Presentation on theme: "Introduction The wristwatch: a common tool that not many people think about, but almost everyone uses at some time. In this presentation I hope to outline."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction The wristwatch: a common tool that not many people think about, but almost everyone uses at some time. In this presentation I hope to outline some of the resources needed to create this machine and where we get these resources from. Enjoy!
Parts Here are the parts and pieces I am going to look at: The Wristband and Buckle The Mainspring The Balance Wheel The Hairspring The Escapement The Oscillating Weight
The Wristband and Buckle There are many different types of wristband, ranging from leather to plastic; but the type I will be examining are of the metal variety. Metal wristwatches are most commonly made of an aluminum alloy, which is of course just aluminum combined with some other metal, very commonly zinc due to zincs corrosion-resistant qualities. Both of these are mined; aluminum from China, Indonesia, Jamaica and Russia. And zinc from Australia, Canada and the United States. The buckle is made of the same type of alloy. Zinc Aluminum
The Mainspring The mainspring in modern watches is made of hardened stainless steel. This metal is used because of its rigidly, which is needed to wind the watch properly. The main producers of steel (this substance is not mined, but rather produced from iron and carbon) are China, Japan, the United States, and Russia (2008). The main miners of iron are China, Australia, Brazil and India. Mainspring A steel ball
The Balance Wheel The modern balance wheel is usually made of Invar, a nickel-steel alloy which is used due to its low thermal expansion rate. The main producers of steel (this substance is not mined, but rather produced from iron and carbon) are China, Japan, the United States, and Russia (2008). The main miners of iron are China, Australia, Brazil and India. The main producers of nickel are Russia, Indonesia, Canada, and Australia. Balance Wheel A steel ball Nickel Ore
The Hairspring The modern hairspring is made primarily from a single-crystal silicon, due to the low thermal expansion in this substance. Silicon is a mineral mined from the Earth. The main producers of silicon are China (2.4 million tonnes annually), Russia (600,000 tonnes annually), and Norway (270,000 tonnes annually). Hairspring ^ Silica Sand
The Escapement The modern escapement in mechanical watches is made of Invar, which as mentioned before is a steel-nickel alloy used for its low thermal expansion. The main producers of steel (this substance is not mined, but rather produced from iron and carbon) are China, Japan, the United States, and Russia (2008). The main miners of iron are China, Australia, Brazil and India. The main producers of nickel are Russia, Indonesia, Canada, and Australia. The Escapement Nickel OreSteel Sheet
The Oscillating Weight The oscillating weight in a watch can be made from many things, depending on the model, make, and brand. But most are made from some type of heavy metal; such as lead 1. And so I will use lead as an example. The main producers of lead are Australia (about 694,000 tonnes a year), China (about 641,000 tonnes a year), and the United States (about 466,000 tonnes a year). Lead can be very harmful if allowed to get into the environment, so special care is attended to this part. Lead 1: although certain expensive watches have weights made of gold A Gold Oscillating Weight
Current Wristwatch Materials Economy Disposal: Watches are thrown into landfills or other similar ways of dealing with waste Consumption: The watch is used until it breaks or is no longer wanted (although watches usually last long) Distribution: Fine metal wristwatches are usually bought from prestigious stores Production: The refining of many alloys and creation of the watch body and watch itself Extraction: Mining of metals used in a watch Usually the line ends here, although an emerging practice is to look through watches for valuable metals. Even so, there is quite a bit of waste.
How It Could Work Better Extraction of watch materials Production of watch in safe factories Distribution through fair- trade stores Consumption and usage of watch to make sure it lasts Recycling of all watch materials after melting
Conclusion Throughout this project I have had to look deep to find the required information and it has made me think about the consumption and use of materials in todays society. I believe that certain practices in use right now are fine practices; although some (such as extraction and disposal) can be harmful to human health and the environment. They require work to find more efficient ways of execution; luckily much of this work is already taking place. I would like to extend my thanks for reading my project, and I hoped you enjoyed it. Mining uses up a lot of space Landfills are not a good way to deal with waste
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