- Iron is the fourth most abundant element on the planet! - most commonly found in the form of Iron ore, where metal oxides could be found - Most commonly found in the soil - Found in oceans and seas in low concentration - Also found in many foods, such as meats.
C.1.2: Describe and explain the reactions that occur in the blast furnace.
The heat Source: - The coke (essentially impure carbon) burns in the blast of hot air to form carbon dioxide: C + O CO (Exothermic Reaction) Reduction of the Ore: - C + CO 2CO (2CO is the main reducing agent) - FeO + 3CO 2Fe + 3CO - FeO + 3C 2Fe + 3CO The temperature of the furnace is hot enough to melt the iron which trickles down to the bottom where it can be tapped off.
The function of the limestone: - At high temperatures the limestone decomposes: CaCO CaO + CO - The carbon dioxide reacts with coke to produce carbon monoxide: CO + C 2CO - The coke can react with water to produce more carbon monoxide and hydrogen: HO + C H + CO - The calcium oxide reacts with silicon dioxide to give a calcium silicitate: CaO + SiO CaSiO
C.1.3 Describe and explain the conversion of iron into steel using the basic oxygen converter. Steel is an alloy of iron. form of purified Iron. Creating molten iron http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yov7Z0rMyHI http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yov7Z0rMyHI
C.1.3 – The process When pure iron is extracted, it is full of impurities, such as silicon manganese, phosphorus, sulfur and dissolved carbon. The metal convertor helps oxidizes such impurities through mixing molten iron with O2 gas with diluted Aragon When the reaction is complete, the impurities escape in the form of gas. The reaction is Exothermal, keeping the iron in a molten state.
C.1.4: Describe alloys as a homogenous mixture of metals or a mixture of a metal or non- metal.
Alloys are metallic materials consisting of two or more elements combined in such a way that they cannot be readily separated by physical means. Transition metals often form alloys with each other as their atoms have similar atomic radii. The addition of other element into the metallic structure can alter the physical properties such as the tensile strength and the melting point.
C.1.5 Explain how alloying can modify the properties of metals. Lowers melting point. Is of significant importance because its one of the primary ways of modifying the properties of pure metallic compounds Alloys are used in Gold and copper to make it harder.
C.1.6: Describe the effects of heat treatment of steel.
The mechanical properties of steel are affected by heat treatment. The controlled heating and cooling of steel changes the nature of the crystals in the steel. Steel can be made less brittle by heating it to about 400- 600 C. Steel is made ductile by heating it to a high temperature, followed by slow cooling.
C.1.7: Describe the properties and uses of iron and steel.
A metal, which has properties such as being silvery-grey and non- toxic. It is a solid, which means that the particles are densely packed together. Iron is a good conductor of heat. This is because the particles are so densely packed together that they can easily pass energy onto each other as they collide. A good conductor of electricity. The electrons in iron are delocalised and allow electricity to easily pass through. Malleable. This means that the closely packed particles can slide over each other. Properties of Iron
Uses of Iron Iron is used in a variety of products from pots, pans, fences, and ornamental items, but the vast majority of iron is used in the production of steel, used as a structural material in the construction of large projects like bridges and buildings, cookware, automotive parts, trains and railways, and as reinforcing in concrete.
Properties of Steel Steel is a hard and strong substance. Steel is not a good conductor of heat and electricity. Steel possess high ductile strength. This means it can be easily shaped or bent or drawn in the form of wires. Most varieties of steel are strongly attracted towards magnets. It is highly resistant to corrosion. At very high temperatures, steel is capable of retaining its strength and resistivity towards oxidation and corrosion.
Uses of Steel Steel can be used for many things. Some examples include: - Bullets - Nuts and bolts - Chains - Hinges - Knives - Armour - Pipes - Magnets
C.1.8 Describe and explain the production of aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in molten cryolite. The electrolysis process used to produce aluminum is known as the Hall process. Purified Aluminum Oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) is dissolved in molten Cryolite (Na 3 AlF 6 ) Na 3 AlF 6 is used because it is an effective conductor of electric current.
C.1.8 Describe and explain the production of aluminum by electrolysis of alumina in molten cryolite.
C1.9 Describe the main properties and uses of aluminum and its alloys. Properties plentiful, light, and strong is only about one third as dense as iron some of its alloys, such as duraluminum are as strong as mild steel high electrical conductivity can also be explosive. Uses Due to its lightness and strength, Aluminum is used a lot in the construction of aircraft.
C.1.10: Discuss the environmental problem of iron and aluminium production.
Iron Consuming too much energy, the iron industry, especially the integrated blast furnace process, is closely related with the resource situation and energy problem of the world.
Aluminium The production of aluminium requires very large quantities of electricity. Therefore aluminium plants are located where hydroelectric power is available. The cost of recycling aluminium is very low. Recycling aluminium reduces global warming as less carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere.