Presentation on theme: "Sustainable Practices in Iron and Steel Industry"— Presentation transcript:
1Sustainable Practices in Iron and Steel Industry Environment Management DivisionSTEEL AUTHORITY OF INDIA LIMITEDECAC, WBPCB, Kolkata
2What is Sustainability ? Sustainability means living within the resources of the planet without damaging the environment now or in the future.
3What is Sustainable Development? Integration of industrial development and protection of environment is the essence of Sustainable DevelopmentTo overcome this crisis, integration of industrial development and environment protection which is the essence of SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT is the accepted strategy to be adopted by all concern.Sustainable Development is the process of change which improves peoples quality of life while protecting the natural and human resources on which future generation will also rely.We have not inherited the earth from our forefather but borrowed from our Children3
4Ancient Philosophy – Respect for Environment In ‘Rig Veda’, it is stated:Sky is like a fatherEarth is like a motherSpace is as their childrenRespect for environment values lie deep in the India’s past. If we traced back to the ancient past, we find that they learnt the art of living in harmony with nature. The philosophy which flows from VEDAS and UPNISHAD teaches us respect for environment. This philosophy was carried into BUDDIST philosophy and continued to our present orthodox families.People must live in harmony with nature and although authorised to use natural resources.However due to rapid economic growth during last few decades, the utilization of natural resources has increased exponentionally. Human activities including industrial development without paying proper attention to natural environment like forest, river, lakes, wildlife etc. has disturbed the ecological balance to a great extent. Nature has got inherent capacity to bio-degrade the waste generated up to the limit of its’ assimilation capacity which has been ignored for sake of rapid economic growth.Environmental degradation thus caused has posed a potential threat to our common futureIt reflects that environment is to be valued like parents and loved like children
5Steel - a vital resource for Sustainable Development Steel as a finished product, is one of the most environment friendly products, owing to its excellent mechanical properties, versatility and its recyclability.The rapid and continuing growth of steel industry during last few decades bears testimony to the indispensability of steel, as a vital resource for sustainable development.
6Environmental Aspects of Iron & Steel Industries However, the process of steel making itself is highly energy and fossil fuel intensive and consequently a major GHG emitting process and therefore, the cause of environmental concern across the world.Locally steel making industry is normally perceived to be large, dirty and polluting by civil society and environmentalists.
7Growth of Indian Iron & Steel Industry In commensuration with the growth of Indian economy, steel industry in India has also grown accordingly.Presently, crude steel production is ~72 MT, expected to reach ~150 MT per year by 2016 – 17.Such perceived growth in steel production capacity can be achieved mainly through rise in steel consumption, particularly in rural sector.Enhancement of production capacity requires construction of new steel plants and expansion of existing plants.This would also imply increased extraction of natural resources and their processing.
8Challenging Issues for today Over the years, the domestic steel industry has improved its technology and maintenance systems.However, globally, Indian Steel Industry is yet to fully match its competitors in the developed countries in all the areas pertaining to adoption of sustainable production technique.Unless there is reduction in the consumption pattern of the input materials as well as specific emission intensities, it may be difficult to achieve a balance between increased production and minimum possible damage to the environment by the industries.The increase in capacity needs to address environmental issues for long term sustainability.
9Sustainable Practices are the only way out to meet these challenges and for long term viability of the iron and steel industry.
10Initiatives from Government Environmental Rules and Regulations, notified from time to time- recently harmonized the notification for iron and steel industriesCharter on Corporate Responsibility for Environmental Protection (CREP), 2003- to go beyond the compliance with the environmental standardsNational Environmental Policy (NEP), 2006- promotes sustainable developmentNational Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC), 2008 identified 8 National Missions,- to achieve sustainable developmentSustainable Development / MOU Guidelines issued by Department of Public Enterprise- including Sustainable Development as a compulsory element for Central Public Sector Enterprises
11Sustainable Practices in Iron and Steel Industries Sustainable practice aims at:Resource ConservationEnergy conservationPollution Control
12Efforts towards Resource Conservation Conservation of Raw MaterialsBeneficiation to use lean ore and to recover iron ore fines from slimeIncorporation of appropriate beneficiation system to maximise use of ore reserve and to recover additional iron value from slimeThe slime loss has been drastically reduced to ~10 % from ~20% with the recovery of quality fines concentrate.Being installed at Bolani, Gua, Barsua-Taldih, Chiria and Dalli Mechanised Iron Ore mines of SAIL
13Efforts towards Resource Conservation Conservation of Raw MaterialsPelletisation of iron ore finesAdvantages:To transform fines concentrate generated during the iron ore beneficiation process into pellets, suitable to feed Blast Furnace or Direct Reduction plant or Corex.Gainful usage of ultrafines, which other wise would have gone into slime.Usage of agglomerated ore improves BF productivityPellet Plants of capacity 4.0 MTPA and 1.0 MPTA are under installation at Gua Ore mines and Dalli Mechanised Mines respectively.
