A building as an event Buildings should not be thought of as products Buildings are ongoing events in time and space –Evolving –Unfolding –Dynamic –Decaying –Revitalizing The relationship of buildings and time The architect s work is intended to live on into the distant future. He sets the stage for a long, slow moving performance which must be adaptable enough to accommodate unforeseen improvisations Rasmussen
Mountain Equipment Co-op, Ottawa Architects - Linda Chapman Architects & Christopher Simmonds Architects Structural engineers - Cleland Jardine Engineering Limited Building use - 2,500 m² retail facility
1,000 m 2 existing building on the site, formerly a grocery store with steel columns, beams and open-web steel joists
Owner – Paul Perdini Architect – Single Speed Design 300 tonnes of materials diverted including salvaged steel and concrete panels
Vancouver National Works Yard - LEED Gold Busby Perkins and Will Architects 85 % of construction waste was diverted from landfill Recycled materials: concrete, steel, wood, aluminum, gypsum, plastic/pvc, cardboard
Waste = Walls Designing buildings from Waste The goal is to showcase waste materials that have value as reused building construction components. Students propose innovative and effective material uses that will have performance characteristics that meet or exceed traditional materials while illustrating sound design and building science principles and featuring aesthetically-pleasing finishes.
Definitions of reuse There are 4 ways of using recycled or reclaimed material in a project: 1.Recycle - Use material with a high recycled content - virtually all steel has some recycled content 2.Component reuse - Reuse individual components extracted from the demolition of one project in a new building – not common – shoring industry 3.Rebuild - move most or all of an existing building to a new location – often occurs for pre-engineered buildings 4.Adaptive reuse - reuse the existing structure and possibly add or extend it - relatively common with some structures
Barriers for using salvaged material Material availability The lack of technical and procedural knowledge Difficulty in developing materials specification A higher risk in the reused material not performing Meeting current specifications regulations. Design team experience Potential impacts on costs - higher design fees, higher material sourcing fees Time and scheduling issues Contractual issues Cost
Lessons from various projects Strong commitment on the part of the client and the project team Flexibility - avoid rigid design constraints –Allow for the possibility of various depths of structural member –Create a flexible structural zone, so various structural solutions can be accommodated Timing is critical –Availability of components –When to purchase available salvaged components –Coordination –Storage –Avoid multiple handling Identifying the structural characteristics of the salvaged components –Documentation. –Standard component specifications Processing or fabrication –Pricing can be difficult if the condition of the reclaimed component is not known.
Lessons (continued) Quality control during deconstruction/extraction Need to create a connection between demand and supply for reclaimed components –A schedule of demolition projects, each with a brief project description Some contractors may be nervous about tendering for unusual projects of this kind –Need to educate contractors and work with them to ensure that full cost benefits can be realized Design constraints –Reuse is easier if the components can be reused for a purpose similar to their original one –Use similar structural layouts and original span sizes in the new design. –Bolting steel facilitates eventual dismantling Contractual relationships? Liability
Issues for designers Perceived increased risk –Designers are taking on additional risk? –Standard specifications –Passing risk to specialist companies –Codes and standards Contractual issues –Timing of appointing contractor Redesign Flexibility Design fees Timing and availability –Reclaimed components are not currently easily available of the shelf in quantities and a range of specifications that designers expect –Lack of a coordinated supply chain –Identify specific components early on during the design process at demolition sites or reclamation yards Codes and standards Standard specifications
Establishing performance of reclaimed components Drawings/specs from the original use are helpful Historical knowledge and size may be sufficient Testing is possible and practical References –ASTM Standards A7 and A9. –The publication Appraisal of existing iron and steel structures by The Steel Construction Institute of the United Kingdom –CAN/CSA-S6-00 (Canadian Highway Bridge Code). Markings for identification
Availability/Sourcing Salvage yards Demolition contractors –Designers developing local relationships with demolition contractors Some specialist material centers Buildings that are ready for demolition Industrial and engineering works Exchange web sites –www.reuse-steel.orgwww.reuse-steel.org Timing / coordination can be critical
Strategies Overall project aim - clearly defined and upfront goals. The design and construction team –committed to reuse –previous experience Design process - requires an iterative approach with the detailed design being formed as a response to the materials acquired. Specification –performance based with historical material data if known, –provisions for testing procedures if necessary Cost plan –remaining flexible to allow for market fluctuations in the supply and demand of available materials Project Program – adapt to allow for processes such as sourcing, refurbishment, and testing which coincide with design.
Strategies (continued) Finding materials/goods – –May require audits if sourced from existing buildings, coordination of disassembly, delivery and storage. –Establish partnerships with demolition contractors, etc. Selection of materials/goods - create protocols and weighted analysis using determined criteria such as embodied energy and performance. Storage –This may be necessary if acquiring materials from a building scheduled to be demolished prior to construction. –Careful planning and the involvement of the main contractor in this area may alleviate some of the drawbacks. Project management –allocate the necessary resources while still providing a realistic schedules.