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Identifying Metals and Their Physical Properties.

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1 Identifying Metals and Their Physical Properties

2 Interest Approach Here are some different types of metals and alloys. Here are some different types of metals and alloys. Can you identify these metals? Can you identify these metals? Do you see these broken parts made of different metals? Do you see these broken parts made of different metals? How would you repair the broken parts? How would you repair the broken parts?

3 Student Learning Objectives Identify and explain the terms associated with metals. Identify and explain the terms associated with metals. Describe the properties and structures of metals. Describe the properties and structures of metals. Explain how steel is manufactured. Explain how steel is manufactured. Describe how metal is classified. Describe how metal is classified. Describe the characteristics used to identify metals. Describe the characteristics used to identify metals.

4 Terms Adhesion Adhesion Alloy Alloy Annealing Annealing Casting Casting Compressive strength Compressive strength Crystal structure Fatigue strength Flexure strength Hardening Hardness

5 Terms High temperature creep High temperature creep Impact strength Impact strength Malleable Malleable Shear strength Shear strength Space lattice Steel Tempering Tensile strength

6 What terms are commonly used with metals?

7 Because of the widespread use and necessity for metals in agriculture, it is important for the worker to have a basic understanding of metals and metallurgy when fabricating and making repairs on metals.

8 Metal Metal is an element. Metal is an element. There are over 100 known elements, and about 75 percent of them are classified as metals. There are over 100 known elements, and about 75 percent of them are classified as metals.

9 Alloy An alloy is a mixture of two or more metals, or of metals and one or more non-metals An alloy is a mixture of two or more metals, or of metals and one or more non-metals The elements added to a metal to form an alloy may be either metal or non-metal. The elements added to a metal to form an alloy may be either metal or non-metal. In most cases alloys have more desirable properties and are less expensive than pure metals. In most cases alloys have more desirable properties and are less expensive than pure metals.

10 High Temperature Creep High temperature creep is the slow stretching of steel under stress at high temperatures. High temperature creep is the slow stretching of steel under stress at high temperatures.

11 Adhesion Adhesion is the sticking together of two unlike metals involving a mechanical bond. Adhesion is the sticking together of two unlike metals involving a mechanical bond. The mechanical bond involves the flowing of a metal in a liquid form into the pores of a metal in a solid form. The mechanical bond involves the flowing of a metal in a liquid form into the pores of a metal in a solid form.

12 Annealing Annealing is the softening of metal and removing of the brittleness. Annealing is the softening of metal and removing of the brittleness. The annealing process is done by heating the metal to a cherry red and then allowing it to cool slowly in vermiculite, dry hot sand, or a furnace. The annealing process is done by heating the metal to a cherry red and then allowing it to cool slowly in vermiculite, dry hot sand, or a furnace.

13 Tempering Tempering is obtaining the desired hardness and toughness in metal. Tempering is obtaining the desired hardness and toughness in metal.

14 The process of making steel harder is known as hardening. This is done by heating the steel to a cherry red color, then cooling it quickly in water. This is done by heating the steel to a cherry red color, then cooling it quickly in water. Hardened steel is not only extremely hard but also brittle. Hardened steel is not only extremely hard but also brittle. Hardening is the first step in tempering. Hardening is the first step in tempering. Hardness is the ability of a material to resist being indented. Hardness is the ability of a material to resist being indented.

15 Casting Casting is pouring melted metal into a mold so that it will be a certain shape after cooling. Casting is pouring melted metal into a mold so that it will be a certain shape after cooling.

16 Malleable The capability of being extended or shaped by being beaten with a hammer or by being pressed by rollers is known as malleable. The capability of being extended or shaped by being beaten with a hammer or by being pressed by rollers is known as malleable.

17 What are the properties and structures of metals?

18 The distinct characteristics used to help identify a given metal are referred to as its properties.

19 These characteristics include: brittleness brittleness color color corrosion resistance corrosion resistance ductility ductility malleability malleability strength. strength.

20 These properties can be categorized into seven broad classifications.

21 1. Mechanical properties hardness hardness brittleness brittleness ductility ductility percent elongation percent elongation toughness toughness wear wear strength strength

22 Tensile strength is the ability of a metal to resist being pulled apart.

23 Compressive strength is the ability of a metal to resist deformation by forces pushing it together.

24 Shear strength is the ability of a metal to resist forces acting in opposite directions.

25 Fatigue strength is the ability of a metal to take repeated loads without deforming.

26 Impact strength is the ability of a metal to resist shock. Impact strength is the ability of a metal to resist shock. Flexure strength is the ability of a metal to bend without deforming or breaking. Flexure strength is the ability of a metal to bend without deforming or breaking.

