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Sustainable Practices in Iron and Steel Industry

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1 Sustainable Practices in Iron and Steel Industry
Environment Management Division STEEL AUTHORITY OF INDIA LIMITED ECAC, WBPCB, Kolkata

2 What is Sustainability ?
Sustainability means living within the resources of the planet without damaging the environment now or in the future.

3 What is Sustainable Development?
Integration of industrial development and protection of environment is the essence of Sustainable Development To overcome this crisis, integration of industrial development and environment protection which is the essence of SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT is the accepted strategy to be adopted by all concern. Sustainable Development is the process of change which improves peoples quality of life while protecting the natural and human resources on which future generation will also rely. We have not inherited the earth from our forefather but borrowed from our Children 3

4 Ancient Philosophy – Respect for Environment
In ‘Rig Veda’, it is stated: Sky is like a father Earth is like a mother Space is as their children Respect for environment values lie deep in the India’s past. If we traced back to the ancient past, we find that they learnt the art of living in harmony with nature. The philosophy which flows from VEDAS and UPNISHAD teaches us respect for environment. This philosophy was carried into BUDDIST philosophy and continued to our present orthodox families. People must live in harmony with nature and although authorised to use natural resources. However due to rapid economic growth during last few decades, the utilization of natural resources has increased exponentionally. Human activities including industrial development without paying proper attention to natural environment like forest, river, lakes, wildlife etc. has disturbed the ecological balance to a great extent. Nature has got inherent capacity to bio-degrade the waste generated up to the limit of its’ assimilation capacity which has been ignored for sake of rapid economic growth. Environmental degradation thus caused has posed a potential threat to our common future It reflects that environment is to be valued like parents and loved like children

5 Steel - a vital resource for Sustainable Development
Steel as a finished product, is one of the most environment friendly products, owing to its excellent mechanical properties, versatility and its recyclability. The rapid and continuing growth of steel industry during last few decades bears testimony to the indispensability of steel, as a vital resource for sustainable development.

6 Environmental Aspects of Iron & Steel Industries
However, the process of steel making itself is highly energy and fossil fuel intensive and consequently a major GHG emitting process and therefore, the cause of environmental concern across the world. Locally steel making industry is normally perceived to be large, dirty and polluting by civil society and environmentalists.

7 Growth of Indian Iron & Steel Industry
In commensuration with the growth of Indian economy, steel industry in India has also grown accordingly. Presently, crude steel production is ~72 MT, expected to reach ~150 MT per year by 2016 – 17. Such perceived growth in steel production capacity can be achieved mainly through rise in steel consumption, particularly in rural sector. Enhancement of production capacity requires construction of new steel plants and expansion of existing plants. This would also imply increased extraction of natural resources and their processing.

8 Challenging Issues for today
Over the years, the domestic steel industry has improved its technology and maintenance systems. However, globally, Indian Steel Industry is yet to fully match its competitors in the developed countries in all the areas pertaining to adoption of sustainable production technique. Unless there is reduction in the consumption pattern of the input materials as well as specific emission intensities, it may be difficult to achieve a balance between increased production and minimum possible damage to the environment by the industries. The increase in capacity needs to address environmental issues for long term sustainability.

9 Sustainable Practices are the only way out to meet these challenges and for long term viability of the iron and steel industry.

10 Initiatives from Government
Environmental Rules and Regulations, notified from time to time - recently harmonized the notification for iron and steel industries Charter on Corporate Responsibility for Environmental Protection (CREP), 2003 - to go beyond the compliance with the environmental standards National Environmental Policy (NEP), 2006 - promotes sustainable development National Action Plan for Climate Change (NAPCC), 2008 identified 8 National Missions, - to achieve sustainable development Sustainable Development / MOU Guidelines issued by Department of Public Enterprise - including Sustainable Development as a compulsory element for Central Public Sector Enterprises

11 Sustainable Practices in Iron and Steel Industries
Sustainable practice aims at: Resource Conservation Energy conservation Pollution Control

12 Efforts towards Resource Conservation
Conservation of Raw Materials Beneficiation to use lean ore and to recover iron ore fines from slime Incorporation of appropriate beneficiation system to maximise use of ore reserve and to recover additional iron value from slime The slime loss has been drastically reduced to ~10 % from ~20% with the recovery of quality fines concentrate. Being installed at Bolani, Gua, Barsua-Taldih, Chiria and Dalli Mechanised Iron Ore mines of SAIL

13 Efforts towards Resource Conservation
Conservation of Raw Materials Pelletisation of iron ore fines Advantages: To transform fines concentrate generated during the iron ore beneficiation process into pellets, suitable to feed Blast Furnace or Direct Reduction plant or Corex. Gainful usage of ultrafines, which other wise would have gone into slime. Usage of agglomerated ore improves BF productivity Pellet Plants of capacity 4.0 MTPA and 1.0 MPTA are under installation at Gua Ore mines and Dalli Mechanised Mines respectively.

14 Efforts towards Resource Conservation
Conservation of Raw materials Adoption of ITmk3 technology for production of steel from iron ore fines Advantages: Direct use of low grade material (e.g, fine ore and boiler quality coal) to produce nuggets Highly energy-efficient, low environmental load A plant with 0.5 MPTA nuggets production capacity is being installed at Alloy Steels Plant premises at Durgapur

15 Efforts towards Resource Conservation
Conservation of Raw Materials BOF slag being used as flux supplement for base mix preparation in Sinter Plant Use of BOF sludge in base mix for Sinter Plant Adoption of 3R’s (Reduce, Reuse and Recycle) for waste utilization. As a result, solid waste utilization at SAIL plants show consistent improvement over the years.