14Efforts towards Resource Conservation Conservation of Raw materialsAdoption of ITmk3 technology for production of steel from iron ore finesAdvantages:Direct use of low grade material (e.g, fine ore and boiler quality coal) to produce nuggetsHighly energy-efficient, low environmental loadA plant with 0.5 MPTA nuggets production capacity is being installed at Alloy Steels Plant premises at Durgapur
15Efforts towards Resource Conservation Conservation of Raw MaterialsBOF slag being used as flux supplement for base mix preparation in Sinter PlantUse of BOF sludge in base mix for Sinter PlantAdoption of 3R’s (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) for waste utilization. As a result, solid waste utilization at SAIL plants show consistent improvement over the years.
16Efforts towards Resource Conservation Management of Solid wasteFor ensuring proper and complete management of solid waste, SAIL has taken up following projects on environment under Research & Development (R&D) Master Plan;Utilisation of SlagDry granulation of BOF slagUtilisation of SludgeAlmond briquetting of sludge for use in converterMicro-palletisation of sludge for use in sinter plant
17Efforts towards Resource Conservation Conservation of WaterEfficient local re-circulation systems and plugging of leakages, resulting in reduction of sp. water consumption drastically.For further reduction in water consumption, “Zero Discharge” scheme is under different stages of implementation at plants.
18Efforts towards Energy Conservation Energy-efficient Technologies have been implemented/are being implemented under on-going expansion/modernization projects in different processes of steel making to achieve reduction in specific energy consumption and specific CO2 emission.Higher Capacity COBCDQCDISinter Waste Heat RecoveryHot Stove Waste Heat RecoveryTRTBLTMulti-Slit BurnersContinuous CastingRecovery of BOF GasWalking Beam FurnaceSec. Emission ControlCCCS
19Efforts towards Energy Conservation Coke MakingCoke Dry Quenching (CDQ)Computerized Combustion Control System (CCCS)High Pressure Liquor Aspiration (HPLA) SystemModern Leak-proof DoorsHigher Capacity Coke Oven Battery
20Efforts towards Energy Conservation Coke Dry Quenching (CDQ)Features & Benefits:Better coke qualityReduces emissionsRecovers sensible heat of cokeGenerates electricityWater conservationDisadvantages:High initial costSpace constraintsDifficult for retrofittingUnder installation with new Coke-Oven batteries at BSP, RSP & ISP under on-going expansion cum modernization in SAIL plants20
21Efforts towards Energy Conservation Computerised Combustion Control System (CCCS)Features & Benefits:Optimise battery heatingFuel and energy efficiencyMaintain good and uniformcoke temp.Disadvantages:Difficulty in retrofitting inrunning batteriesHigh initial costInstalled at Coke-Oven batteries at BSP, RSP and BSL and under installation with new Coke-Oven batteries under on-going expansion cum modernization in SAIL plants
22Efforts towards Energy Conservation High Pressure Ammonia Liquor Aspiration System (HPALA)Features & Benefits:Emission controlgainful recovery ofcarbonaceous materialEnergy-efficientDisadvantages:Integration with up anddownstream facilitiesDifficulty in retrofitting in operating batteriesProgressively introduced during rebuilding of coke oven batteries at various plants and also being incorporated at new batteries at BSP, RSP and ISP under modernisation cum expansion project of SAIL
23Efforts towards Energy Conservation Clean Technologies - Coke Making Modern Leak-proof DoorFeatures & Benefits:Minimise emission fromdoorsRegulation-free operationLess maintenance-proneDisadvantages:High initial costProgressively installed at all SAIL plants and also being installed at new batteries at BSP, RSP and ISP under modernization cum expansion project of SAIL
24Efforts towards Energy Conservation Higher Capacity Coke Oven (7 m tall) BatteryFeatures & Benefits:Energy efficiencyLess pollution proneBetter maintainabilityDisadvantages:High initial costmachineries can not be shared amongst a batch of old batteriesInstalled at BSP and also under installation at BSP, RSP and ISP with new coke oven batteries under modernisation cum expansion project of SAIL
25Efforts towards Energy Conservation Sinter MakingWaste Heat Recovery from Sinter CoolersMulti-slit Burners in Ignition Furnace
26Efforts towards Energy Conservation Waste Heat Recovery from Sinter CoolerSINTER MACHINESINTER COOLERSCYCLONEHot AirClean Hot Air to FurnaceSinter FurnaceComb. GasHot Air Extraction HoodFeatures & Benefits:Achieving energy efficiency through recovery of waste heatReducing emissionsFuel savingsDisadvantages:High initial costDifficulty in retrofitting in the existing plantInstalled with Sinter Plants at BSP and DSP and under installation with new Sinter Plants at ISP & BSL and Sinter Machines at BSP, under on-going modernization cum expansion project of SAIL
27Efforts towards Energy Conservation Multi-Slit Burners in Ignition FurnaceFeatures & Benefits:Fuel savingsLess emissionsBarriers:High initial costInstalled at all plants and also being installed at various plants under under modernisation cum expansion project of SAIL
