2What tactic enabled Samuel Gompers to develop the American Federation of Labor into the largest labor union in the United States?Allowing women and minorities to join the unionSigning up low-wage, unskilled immigrant laborersLobbying Congress to pass laws limiting the activities of rival unionsConcentrating on higher wages and better working conditions
3D. Concentrating on higher wages and better working conditions
4What is considered the most significant outcome of the 1902 anthracite coal strike? Reduced confidence in laissez faire capitalismGrowing public distrust of large governmentExpansion of executive branch authorityDeclining enrollment in labor unions
6How did vertical integration benefit companies such as Carnegie Steel? Allowing labor unions to participate in decision making led to fewer strikesControlling production and distribution processes increased efficiencies and profits.Investing in the health and education of employees increased workforce motivation.Including local politicians on boards of directors ensured a continuation of laissez faire policies.
7B. Controlling production and distribution processes increased efficiencies and profits.
8What technological development of the mid-19th century most revolutionized the U.S. steel industry? ElectrificationVulcanizationSteam PowerBessemer Process
10How did businesses such as Sears, Roebuck and Co How did businesses such as Sears, Roebuck and Co. transform the late 19th century economy?They expanded the market for consumer goodsThey applied new technologies in their storesThey advertised the services of new companies.They employed sales associates in rural locations
12Which individual is most closely associated with an innovation that revolutionized an entire industry by accelerating production and dramatically reducing costs and the need for human labor?Alexander Graham BellHenry BessemerJules VerneThomas Alva Edison
16“Society advances where its fittest members are allowed to assert their fitness with the least hindrance.”This idea advanced by Herbert Spencer would be fully embraced by a supporter of which ideology?AnarchismMarxismSocial DarwinismSocial Gospel
20The use of barbed wire is most directly associated with which outcome? The completion of the Union Pacific RailroadThe end of the open range and frontierIncreased prospecting and mining activityIncreased demand and production of steel
24A researcher seeking primary source material on the massacre of Wounding Knee would likely consider which of the following to be most authentic and authoritative evidence on the topic?The highest ranked results of an online searchA letter describing an eyewitness account of the eventA public radio interview of a notable historianThe textbook for a high school U.S. history course
25B. A letter describing an eyewitness account of the event
26Which of the following factors had the greatest impact on the development of the United States industrial infrastructure in the late 19th century?Revolutionary changes in steel production and the growth of railroadsThe passage of the Homestead Act and the closing of the American frontierRestraints on monopolistic business practices and the legalization of unions.The ideas of Henry George, Edward Bellamy, and Henry Lloyd
27Revolutionary changes in steel production and the growth of railroads
28Which summary of the massacre at Wounded Knee is most accurate? It provided a rationale for the creation of the Bureau of Indian AffairsIt fostered congressional dialogue that led to the passage of the Indian Reorganization ActIt represented the culmination of the U.S. government’s military operations against native peoples.It prompted widespread public hostility toward the Sioux Indians.
29C. It represented the culmination of the U. S C. It represented the culmination of the U.S. government’s military operations against native peoples.
30In this excerpt from the 1896 essay, architect Louis Sullivan describes certain conditions typical of growing urban centers of commerce and industry.…the invention and perfection of the high-speed elevator make vertical travel, that was once tedious and painful, now easy and comfortable; development of steel manufactures has shown the way to safe, rigid, economical constructions rising to a great height…Sullivan’s observation relates to which feature of most large, modern cities?AirportsMallsSkyscrapersSuburbs
32How did some late 19th century industrialists such as John D How did some late 19th century industrialists such as John D. Rockefeller react to government restrictions on their businesses?By developing independent councils to oversee their stock transactions.By placing their companies under the control of boards of trustees.By involving labor union leaders in workplace decisions.By creating new political parties and personally running for political offices.
33B. By placing their companies under the control of boards of trustees.
34What factor most contributed to the Great Chicago Fire’s widespread destruction? Firefighters’ inability to communicate with recent immigrantsThe city’s limited water supply due to a droughtTheft of fire department funds by corrupt politiciansExtensive wood-frame construction in homes and businesses
35Extensive wood- frame construction in homes and businesses
36In which way did their protest at Chicago’s Haymarket Square affect the Knights of Labor? The massive gathering of the union’s workers disrupted public services to such an extent that the federal government placed limits on the union’s activities.Workers lost confidence in the union’s leadership after they discovered the union president had given details of their rally to the police.Union members grew disillusioned as newpapers printed articles blaming workers for the violence that had occurred.The union’s emphasis on recruiting immigrant laborers at the event angerd American born workers, who then joined the AFL.
37C. Union members grew disillusioned as newspapers printed articles blaming workers for the violence that had occurred.