27 2. Chemical properties refers to the chemical make-up of the metal and its ability to resist reaction with the environment. refers to the chemical make-up of the metal and its ability to resist reaction with the environment.

28 2. Chemical properties Chemical properties are oxide or compound composition, acidity or alkalinity of the metal; corrosion resistance; resistance to acids and salts; and resistance to other chemicals. Chemical properties are oxide or compound composition, acidity or alkalinity of the metal; corrosion resistance; resistance to acids and salts; and resistance to other chemicals. Corrosion resistant metal will resist deterioration from heat, sunlight, water, and humidity. Corrosion resistant metal will resist deterioration from heat, sunlight, water, and humidity.

29 3. Physical properties relates to the dimensions, shape, specific gravity, and weight of the metal. relates to the dimensions, shape, specific gravity, and weight of the metal.

30 4. Thermal properties Characteristics such as: expansion expansion contraction contraction thermal conductivity thermal conductivity specific heat specific heat

31 5. Optical properties luster luster color color light transmission light transmission light reflection light reflection

32 6. Electromagnetic properties electrical conductivity electrical conductivity magnetic permeability magnetic permeability galvanic action galvanic action

33 7. Acoustical properties relate to the ability of a metal to transmit and reflect sound relate to the ability of a metal to transmit and reflect sound

34 Crystal Structure The crystal structure of a metal is the way molecules of a substance are arranged or how they are packed or fitted together. The crystal structure of a metal is the way molecules of a substance are arranged or how they are packed or fitted together. The pattern these atoms make is called a space lattice. The pattern these atoms make is called a space lattice.

35 Crystal Structure There are 14 lattices involved in the study of metals There are 14 lattices involved in the study of metals Only three of the most common structures are of real importance here. Only three of the most common structures are of real importance here.

36 Crystal Structure The body-centered cubic arrangement has nine atoms. The body-centered cubic arrangement has nine atoms. The main characteristic is their strength and the difficulty with which they are worked when cold. The main characteristic is their strength and the difficulty with which they are worked when cold. Examples: iron, molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, and vanadium at room temperature. Examples: iron, molybdenum, chromium, tungsten, and vanadium at room temperature.

37 Crystal Structure The face-centered cube arrangement has fourteen atoms. The face-centered cube arrangement has fourteen atoms. The main characteristic is that they are plastic and malleable. The main characteristic is that they are plastic and malleable. Examples: iron, aluminum, nickel, copper, lead, platinum, and silver. Examples: iron, aluminum, nickel, copper, lead, platinum, and silver.

38 Crystal Structure The close-packed hexagon arrangement has seventeen atoms. The close-packed hexagon arrangement has seventeen atoms. The main characteristics are that they are non-plastic and must be heated before they can be worked. The main characteristics are that they are non-plastic and must be heated before they can be worked. Examples: cadmium, cobalt, bismuth, magnesium, titanium, and zinc. Examples: cadmium, cobalt, bismuth, magnesium, titanium, and zinc.

39 How is steel manufactured?

40 Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and usually other metals.

41 There are hundreds of different steels, ranging in composition from 99 percent iron and very small amounts of carbon, to steels containing less than 55 percent iron and a large percentage of other metals.

42 There are four major steel making processes: the Bessemer furnace the Bessemer furnace the open hearth furnace the open hearth furnace electric furnace electric furnace the oxygen furnace the oxygen furnace

43 There are four major steel making processes: All four processes are similar in principle in that pig iron is treated with an oxygen-bearing material to burn out the carbon and impurities. All four processes are similar in principle in that pig iron is treated with an oxygen-bearing material to burn out the carbon and impurities. Alloying metals are then added. Alloying metals are then added.

44 There are two general types of steel: carbon and alloy. Approximately 80 to 90 percent of steel produced is carbon steel. Approximately 80 to 90 percent of steel produced is carbon steel. Carbon steels contain 0.05 to 1 percent carbon and less than 1.5 percent of the other elements. Carbon steels contain 0.05 to 1 percent carbon and less than 1.5 percent of the other elements.