28Efforts towards Energy Conservation Iron MakingCoal Dust Injection (CDI)Waste Heat Recovery from BF StovesTop Gas Pressure Recovery Turbine (TRT)
29Efforts towards Energy Conservation Coal Dust Injection (CDI)Features & Benefits:Uses thermal coal which in turn reduces coke rate and hence reduces energy consumption and emissions in CO batteryReduces dependency on costly coking coalIncreases BF refractory lining lifeDisadvantages:Difficulty in achieving required burden characteristics and blast temp.Achieving uniform transfer of pulverized coalCDI / CTI installed at 16 out of 20 BFs at SAIL plants. Facility is being installed with new BFs under on-going modernisation cum expansion project of SAIL
30Efforts towards Energy Conservation Blast Furnace Heat RecuperationFeatures & Benefits:Energy SavingDisadvantages:High initial costBeing installed with new BFs at BSP, RSP and ISP under on-going modernisation cum expansion program of SAIL
31Efforts towards Energy Conservation Top Pressure Recovery Turbine (TRT)Features & Benefits:Generates electric power, utilizing top gas pressure, which was getting wasted otherwiseExcellent operational reliabilityDisadvantages:Suitable for larger furnacewith higher temp. & press.onlyHigh initial costBeing installed with new BFs at BSP, RSP and ISP under on-going modernisation cum expansion program of SAIL
32Efforts towards Energy Conservation Steel MakingRecovery of BOF gasContinuous Casting
33Efforts towards Energy Conservation Recovery of BOF GasFeatures & Benefits:Energy saving through utilization of heat value of by-product gasReduction in emissionsReduction in quantity offlue gasDisadvantages:High initial costIncreased operationaland maintenance costRetrofitting in existingsystemInstalled at all steel plants and being installed with new BOFs at BSP, RSP and ISP under on-going modernisation cum expansion program of SAIL
34Efforts towards Energy Conservation Continuous CastingFeatures & Benefits:Energy savingEmission reductionResource conservationEnhanced yield andqualityDisadvantages:high initial costSpace and layoutRetrofitting in existingsystemInstalled at BSP, DSP, RSP and BSL, and being installed at ISP under on-going modernisation cum expansion program
35Efforts towards Energy Conservation RollingWalking Beam FurnaceFeatures & Benefits:Highly energy efficientUniform heatingEnhanced qualityDisadvantages:High initial costRetrofitting in existingsystemInstalled at BSP and being installed at BSL under on-going modernization cum expansion program of SAIL
36Efforts towards Pollution Control SAIL has identified a two-pronged approach:Adoption of Clean TechnologiesandImplementation of Cleaning-up Technologies
37Efforts towards Pollution Control Clean Technology refers to the technology that is economically competitive & productive, uses less material and/or energy, generates less waste, and causes less environmental damage than the alternatives.Cleaning-up Technology refers to the technology that reduces environmental damage by retrofitting, modification and adding end-of pipe pollution abatement measures to an established plant and process.
38Efforts towards Pollution Control Coke MakingControl of stack emission through latest technology like ceramic welding etc.Introduction of screw-feed charging cars with HPLA systemInstallation of water sealed AP caps, modern leak-proof doorsInstallation of Dry Fog Dust Suppression (DFDS) system at Coal Handling and Coke Handling Plant to arrest work-zone emissionInstallation of BOD Plant for efficient treatment of phenolic CO- BP effluent
39Efforts towards Pollution Control Raw Material HandlingDry Fog Dust Suppression (DFDS) systems at Wagon TipplersDust Extraction (DE) systems at transfer pointsSinter MakingEfficient de-dusting system for improved work-zone environment at Material Handling AreaProcess emission control and area de-dusting through installation of ESP
40Efforts towards Pollution Control Iron MakingGas Cleaning Plant with Belt filterCast House De-dusting SystemDry Fog Dust Suppression (DFDS) for control of work-zone emission at Highline/Stock House
41Efforts towards Pollution Control Steel MakingGas Cleaning Plant with Vacuum Drum filterControl of secondary emission through installation of Dog HouseBag filters for work-zone emission control at Flux Handling Area
42Efforts towards Pollution Control RollingEffluent Treatment Plant for treatment of effluent generated during rolling processOthersSewage Treatment Plant and utilization of treated effluent for industrial useConcord Blue Technology for treatment of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)
43To sum upAdopting sustainable practices for iron & steel making is the only option to counteract the associated maladies at this juncture of growing demand.Along with the Industry, concerted efforts are needed from all the major players e.g. the Govt., Policy makers, Media, Consumers etc.Multidisciplinary research work is essential for exploring newer application and optimising use of existing technologies for a sustainable and environmentally sound management.SAIL is committed to Sustainable Development through progressive adoption of energy efficient technologies, resource conservation and pollution control.
44Crude Steel Production THANK YOUThere’s a little bit of SAIL in everybody’s life