38Early 20th century Progressive reformers were LEAST concerned with which problem? Unsafe food processing methodsUnhealthy urban living conditionsExploitation of children in the workplaceDeprivation of African Americans’ civil rights
39D. Deprivation of African Americans’ civil rights
40Which of the following factors was most significant in the development of labor unions during the 19th century?Working conditionsRacial segregationClass discriminationGrowing prosperity
42Which historic situation is most comparable to the light bulb replacing oil lamps? The railroad replacing the automobileElectric engines replacing steam enginesSteel production replacing oil productionThe telegraph replacing the telephone
44It created the possibility of home based businesses In what significant way did the development of the incandescent light bulb improve 19th century urban conditions?It created the possibility of home based businessesIt prompted more immigrants to remain in large cities.It enabled passenger trains to operate at nightIt replaced the dirty dangerous gaslight
48In this excerpt from the 1896 essay, architect Louis Sullivan describes certain conditions typical of growing urban centers in the United States.…continued growth of population in the great cities, consequent congestion of centres and rise in value of ground, stimulate an increase in number of stores; these, successfully piled one upon another, react on ground values…Based on this description, which conclusion can a reader most reasonably draw about urban growth in the United States at that time?The greatest population increases occurred in the industrial cities.Rising property values in cities stimulated development.The stories of immigrants revealed the hardship of living in the citiesIncreasing congestion resulted in suburban growth.
49B. Rising property values in cities stimulated development.
50In this excerpt from the 1896 essay, architect Louis Sullivan describes certain conditions typical of growing urban centers of commerce and industry.…the invention and perfection of the high-speed elevator make vertical travel, that was once tedious and painful, now easy and comfortable; development of steel manufactures has shown the way to safe, rigid, economical constructions rising to a great height…Sullivan’s observation relates to which feature of most large, modern cities?AirportsMallsSkyscrapersSuburbs
54Which action represents a major change in U. S Which action represents a major change in U.S. policy toward American Indians after the Civil War?Relocation to distant territoriesApportionment of tribal property to private individualsPeace negotiations with hostile tribesGrants of conditional citizenship
55B. Apportionment of tribal property to private individuals
56Populism:A. Backing dollars solely with goldB. Organization that fought for farmer’s rightsC. A frontier home, usually dug into a hill or made from sodD. Political movement that sought advancement for farmers and laborers.
57D. Political movement that sought advancement for farmers and laborers.
58Why did nativists worry about an influx of immigrants during the 1880’s? They feared the immigrants would gain control of city and state governments and encourage even more immigration.They believed the immigrants would receive preferential treatment from federal government and be given large tracts of land.They thought the country’s ports could not handle the increasing number of immigrants as well as an increasing amount of exports.They considered immigrants from southern and eastern Europe more difficult to assimilate into American culture than earlier immigrants.
59D. They considered immigrants from southern and eastern Europe more difficult to assimilate into American culture than earlier immigrants.
60Inspection station for immigrants arriving on the East Coast. A. Ellis IslandB. Angel IslandC. Hawaii IslandD. Jane Island
62How did city bosses and their “machines retain control of city governments despite their reputations for greed and corruption?By providing aid to citizens in exchange for political supportBy developing alliances with state and federal officialsBy using police forces to intimidate their political rivalsBy establishing local militias to prevent outside interference
63By providing aid to citizens in exchange for political support
64Railroad that crosses the entire country A. Transcontinental RailroadB. Transfixed RailroadC. Transam RailroadD. Transformer Railroad
70Which quotation was associated with the forced assimilation of American Indians at the Carlisle Indian Industrial School?“We all wore white man’s clothes and ate white man’s food.”“Our labor symbolized nothing, and left us mentally sluggish in the dusk of the evening”“Humility and charity are the only credentials for admission.”“It never enters our heads that we can offend anyone by the expression of love”
71“We all wore white man’s clothes and ate white man’s food.”
72Agreement that limited Japanese emigration to U.S. A. Gentlemen’s AgreementB. Chinese Exclusion ActC. Japanese Exclusion ActD. Collective Bargaining
74In the development of the steel industry, which of the following factors was LEAST significant? The construction of railroadsThe abundance of natural resourcesThe growth of cities and skyscrapersThe invention of the telephone and typewriter
75D. The invention of the telephone and typewriter
76Urbanization:A. Program to teach American culture to immigrantsB. The growth of citiesC. Social reform that helped the poorD. Illegal use of political influence for personal gain
78Which development contributed most to a growing demand for mass produced clothing during the late 1800s?Widespread distribution of mail order catalogsImproved working conditions for textile workersIncreased production of cotton and woolGreater acceptance of synthetic fabrics
82As the ending point of most cattle drives and the home of legendary frontier figures Wyatt Earp, Bat Masterson, and Doc Holliday, what Kansas location is most often associated with the Wild West?Dodge CityLawrenceTopekaWichita
86The U.S. Cavalry’s buffalo soldiers shared what experience with most other African Americans of their time?They earned respect for their skill and valor.They were segregated because of their raceThey were beneficiaries of affirmative actionThey were not permitted to own property