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ASSESSMENT OF THE COURSE 20 POINTS: ESSAYS AND ORAL PRESENTATION 30 POINTS: MIDTERM TEST: 25 th APRIL: listening-video, Grammar test, Fill in the gaps,

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Presentation on theme: "ASSESSMENT OF THE COURSE 20 POINTS: ESSAYS AND ORAL PRESENTATION 30 POINTS: MIDTERM TEST: 25 th APRIL: listening-video, Grammar test, Fill in the gaps,"— Presentation transcript:

1 ASSESSMENT OF THE COURSE 20 POINTS: ESSAYS AND ORAL PRESENTATION 30 POINTS: MIDTERM TEST: 25 th APRIL: listening-video, Grammar test, Fill in the gaps, reading comp., correct the mistakes 50 POINTS: FINAL EXAM 19 th JUNE : listening-video, translation, reading comp., composition, correct mistakes IT IS COMPULSORY TO ATTEND & COMPLETE AT LEAST 5 PRACTICAL SESSIONS

2 EXAM SECTION I: 30 points MATERIALS: Units th April Multiple choice Fill-in the gaps Correct the mistakes Reading comprehension VIDEO test: during Practical Session 5 (U6) = 24th April Sample & solution: personales.upv.es/ajaime ESSAY 2 = deadline 27 March ESSAY 3 = deadline 17 April

3 ORAL PRESENTATIONS = 10P INDIVIDUALLY (about 5 min) or IN PAIRS (about 10 min) TOPIC Any topic related to ENGINEERING Topic SECTION II : ENERGY & THE ENVIRONMENT DATES from 30 th April to 21 st May => sing up in the LIST

4 SUMMARY UNIT 1: –Voc: Names of Materials. W.F. Adjectives –Grammar: Describing (Articles, Measurements) UNIT 2: –Voc: General vs Specific/ Count vs Uncount –Grammar: Classifying (AS/HOW/LIKE) UNIT 3: –Voc: Properties. W.F. Nouns/Vb from Adj –Grammar: Comparison & Contrast (Connectors) UNIT 4: –Voc: Revision. W.F. Nouns from Vb –Grammar: Rel. Clauses

5 UNIT 5 CAUSE & EFFECT Vocabulary Heat treatment of steel: –Annealing –Hardening –Tempering Grammar and functions Expressing cause & effect ALLOW / CAUSE / AVOID Giving instructions: purpose and method

6 EXERCISE 1.We use copper in wires due to its ductility 2.We mix pure metals with other materials so that we obtain the required properties 3.Aluminium is used in structures as it is corrosion resistant 4.Aluminium is used in structures because of its corrosion resistance 5.Tempering results in a decrease in hardness and... 6.Plastics are insulators, thus they are used to cover wires 7.Annealed steel is more machineable since this process releases internal stresses 8.With hardening, the metal becomes stronger 9.Iron is brittle. As a consequence it is mixed with other Alloying is a way of changing the properties of metals. In this way we can obtain materials with specific characteristics

7 QUESTIONS 1.Which two methods are used to change the properties of steel? 2.How does the carbon content affect the properties of steel? 3.What does heat treatment consist of? 4.What happens when we heat steel at a certain temperature? 5.Which are the three heat treatments? 6.What two steps are involved in the process of annealing? 7.Which are the results? 8.What happens when we cool the metal quickly? 9.What two steps are involved in the process of hardening? 10.What problem results from hardening and how can we solve this? 11.Explain the process of tempering. 12.What is the difference between tempered steel and high carbon steel?

8 TRUE/FALSE 1.Carbon makes steel harder. T (up to 1.5%) 2.When we want to make steel softer and easier to machine we use annealing. T 3.Annealing increases the internal stresses in the metal. F (Annealing releases stresses) 4.Steel can be hardened by cooling it slowly. F (by cooling it fast) 5.High carbon steel can be easily worked because it is soft. F (it becomes hard)

9 WORD FORMATION PercentAGE hammerING contractION crackING temperING annealiNG cooliNG DistortION treatMENT hardENING

10 EXERCISE CAUSE/ALLOW/PREVENT 1.B 2.C 3.B 4.A 5.A 6.C 7.C 8.B 9.Permits / allows …… prevents 10.Prevent

11 LISTENING: STEEL 1.an alloy of IRON and up to 1.7% CARBON, with small amounts of manganese, phosphorous, sulfur, and silicon 2.those with other metals 3. low-alloy steels have LESS THAN 5% of the alloying metal and high-alloy steels MORE THAN 5%. 4. Carbon steels are FAR STRONGER THAN IRON, and their properties can be tailored to their uses by adjusting COMPOSITION AND TREATMENT. 5.STAINLESS STEELS 6.Steel was first mass-produced in the MID-19TH CENTURY 7.The USA, the former Soviet Union, and Japan are the MAJOR PRODUCERS. 8.All steelmaking processes REMOVE THE IMPURITIES in the raw materials …and reduce iron ore BY OXIDIZING them WITH an air or oxygen blast

