Presentation on theme: "Andrew Carnegie and the Steel Mills"— Presentation transcript:
1 Andrew Carnegie and the Steel Mills By Karsten Knuver
2 SummaryFrom , there were many influential men and women. But possibly the most influential person of that time was Andrew Carnegie and his steel mills. Mr. Carnegie and his mills producedmassive amounts of steel, whichhelped America become a strongindustrial nation. AndrewCarnegie and his steel millshelped America grow into thecountry that it is today.
3 Andrew Carnegie Andrew Carnegie was born on November 25, 1835, in Dunfermline, Scotland.He and his very poor parentsimmigrated to America whenhe was just 13 years old.Throughout his childhood,Mr. Carnegie had many different jobs.
4 Andrew CarnegieSome of them include working as a bobbin boy at a cotton factory, an engine tender, a telegraph messenger and operator, and working for Pennsylvania Railroads. He slowly worked himself up to the position of secretary/telegraphoperator.
5 Andrew CarnegieBy age 18, he started a rapid advance through the company. Soon, he wasthe superintendant of thePittsburg Division of thePennsylvania Railroads. In1864, he invested in Storey Farm on Oil Creek in Venango County, Pennsylvania. Within a year the Farm brought in $1,000,000 in dividends.
6 Andrew Carnegie After the First World War, Andrew Carnegie left the railroads to focus on theproduction of iron and steel.He worked to develop severaliron works, which eventuallyformed into the Keystone Bridge Company.
7 Andrew Carnegie However, he still continued to keep close ties with themanagement of PennsylvaniaRailroads, Thomas A. Scott andJ. Edgar Thomson. He used thisconnection to get contracts for Keystone Bridge Company from Pennsylvania Railroads.
8 Andrew Carnegie Carnegie soon controlled the most extensive iron and steel operationever owned by someone in theUnited States. One of his greatestinnovations which helped himcreate his massive operation was adapting the Bessemer process for making steel. This was a cheap and efficient way to mass produce steel.
9 Andrew CarnegieIn 1888, he bought Homestead Steel Works, a rival extensive steel plant served by tributary coal and iron fields, a 425 mile long railway, and also a line of steamships. By 1889, his steel empire had grown to include the J. Edgar Thomson Steel Works, the Lucy Furnaces, the Union Iron Mills, the Hartman Steel works, and the Frick Coke Company, to name a few.
10 Andrew CarnegieIn 1901, Andrew Carnegie was 66 years old and was thinking about retiring. Negotiations concluded on March 2, 1901, and the United States Steel Corporation wasformed. J.P. Morgan boughtCarnegie’s steel empire for$480 million, the equivalent of $13,468,800,000 today. At the time, this was the largest personal commercial transaction.
11 Andrew CarnegieOf this, Andrew Carnegie received $6,331,430,340 in today’s standard. After retirement, he continued his business career. He devotedhimself to providing moneyfor social and educationaladvancements. He foundedmore than 20 differentorganizations that supporteda variety of different causes. Some of them include Carnegie Hall, in New York, the Carnegie Institution, Carnegie Hero fund, Carnegie Mellon University, and Carnegie Institution of Washington
12 Andrew Carnegie Carnegie spent the last years of his life as a Philanthropist.He donated much of his moneyto institutes and organizations.One of them includes theTuskegee Institute, which was established by Booker T. Washington. Andrew Carnegie died on August 11, 1919, in Lenox, Massachusetts. The cause of his death was bronchial pneumonia. He had given away almost 90% of his vast fortune before his death. After he died, the remaining $30,000,000 of his wealth was given away to foundations, charities, and pensioners.
13 Steel MakingThere are 3 main raw materials used in steel making, with 9 other materials used in small amounts. Iron ore, coking coals, and scrap are the 3main ingredients in the production ofsteel. Manganese and silicon are in allor most steels. In some steels there isnickel, chromium, zinc and tin.Molybdenum, vanadium, and tungstenare only minor elements used in some steel.
14 Process of Making Steel Three basic steps are used to makesteel. First, the source of heat thatis used to melt the iron ore isproduced. A furnace is usuallyused for melting the iron ore down.After that, the iron ore is melteddown in the furnace. Finally, themolten iron is processed to producesteel. All three of these steps can be done at one facility, but the fuel source is quite frequently purchased from an offsite producer.
15 Steel UsesIn the 1900s steel was a very important resource. This is because it was used in so many different ways. For example, steel was used in railways, roads, buildings, medical equipment, car bodies,pipelines, farm machinery,quarry equipment, andwalkways.
16 Steel Mill Worker Conditions The worker’s lives in steel mills were grueling. They had to work twelve hours a day, 7days a week. The only day AndrewCarnegie gave his workers off wasthe fourth of July. The rest of theyear they worked. One worker saidthat he lost forty pounds in threemonths after working in Carnegie’ssteel mills. Workers had hardly any time off during the work day. Most of the steel workers didn’t have any time to eat, so they simply didn’t eat lunch.
17 Steel Mill Worker Conditions The only time the workersstopped for anything was to oilthe engine, which onlytook three to five minutes tocomplete. On top of the longwork days, the job itself was alsotaxing. Molten iron, dangerousmachines, and the scorching air are just some of the conditions that the steel workers had to endure. But eventually, the steel workers had enough and formed a union. They demanded shorter hours, safer conditions, and more money for their dangerous work. They finally got what they wanted, and conditions improved immensely.
18 Closing Throughout most of the period of US Growing and Developing, AndrewCarnegie had a profound impact. Heand his steel mills produced massiveamounts of steel to help the UnitedStates become an industrialized nation;setting up America to become aworldwide powerhouse. He made massive amounts of money, but he didn’t keep it all for himself. At the time of his death, he had given approximately 90% of all his wealth away.
19 Closing He donated it to organizations, institutions, and groups that needed it most. Mr. Carnegiedonated money to found CarnegieHall, which to this day still provides New York with a stage for famous musicians from allmover the world to play on. Without Andrew Carnegie, none of this would have happened. America would very well probably not be at where it is today.
20 Closing Had it not been for Andrew Carnegie, America would be a very different place than it istoday. We should all thankAndrew for his contributionsto America and to humanityas a whole, especially to theUnited States. Andrew Carnegie helped America Grow and Develop from to the nation that it is today.
21 Work CitedEncyclopedia Britannica, Volume 4, Andrew Carnegie, page 930United States History, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2007, Section 2 Big Business, page 620Andrew Carnegie,Andrew Carnegie,Steel Making,Steel Making,