ii) object – Transitive verb-marking reciprocal strategies are typologically unusual (Nedjalkov 2007: 12, 40) – But see Moyse-Faurie (2008) for Oceanic languages and Marlett (2005) for Seri 46

48 The sese-construction unáng=i káawa=o woman=PL.ANsteel.axe=N2 om-ûb-o-sese-bl-Ø-io=be F_CL.SG.O-give.PFV-3SG.F.R-RECP-exist-IPFV-2/3PL.AN.SBJ=DECL The (two) women are giving a steel axe to each other. Note the singular object suffix -o 3SG.F.R – Iconically expressing that the respective reciprocal actions are directed towards individuals of the same sex – Restricted to two reciprocants (constructional encoding of a dual) – The plural -e AN.PL.R is also possible, but only if there are three or more reciprocants 47

49 The sese-construction unáng=i káawa=o woman=PL.ANsteel.axe=N2 om-ûb-o-sese-bl-Ø-io=be F_CL.SG.O-give.PFV-3SG.F.R-RECP-exist-IPFV-2/3PL.AN.SBJ=DECL The (two) women are giving a steel axe to each other. Existential verb – subject suffix in the plural, expressing the whole set of reciprocants they are doing this – aspectual function of expressing imperfectivity 48

50 An alternative construction unáng=i káawa=o woman=PL.ANsteel.axe=N2 om-ûb-o-s-e F_CL.PL.O-give.PFV-3SG.F.R-DS.SEQ-3SG.M.SBJ om-ûb-o-s-e F_CL.PL.O-give.PFV-3SG.F.R-DS.SEQ-3SG.M.SBJ bl-Ø-io=be exist-IPFV-2/3PL.AN.SBJ=DECL The (two) women are giving a steel axe to each other. 49

51 Zigzag construction (Evans 2008) unáng=i káawa=o woman=PL.ANsteel.axe=N2 om-ûb-o-s-e F_CL.PL.O-give.PFV-3SG.F.R-DS.SEQ-3SG.M.SBJ om-ûb-o-s-e F_CL.PL.O-give.PFV-3SG.F.R-DS.SEQ-3SG.M.SBJ bl-Ø-io=be exist-IPFV-2/3PL.AN.SBJ=DECL The (two) women are giving a steel axe to each other. Zigzag verb spelling out reciprocal subevents Existential verb 50

52 The Mian zigzag construction unáng=i káawa=o woman=PL.ANsteel.axe=N2 om-ûb-o-s-e F_CL.PL.O-give.PFV-3SG.F.R-DS.SEQ-3SG.M.SBJ om-ûb-o-s-e F_CL.PL.O-give.PFV-3SG.F.R-DS.SEQ-3SG.M.SBJ bl-Ø-io=be exist-IPFV-2/3PL.AN.SBJ=DECL The (two) women are giving a steel axe to each other. -s is a S/R marker indicating different subject and sequentiality of events 51

53 The Mian zigzag construction unáng=i káawa=o woman=PL.ANsteel.axe=N2 om-ûb-o-s-e F_CL.PL.O-give.PFV-3SG.F.R-DS.SEQ-3SG.M.SBJ om-ûb-o-s-e F_CL.PL.O-give.PFV-3SG.F.R-DS.SEQ-3SG.M.SBJ bl-Ø-io=be exist-IPFV-2/3PL.AN.SBJ=DECL The (two) women are giving a steel axe to each other. -s is a S/R marker indicating different subject and sequentiality of events 52 -e is a subject cross-referencing suffix frozen to the 3 rd person singular masculine

54 A standard S/R example nē bib un-Ø-om=o! 1SGplacego.PFV-REAL-HORT.1SG.SBJ=HORT ge baa-s-e=a say.PFVsay.PFV-DS.SEQ-3SG.M.SBJ=MED éil=eaege-n-e=a pig=SG.Myessay.PFV-SEQ-3SG.M.SBJ=MED he (the male protagonist) said Lets go to my place!, yes said the pig, and then … [The talking pig] 53

55 Circular S/R marking it-give-her-DS-SBJ it-give-her-DS-SBJ they.are om-ub-o-s-e om-ub-o-s-e bliobe 54

56 The Mian zigzag construction Makes overt all the semantic components of a reciprocal event – First two subevents are mapped onto the transitive zigzag verbs – Difference in agent motivates backward-looking switch- reference (Evans 2010: 33) – Existential verb: Whole complex event is a joint activity 55

57 Development of the fused reciprocal V-s-e … V-s-e > V-s-e … V-s-e > V-sese – Haplology-like phonological reduction – For a historical scenario, see Fedden 2013 Zigzag type reported for other TNG languages (Amele and Hua) Fused type is so far only attested in Mian 56

58 Essential Mian in one sentence unáng=i káawa=o woman=PL.ANsteel.axe=N2 om-ûb-o-sese-bl-Ø-io=be F_CL.SG.O-give.PFV-3SG.F.R-RECP-exist-IPFV-2/3PL.AN.SBJ=DECL The (two) women are giving a steel axe to each other. 57

59 CODA Mian for typologists - the essentials 58

60 Thanks to The Gabelentz Award committee: – Chair: Hein van der Voort – Sonia Cristofaro – Mark Donohue – Nick Enfield – Katharina Haude – Birgit Hellwig – Søren Wichmann 59

61 Thanks to Greville G. Corbett (SMG, ) Stephen C. Levinson (MPIP, ) 60

62 Dót klayâm sūm Mr Kasening Milimap (with his fathers headgear, 2008) 61

63 Hans Georg Conon von der Gabelentz * March 16, 1840 in Poschwitz/Altenburg December 11, 1893 in Lemnitz In der schildernden Darstellung werden die Einzelsprachen und Sprachfamilien unter den Gesichtspunkt der allgemeinen Sprachwissenschaft gerückt. (Die Sprachwissenschaft, 2. Auflage, 1901: 479) Language description puts individual languages and language families in the purview of general linguistics. [Translation mine] 62

64 63 Phonetics/ Phonology MIAN Morphology Syntax

65 64 Phonetics/ Phonology Morphology Syntax MIAN Typology

66 65 Morphology Syntax MIAN Typology Pharyngealization Tone

67 66 Morphology MIAN Typology Pharyngealization Tone Switch-reference Reciprocals

68 67 MIAN Typology Pharyngealization Tone Switch-reference Reciprocals Gender Classifiers


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