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Near Full Density Low Alloy Steel and Ductile Cast Iron by a New P/M Process Dennis Hammond Apex Advanced Technologies.

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Presentation on theme: "Near Full Density Low Alloy Steel and Ductile Cast Iron by a New P/M Process Dennis Hammond Apex Advanced Technologies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Near Full Density Low Alloy Steel and Ductile Cast Iron by a New P/M Process Dennis Hammond Apex Advanced Technologies

2 Process Overview Highly compressible, standard water atomized powder, pre-alloyed and straight iron Highly compressible, standard water atomized powder, pre-alloyed and straight iron Special additive/lubricant master batch Special additive/lubricant master batch Conventional blending, standard tooling and conventional pressing Conventional blending, standard tooling and conventional pressing Part pressing controlled to mass Part pressing controlled to mass Compaction range TSI Compaction range TSI Modified de-binding, controlled temperature, time, and atmosphere Modified de-binding, controlled temperature, time, and atmosphere

3 Process Overview Cont. Modified sintering rate and temperatures up to 2500F for low alloy and 2200F for cast Modified sintering rate and temperatures up to 2500F for low alloy and 2200F for cast Sintering atmosphere can be low % hydrogen or vacuum Sintering atmosphere can be low % hydrogen or vacuum Heat treating similar to conventional wrought and cast products Heat treating similar to conventional wrought and cast products Lower alloying additions to achieve properties verses conventional P/M Lower alloying additions to achieve properties verses conventional P/M Sintered densities >96%; up to 99+ Sintered densities >96%; up to 99+

4 Process Overview Cont. Properties comparable/superior to wrought and cast products Properties comparable/superior to wrought and cast products MPIF standards for P/M structural parts will not predict properties, technology is more like a wrought/PM hybrid MPIF standards for P/M structural parts will not predict properties, technology is more like a wrought/PM hybrid Not all conventional P/M alloy systems are feasible with this technology. Not all conventional P/M alloy systems are feasible with this technology. Not all iron powders are suitable Not all iron powders are suitable

5 Key Features Additive/Lubricant Master Batch Calculations for feasibility of full density, desired lubrication, and needed additives Calculations for feasibility of full density, desired lubrication, and needed additives Target volume % of theoretical at target green density Target volume % of theoretical at target green density Need for a green compact free of density gradients Need for a green compact free of density gradients Need for excellent lubrication, Apex Superlube® Need for excellent lubrication, Apex Superlube® Need for mobile lubricant to achieve best fit of metal particles during compaction and spread of additives Need for mobile lubricant to achieve best fit of metal particles during compaction and spread of additives

6 Key Features Additive/Lubricant Master Batch Need for excellent distribution of additives in powder mix and compact Need for excellent distribution of additives in powder mix and compact Need for excellent dispersion of additives Need for excellent dispersion of additives Need for no segregation of additives, particles charged during making the master batch Need for no segregation of additives, particles charged during making the master batch Master batch includes all additives including proprietary additives, pre-mixed and screened, ready to mix with iron powder Master batch includes all additives including proprietary additives, pre-mixed and screened, ready to mix with iron powder

7 Key Features Additive/Lubricant Master Batch Easy blending of additive master batch and metal Easy blending of additive master batch and metal A.D. and flow of final mix may be not the same as a conventional mix A.D. and flow of final mix may be not the same as a conventional mix Static dissipative tubing should be use between the hopper and press, with grounding Static dissipative tubing should be use between the hopper and press, with grounding

8 Scope Mo, Ni, C Low Alloy Steels Molybdenum range from 0.3% to 1.5% Molybdenum range from 0.3% to 1.5% Nickel range from 2% to 6.6% Nickel range from 2% to 6.6% Graphite.65% to.9% Graphite.65% to.9%

9 Density Data Low Alloy Mo, Ni, C MetalNiCG.DS.D A -30 HP 2%.9% A -85 HP 2%.8% A-150 HP 6.6%.65% Astaloy 85MO 2%.65% Astaloy 85 Mo 2%.9%

10 Low Alloy MO, Ni, C with Martensitic Heat Treatment Alloy Final Density HardnessHRCULT,ksi Y.S ksi. 3%Mo 2% Ni, 2% Ni,.9% C % Mo 2% NI 2% NI.85% C % Mo 6.6Ni.65% C

11 Low Alloy MO, Ni, C with Martensitic Heat Treatment Alloy % Elong. Modulus X 10 PSI Un- notched ft-lbsfNotchedFt-lbsf.3% Mo 2% Ni 2% Ni.9% C % Mo 2% Ni 2% Ni.85% C %Mo6.6%Ni.65%C

12 Low Alloy MO, Ni, C with Three different Heat Treatments Alloy Final Density HardnessHRCULT,ksi Y.S ksi. 3%Mo 2% Ni, 2% Ni,.9% C % Mo 2% NI 2% NI.9% C % Mo 2% NI 2% NI.9% C

13 Low Alloy MO, Ni, C with Three different Heat Treatments Alloy % Elong. Modulus X 10 PSI Un- notched ft-lbsfNotchedFt-lbsf.3% Mo 2% Ni 2% Ni.9% C % Mo 2% Ni 2% Ni.9% C % Mo 2% Ni.9% C

14 Properties Observations Low alloy content gives properties comparable to higher alloy content Low alloy content gives properties comparable to higher alloy content It is possible to save on high cost alloy components Mo, Ni It is possible to save on high cost alloy components Mo, Ni Process gives properties far superior to comparable P/M conventional formulations Process gives properties far superior to comparable P/M conventional formulations Process give properties superior to wrought and forged due to higher alloy content Process give properties superior to wrought and forged due to higher alloy content