45 There are two general types of steel The strength of steel increases as the carbon content increases, but the hardness, brittleness, and difficulty of fabrication also increase. The strength of steel increases as the carbon content increases, but the hardness, brittleness, and difficulty of fabrication also increase. There are hundreds of alloy steels. There are hundreds of alloy steels. The effects of additives varies. The effects of additives varies. Some of these effects are as follows: Some of these effects are as follows:

46 Additive Effects Chromium makes the alloy hard and increases the wear and corrosion resistance of steel. Chromium makes the alloy hard and increases the wear and corrosion resistance of steel. Steels containing more than 4 percent chromium are called stainless steels. Steels containing more than 4 percent chromium are called stainless steels. Sulfur is added to aid in machinability of the steel. Sulfur is added to aid in machinability of the steel.

47 Additive Effects Silicon is added to improve the electrical, mechanical, and thermal characteristics. Silicon is added to improve the electrical, mechanical, and thermal characteristics. Nickel is added to increase the toughness and strength. Nickel is added to increase the toughness and strength. Vanadium is added to increase the strength. Vanadium is added to increase the strength.

48 Additive Effects Tungsten is used to produce tool steels that will maintain a cutting edge at high heat. Tungsten is used to produce tool steels that will maintain a cutting edge at high heat. Aluminum helps to provide a hardened surface. Aluminum helps to provide a hardened surface. Molybdenum tends to increase the hardness and the endurance limits of steel. Molybdenum tends to increase the hardness and the endurance limits of steel.

49 Additive Effects Oxygen forms iron oxide which is not desirable. Oxygen forms iron oxide which is not desirable. Phosphorus is found in all steels. Phosphorus is found in all steels. When present in high percentages it is considered an impurity. When present in high percentages it is considered an impurity. At low percentages it improves machinability. At low percentages it improves machinability.

50 Additive Effects Carbon added to iron changes the physical properties. Carbon added to iron changes the physical properties. The amount of change is directly proportional to the amount of carbon added to the iron. The amount of change is directly proportional to the amount of carbon added to the iron.

51 How is metal classified? How is metal classified? Of the known elements, about 80 to 90 are technically considered metals. Of the known elements, about 80 to 90 are technically considered metals. Of these, 10 to 15 are considered important in agricultural mechanics. Of these, 10 to 15 are considered important in agricultural mechanics. These metals can be broken down into four groups and classified as follows: These metals can be broken down into four groups and classified as follows:

52 How is metal classified? How is metal classified? These metals can be broken down into four groups and classified as follows: These metals can be broken down into four groups and classified as follows: Ferrous Metals Ferrous Metals Non-ferrous metals Non-ferrous metals Ferrous Alloys Ferrous Alloys Non-ferrous Alloys Non-ferrous Alloys

53 A. Ferrous metals Metals whose chief ingredient is iron. Metals whose chief ingredient is iron. Pig iron, cast iron, wrought iron, and steel are examples. Pig iron, cast iron, wrought iron, and steel are examples.

54 Pig iron or cured iron is iron ore changed to pig iron by a blast furnace. is iron ore changed to pig iron by a blast furnace.

55 Cast iron is a product of pig iron and contains a considerable amount of carbon and some impurities. is a product of pig iron and contains a considerable amount of carbon and some impurities. It is brittle and granular in structure. It is formed by pouring into special castings. It is brittle and granular in structure. It is formed by pouring into special castings.

56 Cast iron Gray cast iron has been cooled slowly, allowing carbon to separate from the iron into pockets of carbon in the form of graphite. Gray cast iron has been cooled slowly, allowing carbon to separate from the iron into pockets of carbon in the form of graphite. Gray cast iron is used in sprockets, stoves, and manifolds. Gray cast iron is used in sprockets, stoves, and manifolds.

57 Cast iron White cast iron has been cooled quickly to prevent separation of carbon. White cast iron has been cooled quickly to prevent separation of carbon. White cast iron is used for agitators in grain drills. White cast iron is used for agitators in grain drills.

58 Cast iron Malleable cast iron has been made soft, strong, and malleable through a long re-heating and cooling process called annealing. Malleable cast iron has been made soft, strong, and malleable through a long re-heating and cooling process called annealing. Malleable cast iron will bend slightly, such as for a conventional mower guard. Malleable cast iron will bend slightly, such as for a conventional mower guard.

59 Wrought iron a product of pig iron that has had most of the carbon removed, is a two-component metal consisting of high purity iron and iron silicate. a product of pig iron that has had most of the carbon removed, is a two-component metal consisting of high purity iron and iron silicate. Wrought iron is the only ferrous metal that contains siliceous slag. Wrought iron is the only ferrous metal that contains siliceous slag.

