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1 Training Session on Energy Equipment Industry Sectors Presentation to Energy Efficiency Guide for Industry in Asia Chapter 15 © UNEP GERIAP Industry Sectors
2 © UNEP 2005 Training Agenda: Industry Sectors 1) Iron & Steel Sector description Process flow Energy conservation 2) Chemical Sector description Process flow Energy conservation Industry Sectors 3) Cement Sector description Process flow Energy conservation 4) Pulp & Paper Sector description Process flow Energy conservation
3 © UNEP 2005 Iron & Steel Industry Two categories: 1. Primary steel production Manufactured right from the basic iron and steel ore to final product 2. Secondary steel production Conversion metal scrap, ignots and metal scraps manufactured through various routes Sector Description Industry Sectors
4 Iron & Steel Industry Process Flow Industry Sectors Basic primary steel process High grade iron ore is crushed for sizing and to produce both fine and lump ore Pelletizing is a process that mixes very fine ground particles of ore with limestone, dolomite etc © UNEP 2005 Figure: Primary steel making process Source: JFE
5 © UNEP 2005 Iron & Steel Industry Process Flow Industry Sectors Basic secondary steel process Raw material Melting Refining Casting Rolling Re-rolling Re-heating furnace Rolling mill Cooling Shearing Inspection dispatch
6 © UNEP 2005 Iron & Steel Industry Process Flow Industry Sectors Steel foundry Can be classified into a) melting, b) moulding, c) fettling and d) heat treatment Arc furnace Melting of scrap by application of intense heat generated by the arc Induction furnace Transfers energy through a magnetic field and its intensity decides the amount of absorbed energy
7 © UNEP 2005 Iron & Steel Industry Process Flow Industry Sectors Energy flows Rolling Thermal energy Electrical energy Steel foundry Arc melting Induction melting Cutting Reheating Furnace Rolling Cooling Shearing Electricity Fuel Electricity Finished Product Raw material Figure: Energy flow in rolling
8 © UNEP 2005 Iron & Steel Industry Process Flow Industry Sectors Material & energy balance Figure: Energy balance in reheating furnace
9 © UNEP 2005 Iron & Steel Industry CP-EE measures: Energy Conservation Opportunities Industry Sectors Figure: Reheating furnace
10 © UNEP 2005 Iron & Steel Industry Energy Conservation Opportunities Industry Sectors CP-EE measures in reheating: Improvement AreaEnergy-Saving MeasureEnergy Saving Potential Efficient CombustionMaintain minimum required free oxygen in combustion products. 2% to 10% Efficient Combustion (burners) Eliminate formation of excessive amount of CO or unburned hydrocarbons. Also eliminate or minimize air leak-age. 2% to 10% Flue Gas Heat RecoveryPreheat and/or dry combustion air and the charge/load. After-burn the combustibles and cascade the exhaust gas heat. 5% to 25% Heat Loss ReductionUse optimum insulation for equipment and maintain it regularly. Employ furnace pressure control. 1% to 5% Table: CP-EE measures in reheating and heat treatment furnaces
11 © UNEP 2005 Iron & Steel Industry CP-EE measures in reheating: Energy Conservation Opportunities Industry Sectors Improvement AreaEnergy-Saving MeasureEnergy Saving Potential Design of Furnaces and Heating Select proper burner and furnace design to enhance heat transfer to the load. 5% to 10% Furnace OperationClean heat transfer surfaces frequently. 5% to 10% Furnace and Heating System Heat Transfer Replace indirect heat systems with direct heat systems where possible. 5% to 10% Improved Scheduling and Load Management Operate with full load; minimize idle time, shutdowns, and start-up cycles. 2% to 5% Use of Process SimulationUse models to optimize temperature settings to avoid long "soak" times or overheating. 5% to 10% Equipment Design MaterialsUse advanced and improved materials. 2% to 5% Table: CP-EE measures in reheating and heat treatment furnaces
12 © UNEP 2005 Iron & Steel Industry CP-EE measures in arc furnace melting: Scrap preparation Scrap segregation Use of oxygen lancing Temperature control CP-EE measures in induction melting: Idling periods Charge metals Optimizing heel Radiation losses Energy Conservation Opportunities Industry Sectors
13 © UNEP 2005 Iron & Steel Industry Energy efficient technologies: Melting Ceramic recuperator Ceramic fiber Ceramic coatings Regenerator Energy Conservation Opportunities Industry Sectors
14 Iron & Steel Industry Energy Conservation Opportunities Industry Sectors Energy efficient technologies: © UNEP 2005 Figure: Regenerative burner system operating principle
