7 Diverse geography, climate, resources, etc… Diverse peoples and adaptations.
8 Ch. 3 Collision at Cajamarca What allowed hundreds to defeat thousands?
9 Guns: harquebuses Combat advantage Germs: smallpox Power vacuumSteel: sailing technology Arriving in PeruOther Factors:Writing/communicationReligious Conquest
10 Food production allows specialization and population growth. Ch. 4: Farmer PowerFood production allows specialization and population growth.
11 Ch. 4: Farmer Power Animal domestication made everything easier. Provided milk, meat, manure for fertilizer, and plowing capabilities.
12 Ch. 5: History’s Haves and Have-Nots Cultural development was dependent on crops, animals, and their nutritional value.New GuineaThe Fertile CrescentTaroWheatYamsFlaxseedSugar caneBarleyNo animalsSheepNo grainsGoatLess nutrition and resources More nutrition and resourcesLess development More development
13 Ch. 6: To Farm or Not to Farm Why did some hunter-gatherer communities while others have persisted into the modern day?Decline in big-game animalsDomesticable plant availabilityPressure from population growth
14 Ch. 7: How to Make an Almond Almonds are poisonous in nature, how did they develop to be people-friendly?
15 Ch. 7: How to Make an Almond Consumption of mutant, edible almonds allowed more reproduction of the mutant gene.Fruits increase dependent dispersal by:Improving tasteandIncreasing sizeDid crops decide where humans settled?Wild vs. Supermarket
16 Ch. 8: Apples or Indians Mediterranean climate Large grass seeds The people of the Fertile Crescent developed food production earlier because of their geography.Mediterranean climateLarge grass seedsEarly-domesticated animalsMediterranean humansOptimized food production
17 Ch. 9: Zebras, Unhappy Marriages, and the Anna Karenina Principle ≈Domesticable animals are all alike; every undomesticable animal is undomesticable in its own way.Anna Karenina Principle: Happy families are all alike; every unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.CharacteristicNecessity for DomesticationDietOmnivorous or herbivorousGrowth RateDecently fast (elephants = too slow)BreedingAble in captivity/under surveillanceDispositionCompliant with captivityDanger ReactionLow panic levelsSocial StructureAcceptance of subordinate role
18 Ch. 10: Spacious Skies and Tilted Axes The Americas’ and Africa’s north-south axis contained many climates.Eurasia’s axis expresses much less latitudinal range, therefore less climate variety.High climate variety High species variety and disease variety.
19 Ch. 11: Lethal Gift of Livestock Farming = more exposure to animals = higher chance of diseaseCattle Smallpox, tuberculosis, measlesCreation of human epidemicsAnimals occasionally infect humansShort lived human to human diseasesLasting human to human diseasesEpidemics exclusive to humansLarge populations allow disease to spread fasterMore people become immuneEuropean diseases killed about 95% of the New World Population upon European arrival
20 Ch. 12: Blue Prints and Borrowed Letters Writing started with cuneiform in Sumerian southwest Asia.Other peoples copied this alphabet or diffused the idea.Developed in stratified societies, not needed in hunter gatherer societies.
21 Ch. 13: Necessity’s Mother Invention can drive necessityTo be favored the invention must have:Economic benefitsSocial benefitsCompatibility with interestsObvious advantagesEuropeans had more inventions because of more food production, fewer geographic barriers, and larger populations.
22 Ch. 14: From Egalitarianism to Kleptocracy Bands5-80 blood-related peoplesOne language and ethnicityEgalitarianTribes80-1,000 peoplesKin-based clansChiefdoms1,000-50,000 peopleAt least one villageOne ethnicityFood productionDivision of laborStates50,000+ people1+ languages/ethnicitiesCentral governmentLawsKalahari BushmenKamara ChiefdomNew Guinean Tribe
23 Ch. 14: From Egalitarianism to Kleptocracy Kleptocracies control large massesDisarmed commoners/armed eliteCurbs violenceRedistributes wealthPromotes kleptocentric religion and ideologyInstills blind patriotism
24 Ch. 15: Yali’s PeopleNew Guinea and Australia were last connected around 10,000 years ago.Europeans were inhibited from New Guinea expansion from malaria and difficult conditions for crops and cattle.Australia became and easier target for settling.
25 Ch. 16: How China Became Chinese The Qin Dynasty (221 BC) forced the integration of Northern China, similar to Tibetans and Nepalese, and Southern China, similar to the Filipinos and Vietnamese. Similar aspects of previous expansion aided in unification.
26 Ch. 17: Speedboat to Polynesia Austronesian immigrants came from the Chinese mainland.Migrated to, in chronological order, Taiwan Philippines, Sumatra, Northern New Guinea, Samoa, Hawaii, Easter Island, and Madagascar.Spread was difficult in New Guinea and Australia due to lack of competitive advantage and language barriers.
27 Ch. 18: Hemisphere’s Colliding Why Europeans to the Americas and not Americans to Europe?FoodAnimalsMetallurgyWeaponsTransportationWritingPolitical StructureDomestication and arrival timeGeographic barriersArctic migration
28 Ch. 19: How Africa Became Black Peoples like the Pygmies, Bushmen, and Hottentots were confined to small areas by Bantu farmersLanguages both fused and diminishedChange in food production domination changed populace make-up
29 EpilogueYali’s question is answered by accidental geography and environment.Food and animal domesticationDifferences in diffusion and migration ratesPopulation size*Geographic barriers need to be intermediateToo muchToo littleJust right