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Pile Types 2009 PDCA Professor Pile Institute Patrick Hannigan GRL Engineers, Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "Pile Types 2009 PDCA Professor Pile Institute Patrick Hannigan GRL Engineers, Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pile Types 2009 PDCA Professor Pile Institute Patrick Hannigan GRL Engineers, Inc.

2 COMMON PILE TYPES Timber Precast Concrete Steel Pipe Steel H Composite

3 Timber Pile Overview

4 Timber Piles

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6 Timber Pile - Toe Protection

7 Timber Pile - Banding

8 H-Pile Overview

9 H-Piles

10 H-Pile - Toe Protection

11 H-Pile - Splices Full Penetration Groove Weld H-pile Splicer

12 H-Pile - Splices

13 Open End Pipe Pile Overview

14 Outside Cutting Shoe

15 Inside Cutting Shoe

16 Large Diameter Open Ended Pipe

17 Spin Fin Pile

18 Closed End Pipe Pile Overview

19 Typical Pipe Pile Closure Plate Flat Closure Plate Fillet Weld

20 Conical Pipe Pile Tip

21 Pipe Pile - Splicing

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23 Internal Pipe Pile Inspection

24 Concrete Placement

25 Monotube Piles

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27 Cut V Notches at 90˚ Grind V Notches Fillet Weld Monotube Splicing

28 Tapertube Piles

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30 Cast-In-Place (Mandrel Driven)

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33 Prestressed Concrete Overview

34 Prestressed Concrete

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36 Prestressed Concrete Details Typical Sizes 10 – 20 inch 20 – 36 inch 11 – 18 inch void 10 – 24 inch 11 – 15 inch void

37 Concrete Pile Splices

38 Mechanical Splice

39 Welded Splice

40 Epoxy- Dowel Splice

41 Prestressed Concrete - Cutoff

42 Cylinder Piles

43 Cylinder Pile Details Typical Sizes 36, 42, 48, 54, & 66 inch O.D. 5 & 6 inch wall

44 Composite Piles

45 Concrete – H-pile Pipe – H-pile Composite Piles

46 Pipe - Concrete Corrugated Shell - Timber Composite Piles

47 Steel Sheet Piling Manufacturing - hot rolled Typical lengths: feet Material specifications:ASTM A572, ASTM A690 Maximum stresses –Design bending stress: 0.65 Fy –Design axial stress: analyze combined stresses –Design driving stress (impact hammer): 0.90 Fy Disadvantages: driving through boulders or other obstructions Advantages: –Minimal excavation requirements –Reduces space requirements for construction work –Manufactured with 100 percent scrap metal –Forms continuous walls for use in cofferdams, bulkheads, flood protection walls, and others applications

48 Sheet Pile Types U pile wall Z pile wall Combination wall Wall Types

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50 Dolphin (steel sheet piles)

51 PILE SELECTION Practice of having a standard or favorite pile type is NOT recommended Practice of having a standard or favorite pile type is NOT recommended Each type has advantages & disadvantages Each type has advantages & disadvantages Several pile types or sections may meet the project design requirements Several pile types or sections may meet the project design requirements

52 PILE SELECTION Therefore, all candidate pile types should be carried forward in the design process Final pile selection should be based on most economical section meeting the design requirements

53 Site Considerations on Pile Selection Remote areas may restrict equipment size. Local availability of pile materials and capabilities of local contractors. Waterborne operations may dictate use of shorter pile sections. Steep terrain may make use of certain pile equipment costly or impossible. Noise restrictions, vibration levels, or other environmental considerations may influence equipment selection and/or installation techniques.

54 Subsurface Effects on Pile Selection Typical ProblemRecommendation Boulders over Bearing Stratum Loose Cohesionless Soil Use Heavy Low Displacement Pile With Shoe. Include Contingent Predrilling Item in Contract. Use Tapered Pile to Develop Maximum Shaft Resistance. Negative Shaft Resistance Avoid Batter Piles. Use Smooth Steel Pile to Minimize Drag Load or Use Bitumen Coating or Plastic Wrap. Could Also Use Higher Design Stress. Deep Soft Clay Use Rough Concrete Piles to Increase Adhesion and Rate of Pore Water Dissipation.

55 Typical ProblemRecommendation Artesian Pressure Scour Hydrostatic Pressure May Cause Collapse of Mandrel Driven Shell Piles and Thin Wall Pipe. Pile Heave Common on Closed End Pipe. Adequate Pile Capacity Should be Developed Below Scour Depth (Design Load x SF). Tapered Pile Should Be Avoided Unless Taper Extends Below Scour Depth. Coarse Gravel Deposits Use Prestressed Concrete Piles Where Hard Driving is Expected. Subsurface Effects on Pile Selection

56 Pile Shape Effects on Pile Selection Shape Characteristic Pile TypesPlacement Effects Displacement Closed End Steel Pipe Prestressed Concrete Increase Lateral Ground Stress. Densify Cohesionless Soils. Temporarily Remolds and Weakens Cohesive Soils. Setup Time for Large Pile Groups in Sensitive Clays May Be Up To Six Months.

57 Shape Characteristic Pile TypesPlacement Effects Low Displacement Steel H-pile Open End Steel Pipe Minimal Disturbance to Soil. Not Recommended for Friction Piles in Coarse Granular Soils. Piles Often Have Low Driving Resistances in These Deposits Making Field Capacity Verification Difficult Resulting in Excessive Pile Lengths Installed. Pile Shape Effects on Pile Selection

58 Shape Characteristic Pile TypesPlacement Effects Tapered Timber Monotube Tapertube Thin Wall Shells Increased Densification of Soil. High Capacity for Short Penetration Depth in Granular Soils. Pile Shape Effects on Pile Selection

59 ? ? ? Additional Information at

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