15 © UNEP 2005 Training Agenda: Industry Sectors 1) Iron & Steel Sector description Process flow Energy conservation 2) Chemical Sector description Process flow Energy conservation Industry Sectors 3) Cement Sector description Process flow Energy conservation 4) Pulp & Paper Sector description Process flow Energy conservation
16 © UNEP 2005 Chemical Industry Production of graphite for brake linings and lubricants, chemical catalysts for plastics, elastomers and pharmaceuticals and more Most chemical applications require spray drying or milling why particle size is important Most milling processes comprise a grinder, a classifier, a cyclone and a blower The formed material size needs to be measured Sector Description Industry Sectors
17 © UNEP 2005 Chemical Industry Process Flows Industry Sectors Fertilizer industry 85% of the worlds ammonia production is used for making chemical fertilizer Fertilize production accounts for 2% of total global energy consumption Fertilize production accounts for 1% of global carbon dioxide emissions Ammonia manufacture is expensive and is about 70-80% of the production costs Natural gas is the most commonly used hydro- carbon feedstock for new fertilizer plants
18 © UNEP 2005 Chemical Industry Process Flows Industry Sectors Primary reforming The natural gas that leaves the desulphurization tank is mixed with process steam It is preheated in the primary reformer Secondary reforming Only 30-40% of the hydrocarbon feed is reformed in the primary reformer In a secondary, the temperature is increased to increase conversion
19 © UNEP 2005 Chemical Industry Process Flows Industry Sectors Energy balance Compared to natural gas, ammonia manufacturing with heavy oil is 30-40% more energy intensive and with coal route 80% more Steam reforming ammonia plants have surplus heat available for steam production and modern plants can be energy self sufficient The theoretical minimum energy consumption for ammonia manufacture through steam reforming is ~21.6 GJ/t of ammonia (HHV)
20 © UNEP 2005 Chemical Industry Process Flows Industry Sectors Material balance Natural gas Ammonia synthesis Compression Methanation Carbon dioxide Removal Shift conversion Reformer (Secondary) Reformer (Primary) Sulphur Removal NH 3 Condensate CO 2 Heat ZnS Power Heat, Power Air, Power ZnS H 2 O, Fuel Power Figure: Material balance for an ammonia plant Emissions from ammonia plants include SO2, NOx, CO, CO2, VOCs, particles, hydrogen sulfide, methane, hydrogen cyanide and ammonia
21 © UNEP 2005 Chemical Industry Areas for CP-EE measures in ammonia plants: Energy Conservation Opportunities Industry Sectors Shift conversion Carbon dioxide removal section Leakage of CO2 from compressors Flue gas from the furnace Cogeneration Primary reformer Excess air reforming Heat exchange auto terminal reforming Reformer catalyst Reformer tubes Furnace design
22 © UNEP 2005 Chemical Industry Areas for CP-EE measures in ammonia plants: Energy Conservation Opportunities Industry Sectors Ammonia converter Carbon dioxide removal section Leakage of CO2 from compressors Compressors Better purification techniques Pre-reformer Ammonia synthesis converter Absorption refrigeration system Cooling of synthesis gas Desulphurization
23 © UNEP 2005 Chemical Industry Energy Conservation Opportunities Industry Sectors Energy efficiency technologies: Gas heated reformers Selectoxo unit Lower syngas inert level Heat exchange auto terminal reforming Purge gas recovery unit
24 © UNEP 2005 Chemical Industry Energy efficiency technologies: Pre-reformer Improved catalyst Carbon dioxide removal processes Energy Conservation Opportunities Industry Sectors
25 © UNEP 2005 Training Agenda: Industry Sectors 1) Iron & Steel Sector description Process flow Energy conservation 2) Chemical Sector description Process flow Energy conservation Industry Sectors 3) Cement Sector description Process flow Energy conservation 4) Pulp & Paper Sector description Process flow Energy conservation
26 © UNEP 2005 Cement Industry Cement is produced by grinding, blending and burning limestone, sand, clay, bauxite or laterite These contain a suitable mixture of calcium oxides, silicon oxides, aluminum oxides and iron oxides Two types of CO2 emissions occur: 1.From the energy consumption 2.As a by product from the calcination process The global cement industry contributes to ~20% of all man made CO2 emissions The energy consumption in the cement industry is about 2% of the global primary energy consumption Sector Description Industry Sectors
