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Introduction Standard Steel Sections Connections Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction Standard Steel Sections Connections Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction Standard Steel Sections Connections Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

2 Introduction Ever since steel began to be used in the construction of structures, it has made possible some of the grandest structures both in the past and also in the present day. Structural steel is widely used in making: Bridges Transmission Towers Industrial Buildings Storage Structures…… …… and, Many More. Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

3 Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

4 Howrah Bridge, Kolkata Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

5 Eiffel Tower, Paris Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

6 Olympic Stadium, London Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

7 Inland Steel Building, Chicago Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

8 An Industrial Shed Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

9 A Refinery Structure Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

10 A Railway Platform Shed Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

11 A Steel Water Tank Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

12 Design Objective The objective of design is the achievement of an acceptable probability that structures will perform satisfactorily for the intended purpose during the design life. With an appropriate degree of safety, they should sustain all the loads and deformations, during construction and use and have adequate resistance to certain expected accidental loads and tire. Structure should be stable and have alternate load paths to prevent disproportionate overall collapse under accidental loading. All the designs shall confirm to IS 800 : 2007 (Indian Standard ; General Construction in Steel – Code of Practice.) Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

13 Advantages of Steel Structures High Strength - about ten times that of concrete. Predictable material properties Rapid & High Quality Construction. Ductile and Robust. Good fatigue strength. Can be easily repaired and retrofitted. Can be easily dismantled and sold as scrap. Durable – Long service life. Adaptation of prefabrication. Higher reliability and safety. Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

14 Disadvantages of Steel Structures High Cost of material. Skilled workmanship & supervision needed. Regular maintenance required. Susceptibility to buckling. Less resistant to fire attacks. Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

15 Structural Steel The steel used for structural works shall confirm to IS 2062 : 2011 (Hot Rolled Medium and High Tensile Structural Steel). Most Commonly used grade is E-250 (Fe 410). Following are few important Physical properties of structural steel : Unit mass of steel, ρ = 7850 kg/m 3 Modulus of elasticity, E = 2.0 x 10 5 N/mm 2 Poissons ratio, µ = 0.3 Modulus of rigidity, G = 0.769 x 10 5 N/mm 2 Co-efficient of thermal expansion α.= 12 x 10 -6 / o c Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

16 Standard Steel sections Different Hot Rolled steel sections are used in combination, or, separately to fulfill the design requirements. These standard sections are: Indian Standard I – Sections Indian Standard Angle Sections Indian Standard Channel Sections Indian Standard T – Sections Indian Standard Flats For the sectional properties, references are: SP : 6 (1) - 1964 (Reaffirmed 2003) IS 808 : 1989 (Reaffirmed 2004) Steel Tables of any standard publication. Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

17 I - section Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

18 EQUAL ANGLE section Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

19 UNEQUAL ANGLE section Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

20 CHANNEL section Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

21 T - section Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

22 Connections The different structural components are to be connected together, so as to achieve the final shape of the structure. The design of connections is having equal importance, as the loads from one component to other are transferred through connections. Following are the type of connections used in structural steel fabrication: Riveted Connections. Bolted Connections. Welded Connections. Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

23 Riveted Connections Rivet is a pin having a head on one end, inserted through aligned holes in the pieces to be joined and then hammered on the plain end so as to form a second head. Usually rivet is made up of wrought iron or soft steel due to lower hardness which is necessary to have easy deformation during riveting. For riveting parts to be joined are first drilled with the help of drilling machine. Clearance is taken into consideration while riveting because by pressing application diameter of rivet is somewhat increased. Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

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25 The connection formed by rivets is permanent. Rivets are widely used in Steel Bridges, trusses, water tanks, silos & boilers. Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

26 Advantages of Riveted connections Cheaper fabrication cost. Low maintenance cost. Dissimilar metals can also be joined, even non- metallic joints are possible with riveted joints. Ease of riveting process. Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

27 Disadvantages of Riveted connections Skilled workers required. Leakage may be a problem for this type of joints, but this is overcome by special techniques. The process of riveting is noisy. Due to these disadvantages, rivets are becoming obsolete now a days. Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

28 Bolted Connections A bolt is an externally threaded fastener designed for insertion through holes in assembled parts, and is normally intended to be tightened or released by torquing a nut. Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

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30 Advantages of BOLTED connections Noiseless & quick process. Only semi-skilled labour required. No special equipments needed. Cooling period is not required, as in weld or rivets. Bolts can be easily disconnected for replacement of damaged parts. Reliable under fluctuating stresses. No heat damage to the coating on hot dip galvanized or painted structures. Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

31 Disadvantages of BOLTED connections May be visually unacceptable. Deduction for holes is required in calculation of area for tension members, which leads to the use of a larger cross section. Bolts may be prone to corrosion if not properly protected. Vibrations may lead to loosening of nuts. Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

32 Welded Connections Welding is a procedure that involves fusing two pieces of steel together by melting a sacrificial flux electrode to two pieces, thereby joining the pieces permanently together. The most common type of fillet welding process is Arc welding, or sometime called stick welding. Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

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34 Advantages of WELDED connections Welded joints are more rigid than bolted joints. Can directly connect pieces without the need for connection plates. Welds do not create holes in member (i.e., no need to check fracture on net area) Can join odd-shaped pieces together. Adaptable to confined spaces and remote locations. A high quality weld can often be stronger than the parts to be joined. Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

35 Disadvantages of WELDED connections Welds are brittle, not ductile like bolted connections. Very labor intensive. Skilled labor required. Quality control is difficult to inspect. Potential fire hazard in areas of welding. Welding creates a permanent joint, not desirable if parts need to be fixed or replaced later. Welding very thin sheets is difficult. Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

36 Hey…. Yet Not Over…… Wait…. Its time for something Yummy…….. But... One has to win them in a ….. Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

37 1. Identify the structure…. Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal Its – The Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco

38 2.The Indian Standard Code of Practice used for General Construction in Steel is….. IS 800 : 2007 Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

39 3. The Most Commonly used grade of steel in structural work is…… E-250 (Fe 410) Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

40 4.The unit mass of structural steel is…… 7850 kg/m 3 Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

41 5. The most common type of fillet welding process is….. Arc welding Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal

42 Thanks……. ……. For Your Attention. Prof. Sachin Patel (Head, CED) SAMCET, Bhopal


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