15 Properties Observations Heat treatment variation opens doors to modify properties to fit applications Heat treatment variation opens doors to modify properties to fit applications A variety of surface treatments can now be used with this process due to the lack of porosity A variety of surface treatments can now be used with this process due to the lack of porosity Costly operations such as resin infiltration can now be eliminated Costly operations such as resin infiltration can now be eliminated

16 Scope Cr,Mo,Mn,Ni,C Chromium.75% Chromium.75% Manganese up to.75% Manganese up to.75% Nickel up to 1% Nickel up to 1% Graphite.65% to.9% Graphite.65% to.9%

17 Density Data Low Alloy Cr,Mo,Mn,Ni,C Cr % Mo % Mn/Ni % C%G.D.g/ccS.Dg/cc.75%.25%.65% %.25%.9% %.25%.75Mn.9% %.25% 1% Ni.9%

18 Density Data Low Alloy Mo, Ni, C Mo % Ni % C%G.D.S.D..9% %.9% %.9%

19 Low Alloy Cr, Mo, C with Heat Treatments Alloy Final Density HardnessHRCULT,ksi Y.S ksi.75 Cr,.25% Mo,.85% C Cr,.25% Mo,.85% C

20 Low Alloy Cr, Mo, C with Heat Treatments Alloy % Elongation Un Notched Impact Ft-lb.75 Cr,.25% Mo,.85% C <.5% Cr,.25% Mo,.85% C <1% %61.1

21 Ductile Cast Iron Base formula studied.7% silicon, 2% Graphite Base formula studied.7% silicon, 2% Graphite Alloying components added with lubricant/additives as a master batch Alloying components added with lubricant/additives as a master batch Formula pressed green 6.95 to 7.00g/cc Formula pressed green 6.95 to 7.00g/cc Sintering 2180 F 25%hydrogen/75% nitrogen mixture, 7.67 g/cc as sintered, gray cast iron Sintering 2180 F 25%hydrogen/75% nitrogen mixture, 7.67 g/cc as sintered, gray cast iron Heat treated, similar to conventional cast 7.44g/cc after heat treatment (ductile cast) Heat treated, similar to conventional cast 7.44g/cc after heat treatment (ductile cast)

22 Ductile Cast Iron Heat Treated Gray Cast Iron Easily machined Easily machined Low porosity, near full density Low porosity, near full density For machine applications with fair degree of toughness with high yield strength For machine applications with fair degree of toughness with high yield strength Nodular cast iron possible Nodular cast iron possible Many micro structures variations based on different heat treatments, ferritic, pearlitic, or martensitic Many micro structures variations based on different heat treatments, ferritic, pearlitic, or martensitic

23 Gray cast iron as sintered, etched

24 Heat treated, etched

25 Dimensional Control Variables Green density gradients - highly effective mobile lubricant, volume at G.D. Green density gradients - highly effective mobile lubricant, volume at G.D. Elephant foot- caused by friction forces on support medium- reduced friction medium Elephant foot- caused by friction forces on support medium- reduced friction medium Temperature –tendency to slump with temperature and time- controlled time and temperature Temperature –tendency to slump with temperature and time- controlled time and temperature Liquid phase components- uniformity of component and temperature Liquid phase components- uniformity of component and temperature

26 Dimensional Stability Examples High Nickel 4%,Mo,C High Nickel 4%,Mo,C Part design, bushing 1.5 In. O.D.,1in I.D. height ~1inch Part design, bushing 1.5 In. O.D.,1in I.D. height ~1inch Ave. Density green 7.28g/cc Ave. Density green 7.28g/cc Ave. Density Sintered 7.79g/cc Ave. Density Sintered 7.79g/cc Max. roundness top.002,mid.001,btm.002 inches Max. roundness top.002,mid.001,btm.002 inches Max taper.003 inches Max taper.003 inches

27 Dimensional Stability Examples Nickel 2%,Mo,C Nickel 2%,Mo,C Part design, bushing 1.5 In. O.D.,1in I.D. height ~1inch Part design, bushing 1.5 In. O.D.,1in I.D. height ~1inch Ave. Density green 7.24g/cc Ave. Density green 7.24g/cc Ave Density Sintered 7.75g/cc Ave Density Sintered 7.75g/cc Max. roundness top.001,mid.001,btm.002 inches Max. roundness top.001,mid.001,btm.002 inches Max. taper.002 inches Max. taper.002 inches

28 Dimensional Stability Examples.75%Chromium,.25%Mo,.85%C.75%Chromium,.25%Mo,.85%C Part design, modified bushing O.D., I.D..780 height Part design, modified bushing O.D., I.D..780 height Ave. Density green 7.16g/cc Ave. Density green 7.16g/cc Ave. Density Sintered 7.65g/cc Ave. Density Sintered 7.65g/cc Max. roundness top.002, mid.003, btm.002 Max. roundness top.002, mid.003, btm.002 Max taper.003 Max taper.003

29 Conclusions New net shape processes may open significantly new applications for P/M New net shape processes may open significantly new applications for P/M High levels of alloy content are not needed to get excellent physical properties High levels of alloy content are not needed to get excellent physical properties Properties allow for favorable comparison to cast, wrought and forged applications Properties allow for favorable comparison to cast, wrought and forged applications Heat treatments can significantly modify properties Heat treatments can significantly modify properties

30 Conclusions A variety of wrought surface treatments will be able to be used with this technology A variety of wrought surface treatments will be able to be used with this technology Modifications to de- binding and sintering will slow introduction to the market Modifications to de- binding and sintering will slow introduction to the market Combining heat treating with the sintering process will lead to higher flexibility, customizing properties and cost saving Combining heat treating with the sintering process will lead to higher flexibility, customizing properties and cost saving Forward thinkers will be needed Forward thinkers will be needed


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