27 © UNEP 2005 Cement Industry Process Flows Industry Sectors Production processes Mining - surface mining is more eco-friendly Crushing - size is reduced to 25 mm Raw material preparation - roller mills for grinding and separators or classifiers for separating ground particles Coal milling - provides dried pulverized coal to the kiln and precalciner
28 © UNEP 2005 Cement Industry Process Flows Industry Sectors Production processes Pyro processing - transform the raw material mix into gray clinkers in the form of spherically shaped nodules Pre heater and pre calciner - from the preheater/precalciner process 60 % of flue go to the raw mill and 40 % to the conditioning tower Clinker cooler - heat recovery from the hot clinker and temperature reduction of the clinker Finish milling - grinding of clinker to produce a fine grey powder
29 © UNEP 2005 Cement Industry Process Flows Industry Sectors Limestone Mining Crushing Raw Milling Pyro Processing Clinker Cooling Cement Grinding Packing & Dispatch Coal Milling Transport Diesel for loaders, dozers and compressors Diesel for dumpers and trucks/ Electrical energy for ropeway Electrical Energy for crushers Electrical Energy for Mill drive and fans Heat Energy from kiln off gases Heat Energy from fuel input Electrical Energy for fans, drive and clinker breaker Electrical Energy for Mill drive and fans Bauxite, Ferrite Gypsum Pre calcination Heat Energy from fuel input Electrical Energy for Kiln drive, fans and ESP Electrical Energy for mill drive and fans Heat Energy from fuel input/waste heat from clinker cooler Energy flows Energy consumption nearly 40-40% of production costs Mill drives, fans and conveying systems are major energy consumers Figure: Energy flows in a cement plant
30 © UNEP 2005 Cement Industry Process Flows Industry Sectors Electrical energy flows Clinker burning: ~30% Finish grinding: ~30% Raw mill circuit: ~24% Thermal energy flows 50% of the energy costs The kiln and precalciner are major users
31 © UNEP 2005 Cement Industry Process Flows Industry Sectors Material & energy balance Important for optimized operation of the cement kiln, diagnosing operational problems, increasing production and improving energy consumption In a cement plant processes involve gas, liquid and solid flows with heat and mass transfer, the combustion of fuel, reactions of clinker compounds and any undesired chemical reactions Parameters to consider include velocity, static pressure, dust concentration, surface temperature and power
32 © UNEP 2005 Cement Industry Energy Efficiency Opportunities Industry Sectors CO2 reductions involves a two pronged strategy: 1.Improving energy efficiency 2.Promoting blended cements that can decrease the clinker percentage in the cement
33 © UNEP 2005 Cement Industry Energy Efficiency Opportunities Industry Sectors Raw material processClinker burning processFinish process First step 1) Selection of raw material 2) Management of fineness 3) Management of optimum grinding media 1) Prevention of stoppages 2) Selection of fuel 3) Prevention of leak 1) Management of fineness 2) Management of optimum grinding media Second step 1) Use of industrial waste material 2) Replacement of fan rotor 3) Improvement of temperature and pressure control system 4) Improvement of mixing & homogenizing system 1) Use of industrial waste material 2) Recovery of preheater exhaust gas 3) Recovery of cooler exhaust gas 4) Replacement of cooler dust collector 1) Installation of closed circuit dynamic separator 2) Installation of feed control system Third step 1) From wet process to dry process 2) From ball and tube mills to roller mill 1) From wet process to dry process 2) Conversion of fuel 3)From SP to NSP 4)Use of industrial waste 5)From planetary and under coolers to grate cooler Table: Classification of CP-EE measures in three steps
34 Cement Industry Energy Efficiency Opportunities Industry Sectors CP-EE measures: a)Raw meal mix design change b)Elimination of run-on equipment c)Finish Mill Optimization d)Avoidance of air supply leakage e)Installation of more efficient fan motors f)Employees awareness g)Power monitoring and targeting h)Process Replacement Measures % electrical energy reductions have been achieved in a cement plant by: © UNEP 2005
35 © UNEP 2005 Cement Industry Energy Efficiency Opportunities Industry Sectors CP-EE measures: Capacity utilization -Essential for energy efficiency -Brings down the fixed energy loss component -At least 90% required to achieve low specific energy consumption Fine tuning equipment -Only requires marginal investment -Can yield 3-10% energy savings if efficiently performed Technology upgrades