60 Wrought iron The slag is responsible for the desirable properties of wrought iron, particularly its resistance to corrosion and fatigue. The slag is responsible for the desirable properties of wrought iron, particularly its resistance to corrosion and fatigue. It is used for rivets, porch furniture, and decorative roof supports. It is used for rivets, porch furniture, and decorative roof supports.

61 Steel is iron characterized chiefly by its carbon content. is iron characterized chiefly by its carbon content.

62 B. Non-ferrous metals are those which have no iron and are made up of a single element. are those which have no iron and are made up of a single element. These are aluminum, copper, lead, magnesium, nickel, tin, tungsten, zinc, silver, and gold. These are aluminum, copper, lead, magnesium, nickel, tin, tungsten, zinc, silver, and gold.

63 Aluminum is a silver-white, malleable, ductile metal. is a silver-white, malleable, ductile metal. It is known for its electrical conductivity, heat conductivity, rust resistance, and light weight. It is known for its electrical conductivity, heat conductivity, rust resistance, and light weight.

64 Copper reddish-brown in color reddish-brown in color is used for tubes, wire, sheets, and plates. is used for tubes, wire, sheets, and plates. It has excellent workability, either hot or cold, and the highest electrical and heat conductivity of all commercial metals. It has excellent workability, either hot or cold, and the highest electrical and heat conductivity of all commercial metals.

65 Lead has a bluish-white color and a bright luster. has a bluish-white color and a bright luster. It is soft, highly malleable, and ductile; has slight tenacity; and is a poor conductor of electricity. It is soft, highly malleable, and ductile; has slight tenacity; and is a poor conductor of electricity. It is used for making pipe and containers for corrosive liquids. It is used for making pipe and containers for corrosive liquids.

66 Magnesium is a very lightweight, silver-white metal, which is malleable and ductile and burns in air. is a very lightweight, silver-white metal, which is malleable and ductile and burns in air. It is usually found in the alloy known as dowmetal. It is usually found in the alloy known as dowmetal. It is useful for airplane bodies, truck and auto wheels, ladders, lawn mower frames, and any place where weight reduction is important. It is useful for airplane bodies, truck and auto wheels, ladders, lawn mower frames, and any place where weight reduction is important.

67 Nickel is a hard, malleable, ductile, tenacious white metal that is somewhat magnetic. is a hard, malleable, ductile, tenacious white metal that is somewhat magnetic. It is valuable for the alloys it forms with other metals. It is valuable for the alloys it forms with other metals.

68 Tin does not corrode in humid conditions, adheres tenaciously to iron, has a low melting point does not corrode in humid conditions, adheres tenaciously to iron, has a low melting point used extensively in solder, brass, bronze, and pewter. used extensively in solder, brass, bronze, and pewter.

69 Tungsten one of the heaviest metals one of the heaviest metals used for making filaments for incandescent lamps. used for making filaments for incandescent lamps. Tungsten carbide is almost as hard as diamond and is used extensively for cutting tools. Tungsten carbide is almost as hard as diamond and is used extensively for cutting tools.

70 Zinc bluish-white metal at ordinary temperatures bluish-white metal at ordinary temperatures is brittle but malleable at high temperatures is brittle but malleable at high temperatures used as a galvanizing metal coating to prevent corrosion. used as a galvanizing metal coating to prevent corrosion.

71 Silver shiny, white metal shiny, white metal used mostly for ornamental work, jewelry, and table-ware. used mostly for ornamental work, jewelry, and table-ware. Silver is the best conductor of electricity. Silver is the best conductor of electricity.

72 Gold is most often used for ornamental jewelry. is most often used for ornamental jewelry.

73 C. Ferrous alloys Metals made up largely of ferrous materials but having other elements in sufficient quantities to change the ferrous characteristics. Metals made up largely of ferrous materials but having other elements in sufficient quantities to change the ferrous characteristics.

74 Manganese steel can stand strain, hammering, shock, and hard wear. can stand strain, hammering, shock, and hard wear. It is used for the jaws of ore crushers, power shovels, chains, gears, and safes. It is used for the jaws of ore crushers, power shovels, chains, gears, and safes.

75 Chromium steel resists rust, shock, scratches, and stains. resists rust, shock, scratches, and stains. It is used for bearings, safes, ore crushers, and is the basis for high- quality stainless steel. It is used for bearings, safes, ore crushers, and is the basis for high- quality stainless steel.

76 Nickel steel is strong, hard, elastic, tough, and durable. is strong, hard, elastic, tough, and durable. It does not rust easily It does not rust easily used for springs, cables, axles, shafts, and armor plate. used for springs, cables, axles, shafts, and armor plate.

