Diverse geography, climate, resources, etc … Diverse peoples and adaptations.
Ch. 3 Collision at Cajamarca What allowed hundreds to defeat thousands?
Guns : harquebuses Combat advantage Germs : smallpox Power vacuum Steel : sailing technology Arriving in Peru Other Factors: Writing/communication Religious Conquest
Ch. 4: Farmer Power Food production allows specialization and population growth.
Ch. 4: Farmer Power Animal domestication made everything easier. Provided milk, meat, manure for fertilizer, and plowing capabilities.
Ch. 5: Historys Haves and Have-Nots Cultural development was dependent on crops, animals, and their nutritional value. New GuineaThe Fertile Crescent TaroWheat YamsFlaxseed Sugar caneBarley No animalsSheep No grainsGoat Less nutrition and resources More nutrition and resources Less development More development
Ch. 6: To Farm or Not to Farm Why did some hunter-gatherer communities while others have persisted into the modern day? Decline in big-game animals Domesticable plant availability Pressure from population growth
Almonds are poisonous in nature, how did they develop to be people- friendly? Ch. 7: How to Make an Almond
Consumption of mutant, edible almonds allowed more reproduction of the mutant gene. Wild vs. Supermarket Fruits increase dependent dispersal by: Improving taste and Increasing size Did crops decide where humans settled?
Ch. 8: Apples or Indians The people of the Fertile Crescent developed food production earlier because of their geography. Mediterranean climate Large grass seeds Early-domesticated animals Mediterranean humans Optimized food production
Ch. 9: Zebras, Unhappy Marriages, and the Anna Karenina Principle Anna Karenina Principle: Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way. Domesticable animals are all alike; every undomesticable animal is undomesticable in its own way. CharacteristicNecessity for Domestication DietOmnivorous or herbivorous Growth RateDecently fast (elephants = too slow) BreedingAble in captivity/under surveillance DispositionCompliant with captivity Danger ReactionLow panic levels Social StructureAcceptance of subordinate role
Ch. 10: Spacious Skies and Tilted Axes The Americas and Africas north-south axis contained many climates. Eurasias axis expresses much less latitudinal range, therefore less climate variety. High climate variety High species variety and disease variety.
Ch. 11: Lethal Gift of Livestock Farming = more exposure to animals = higher chance of disease Cattle Smallpox, tuberculosis, measles Creation of human epidemics 1.Animals occasionally infect humans 2.Short lived human to human diseases 3.Lasting human to human diseases 4.Epidemics exclusive to humans Large populations allow disease to spread faster More people become immune European diseases killed about 95% of the New World Population upon European arrival
Ch. 12: Blue Prints and Borrowed Letters Writing started with cuneiform in Sumerian southwest Asia. Other peoples copied this alphabet or diffused the idea. Developed in stratified societies, not needed in hunter gatherer societies.
Ch. 13: Necessitys Mother Invention can drive necessity To be favored the invention must have: 1.Economic benefits 2.Social benefits 3.Compatibility with interests 4.Obvious advantages Europeans had more inventions because of more food production, fewer geographic barriers, and larger populations.
Ch. 14: From Egalitarianism to Kleptocracy Bands 5-80 blood-related peoples One language and ethnicity Egalitarian Tribes 80-1,000 peoples Kin-based clans One language and ethnicity Egalitarian Kalahari Bushmen New Guinean Tribe Chiefdoms 1,000-50,000 people At least one village One ethnicity Food production Division of labor States 50,000+ people 1+ languages/ethnicities Central government Laws Division of labor Kamara Chiefdom
Ch. 14: From Egalitarianism to Kleptocracy Kleptocracies control large masses Disarmed commoners/armed elite Curbs violence Redistributes wealth Promotes kleptocentric religion and ideology Instills blind patriotism
Ch. 15: Yalis People New Guinea and Australia were last connected around 10,000 years ago. Europeans were inhibited from New Guinea expansion from malaria and difficult conditions for crops and cattle. Australia became and easier target for settling.
Ch. 16: How China Became Chinese The Qin Dynasty (221 BC) forced the integration of Northern China, similar to Tibetans and Nepalese, and Southern China, similar to the Filipinos and Vietnamese. Similar aspects of previous expansion aided in unification.
Ch. 17: Speedboat to Polynesia Austronesian immigrants came from the Chinese mainland. Migrated to, in chronological order, Taiwan Philippines, Sumatra, Northern New Guinea, Samoa, Hawaii, Easter Island, and Madagascar. Spread was difficult in New Guinea and Australia due to lack of competitive advantage and language barriers.
Ch. 18: Hemispheres Colliding Why Europeans to the Americas and not Americans to Europe? Food Animals Metallurgy Weapons Transportation Writing Political Structure Domestication and arrival time Geographic barriers Arctic migration
Ch. 19: How Africa Became Black Peoples like the Pygmies, Bushmen, and Hottentots were confined to small areas by Bantu farmers Languages both fused and diminished Change in food production domination changed populace make-up
Epilogue Yalis question is answered by accidental geography and environment. Food and animal domestication Differences in diffusion and migration rates Population size *Geographic barriers need to be intermediate Too much Too little Just right