36 © UNEP 2005 Cement Industry Energy Efficiency Opportunities Industry Sectors Energy efficient technologies: Process control and management systems Raw meal homogenizing systems Conversion from wet to dry process Conversion from dry to multi stage pre-heater kiln Conversion from dry to pre-calciner kiln Conversion from cooler to grate cooler Optimization of heat recovery in clinker cooler
37 © UNEP 2005 Cement Industry Energy Efficiency Opportunities Industry Sectors Energy efficient technologies: High efficiency motors and drives Adjustable speed drives Efficient grinding technologies High-efficiency classifiers Fluidized bed kiln Advance comminution technologies Mineral polymers
38 © UNEP 2005 Training Agenda: Industry Sectors 1) Iron & Steel Sector description Process flow Energy conservation 2) Chemical Sector description Process flow Energy conservation Industry Sectors 3) Cement Sector description Process flow Energy conservation 4) Pulp & Paper Sector description Process flow Energy conservation
39 © UNEP 2005 Pulp & Paper Industry Sector Description Industry Sectors World production of paper and paperboard is about 323 million tons (year 2000) World pulp and paper devours over 4 billion trees annually The industry produces the net addition of 450 million tones of CO2 per year (IIIED) The fuels within the sector are coal, oil, gas and bio fuels There are significant opportunities for reduction of CO2 gas emissions
40 © UNEP 2005 Pulp & Paper Industry Process Flows Industry Sectors Manufacturing process Wood preparation Pulping Washing Bleaching Stock preparation Paper making Chemical recovery
41 Process Flows © UNEP 2005 Pulp & Paper Industry Industry Sectors Barking Chipping Chemical Pulping Mechanical Pulping Pulping Waste Paper Pulping Kneading Bleach Plant Liquor concentration Energy Recovery Recausticization Refiner Bark ( fuel) Electricity Steam Electricity Trees Used Paper Fuel Electricity Steam Electricity Steam Electricity Wood Preparation Pulping Bleaching Chemical Recovery Paper making Steam Electricity Figure: Process flow diagram of the pulp and paper industry
42 © UNEP 2005 Pulp & Paper Industry Process Flows Industry Sectors Stock Preparation Forming Pressing Drying Steam Electricity Paper making Steam Electricity Steam Electricity Paper Figure: Process flow diagram of the pulp and paper industry
43 © UNEP 2005 Pulp & Paper Industry Process Flows Industry Sectors Energy flows in the paper industry: Thermal energy -mainly consumed in the drier -some mills use steam for drying the after coating Electrical energy -used to power the rotor or impeller -also used as rotary power for the cylinder, transportation, motive power and lighting loads Water flow -water consumption is significant both in terms of consumed quantities as well as environmental aspects
44 © UNEP 2005 Pulp & Paper Industry Industry Sectors Process Flows Vacuum Boxes Press Roll I, 52.5 Kw Press Roll I, 52.5 KwI Couch Roll, 96 Kw Figure: Energy balance in a paper machine
45 © UNEP 2005 Pulp & Paper Industry Energy Efficiency Opportunities Industry Sectors CP-EE measures: Raw material preparation -Enzyme-assisted barker -Chip conditioners -Improved screening process -Belt conveyers Mechanical pulping -Refiner improvements -Low consistency refining (LCR) -Heat recovery in thermo mechanical pulping
46 © UNEP 2005 Pulp & Paper Industry Energy Efficiency Opportunities Industry Sectors CP-EE measures: Chemical pulping -Continuous digesters -Continuous digester modification -Batch digester modification Chemical recovery -Falling film black liquor evaporation Paper making -High consistency forming -Extended nip press (shoe press)
47 © UNEP 2005 Pulp & Paper Industry Energy Efficiency Opportunities Industry Sectors CP-EE measures: General measures -Optimization of regular equipment -Efficient motor systems Efficient steam production & distribution -Boiler maintenance -Improved process control -Flue gas heat recovery
48 © UNEP 2005 Pulp & Paper Industry Energy Efficiency Opportunities Industry Sectors EE technologies: Alcohol based solvent pumping Bio pulping Ozone bleaching Black liquor gasification
49 © UNEP 2005 Pulp & Paper Industry Energy Efficiency Opportunities Industry Sectors EE-technologies: Impulse drying Infrared drying Press drying
50 Training Session on Energy Equipment Industry Sectors THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION © UNEP GERIAP Industry Sectors
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