77 Stainless steel seldom rusts seldom rusts used for cutlery, precision measuring instruments, dentistry supplies, auto parts, and engine valves. used for cutlery, precision measuring instruments, dentistry supplies, auto parts, and engine valves.

78 Tungsten steel adds hardness to steel and allows it to withstand heat. adds hardness to steel and allows it to withstand heat. Tungsten carbide is the hardest metal known and is used for various cutting surfaces. Tungsten carbide is the hardest metal known and is used for various cutting surfaces.

79 Molybdenum steels known for their strength and hardness known for their strength and hardness used for hacksaw blades, high- grade machinery parts, bearings, and auto parts. used for hacksaw blades, high- grade machinery parts, bearings, and auto parts.

80 Vanadium steel is tough and can withstand great shocks as well as resist corrosion. is tough and can withstand great shocks as well as resist corrosion. used for springs, gears, and vibrating parts of machinery. used for springs, gears, and vibrating parts of machinery.

81 High-speed steel contains one or more alloying elements contains one or more alloying elements

82 D. Non-ferrous alloys are made up of two or more nonferrous elements.

83 Brass an alloy of copper and zinc. an alloy of copper and zinc. It is ductile, malleable, and acid resistant. It is ductile, malleable, and acid resistant.

84 Bronze an alloy of copper and tin an alloy of copper and tin behaves very much like brass when welded. behaves very much like brass when welded.

85 Solder types lead and tin solder lead and tin solder copper and zinc alloy solder copper and zinc alloy solder silver and copper alloy solder. silver and copper alloy solder.

86 Pewter an alloy of 92 percent tin, 5 percent antimony and 3 percent copper. an alloy of 92 percent tin, 5 percent antimony and 3 percent copper.

87 Monel is an alloy of 60 percent nickel and 40 percent copper. is an alloy of 60 percent nickel and 40 percent copper.

88 Grading and classifying steel. Because steel varies in carbon content and alloying elements, a system to group it using standards established by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) was developed. Because steel varies in carbon content and alloying elements, a system to group it using standards established by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) was developed.

89 Grading and classifying steel In the SAE numbering system, the first digit indicates the general type of steel. In the SAE numbering system, the first digit indicates the general type of steel. The second digit indicates the percentage of the main alloy in the steel. The second digit indicates the percentage of the main alloy in the steel.

90 Grading and classifying steel. The third and fourth digits show the percent of carbon in the steel in hundredths of one percent. The third and fourth digits show the percent of carbon in the steel in hundredths of one percent.

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92 What characteristics are used to identify metals? Physical and chemical tests are used to determine the type of metal. Physical and chemical tests are used to determine the type of metal. Because so many kinds of metals are used in agriculture it is very important that you learn to identify them. Because so many kinds of metals are used in agriculture it is very important that you learn to identify them.

93 The Appearance Test involves identification of a metal by its appearance and use. involves identification of a metal by its appearance and use. Color and appearance make certain metals such as copper, brass, and bronze easy to identify. Color and appearance make certain metals such as copper, brass, and bronze easy to identify.

94 The Magnetic Test involves identification of metal by the use of a magnet. involves identification of metal by the use of a magnet.

95 The Chisel Test involves identification of metal by the use of a hammer and cold chisel. involves identification of metal by the use of a hammer and cold chisel.

96 The Fracture Test involves identification of metal by fracturing the metal and observing the grain. involves identification of metal by fracturing the metal and observing the grain.

97 The Flame Test involves identification of metals by applying a flame to them and watching what occurs. involves identification of metals by applying a flame to them and watching what occurs.

98 The Spark Test involves identification of metals by applying them to a grinding wheel and observing the spark that is generated. involves identification of metals by applying them to a grinding wheel and observing the spark that is generated. The color, shape, average length, and activity of the sparks are characteristics of the material being tested. The color, shape, average length, and activity of the sparks are characteristics of the material being tested.

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100 Student Activity Identify the various metals given using the following materials:

101 Handouts of Metal Identification

102 Lab Sheet

103 Various testing items Grinder Grinder Magnet Magnet Hammer and Chisel Hammer and Chisel Oxyacetylene flame Oxyacetylene flame Vise Vise

104 Review Identify and explain the terms associated with metals. Identify and explain the terms associated with metals. Describe the properties and structures of metals. Describe the properties and structures of metals. Explain how steel is manufactured. Explain how steel is manufactured. Describe how metal is classified. Describe how metal is classified. Describe the characteristics used to identify metals. Describe the characteristics used to identify metals.


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