12 LISTENING: STEEL 8. 9.THUS MOST OF THE CARBON, SILICON, manganese, phosphorus and sulfur ARE CONVERTED TO THEIR OXIDES and, … 10.The main processes are …or basic OXYGEN process, 11.…, used for HIGHEST-QUALITY STEEL; and the open- hearth process. 12.When THE IMPURITIES HAVE BEEN REMOVED, desired elements are added in calculated proportions 13.steel is cast as INGOTS that are shaped while still red-hot in rolling mills, or it may be cast as a continuous bar (strand casting). 14.The PROPERTIES OF CARBON STEELS may be greatly improved by HEAT TREATMENT: ANNEALING, CASE HARDENING and TEMPERING

13 HEAT TREATMENT 1 THE PROPERTIES OF METALS CAN BE CHANGED IN DIFFERENT WAYS. A COMMON METHOD OF IMPROVING THEIR CHARACTERISTICS IS BY ALLOYING SEVERAL METALS. THIS METHOD CONSISTS OF HEATING THE METALS UNTIL THEY MELT IN ORDER TO OBTAIN THE REQUIRED PROPERTIES. FOR EXAMPLE, STEEL CONTAINING LITTLE CARBON WILL be SOFTER than steel with more carbon

14 HEAT TREATMENT 2 ON THE OTHER HAND, THE PROPERTIES OF STEEL CAN ALSO BE IMPROVEDBY HEAT TREATMENT. THIS IS THE NAME GIVEN TO A NUMBER OF PROCEDURES WHICH CONSIST OF HEATING THE METAL UP TO A CERTAIN TEMPERATURE AND THEN ALLOW THE METAL TO COOL AT DIFFERENT RATES

15 HEAT TREATMENT 3 ONE OF SUCH PROCEDURES IS KNOWN AS ANNEALING. IN THIS PROCESS, STEEL IS HEATED ABOVE ITS CRITICAL TEMPERATURE AND THEN IT IS COOLED SLOWLY. 4 AS A RESULT, THE METALBECOMES SOFTER AND MORE EASILY MACHINEABLE DUE TO THE FACT THAT THIS PROCESS PREVENTS INTERNAL STRESSES FROM OCCURRING

16 HEAT TREATMENT 5 AS OPPOSED TO ANNEALING, WE CAN MAKE THE METAL HARDER WITH THE PROCESS OF HARDENING. IN THIS CASE, WE LET THE METAL HEAT ABOVE ITS CRITICAL TEMPERATURE AND THEN WE ALLOW IT TO COOL FAST. 6 ON THE CONTRARY TO WHAT HAPPENED IN THE PROCESS OF ANNEALING,THE METAL OBTAINED WILL BE HARDER; HOWEVER, IT WILL BE BRITTLE SINCE THE RAPID COOLING CAUSES UNEQUAL CONTRACTIONS TO OCCURIN THE METAL, WHICH GIVES RISE TO CRACKING

17 HEAT TREATMENT 7 IN ORDER TO AVOID THIS PROBLEM, THE METALCAN BE HEATED BELOW ITS CRITICAL TEMPERATURE AND INSTEAD OF COOLING IT QUICKLY WE LET IT COOL SLOW LY; IN THIS WAY, DESPITE THE METAL BEING HARD, IT WILL ALSO BE TOUGH THUS ALLOWING US TO SHAPE IT WITHOUT FRACTURING

18 ESSAY 3 (Units 4-5) IN about words DESCRIBE A PROCESS (YOU CAN USE THE PICTURE IN THE BOOK P 75) INCLUDE & UNDERLINE 2 SHORT REL CLAUSES(-ED/-ING) + 2 OTHER TYPES (U4) THAT/THOSE as pronouns (i.e. = el/los DE/QUE …)(U4 p58) THE VERBS ALLOW/CAUSE and PREVENT ( U5 p 68) 3 EXPRESSIONS OF CAUSE AND EFFECT (U5 p 65) Express the PURPOSE and METHOD (U5 p71) 3 NOUNS FORMED FROM VB (U4 p59). DEADLINE: 17 th APRIL


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