16 Efforts towards Resource Conservation
Management of Solid waste For ensuring proper and complete management of solid waste, SAIL has taken up following projects on environment under Research & Development (R&D) Master Plan; Utilisation of Slag Dry granulation of BOF slag Utilisation of Sludge Almond briquetting of sludge for use in converter Micro-palletisation of sludge for use in sinter plant

17 Efforts towards Resource Conservation
Conservation of Water Efficient local re-circulation systems and plugging of leakages, resulting in reduction of sp. water consumption drastically. For further reduction in water consumption, “Zero Discharge” scheme is under different stages of implementation at plants.

18 Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Energy-efficient Technologies have been implemented/are being implemented under on-going expansion/modernization projects in different processes of steel making to achieve reduction in specific energy consumption and specific CO2 emission. Higher Capacity COB CDQ CDI Sinter Waste Heat Recovery Hot Stove Waste Heat Recovery TRT BLT Multi-Slit Burners Continuous Casting Recovery of BOF Gas Walking Beam Furnace Sec. Emission Control CCCS

19 Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Coke Making Coke Dry Quenching (CDQ) Computerized Combustion Control System (CCCS) High Pressure Liquor Aspiration (HPLA) System Modern Leak-proof Doors Higher Capacity Coke Oven Battery

20 Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Coke Dry Quenching (CDQ) Features & Benefits: Better coke quality Reduces emissions Recovers sensible heat of coke Generates electricity Water conservation Disadvantages: High initial cost Space constraints Difficult for retrofitting Under installation with new Coke-Oven batteries at BSP, RSP & ISP under on-going expansion cum modernization in SAIL plants 20

21 Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Computerised Combustion Control System (CCCS) Features & Benefits: Optimise battery heating Fuel and energy efficiency Maintain good and uniform coke temp. Disadvantages: Difficulty in retrofitting in running batteries High initial cost Installed at Coke-Oven batteries at BSP, RSP and BSL and under installation with new Coke-Oven batteries under on-going expansion cum modernization in SAIL plants

22 Efforts towards Energy Conservation
High Pressure Ammonia Liquor Aspiration System (HPALA) Features & Benefits: Emission control gainful recovery of carbonaceous material Energy-efficient Disadvantages: Integration with up and downstream facilities Difficulty in retrofitting in operating batteries Progressively introduced during rebuilding of coke oven batteries at various plants and also being incorporated at new batteries at BSP, RSP and ISP under modernisation cum expansion project of SAIL

23 Efforts towards Energy Conservation Clean Technologies - Coke Making
Modern Leak-proof Door Features & Benefits: Minimise emission from doors Regulation-free operation Less maintenance-prone Disadvantages: High initial cost Progressively installed at all SAIL plants and also being installed at new batteries at BSP, RSP and ISP under modernization cum expansion project of SAIL

24 Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Higher Capacity Coke Oven (7 m tall) Battery Features & Benefits: Energy efficiency Less pollution prone Better maintainability Disadvantages: High initial cost machineries can not be shared amongst a batch of old batteries Installed at BSP and also under installation at BSP, RSP and ISP with new coke oven batteries under modernisation cum expansion project of SAIL

25 Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Sinter Making Waste Heat Recovery from Sinter Coolers Multi-slit Burners in Ignition Furnace

26 Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Waste Heat Recovery from Sinter Cooler SINTER MACHINE SINTER COOLERS CYCLONE Hot Air Clean Hot Air to Furnace Sinter Furnace Comb. Gas Hot Air Extraction Hood Features & Benefits: Achieving energy efficiency through recovery of waste heat Reducing emissions Fuel savings Disadvantages: High initial cost Difficulty in retrofitting in the existing plant Installed with Sinter Plants at BSP and DSP and under installation with new Sinter Plants at ISP & BSL and Sinter Machines at BSP, under on-going modernization cum expansion project of SAIL

27 Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Multi-Slit Burners in Ignition Furnace Features & Benefits: Fuel savings Less emissions Barriers: High initial cost Installed at all plants and also being installed at various plants under under modernisation cum expansion project of SAIL

28 Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Iron Making Coal Dust Injection (CDI) Waste Heat Recovery from BF Stoves Top Gas Pressure Recovery Turbine (TRT)

29 Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Coal Dust Injection (CDI) Features & Benefits: Uses thermal coal which in turn reduces coke rate and hence reduces energy consumption and emissions in CO battery Reduces dependency on costly coking coal Increases BF refractory lining life Disadvantages: Difficulty in achieving required burden characteristics and blast temp. Achieving uniform transfer of pulverized coal CDI / CTI installed at 16 out of 20 BFs at SAIL plants. Facility is being installed with new BFs under on-going modernisation cum expansion project of SAIL

30 Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Blast Furnace Heat Recuperation Features & Benefits: Energy Saving Disadvantages: High initial cost Being installed with new BFs at BSP, RSP and ISP under on-going modernisation cum expansion program of SAIL

31 Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Top Pressure Recovery Turbine (TRT) Features & Benefits: Generates electric power, utilizing top gas pressure, which was getting wasted otherwise Excellent operational reliability Disadvantages: Suitable for larger furnace with higher temp. & press. only High initial cost Being installed with new BFs at BSP, RSP and ISP under on-going modernisation cum expansion program of SAIL

32 Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Steel Making Recovery of BOF gas Continuous Casting

33 Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Recovery of BOF Gas Features & Benefits: Energy saving through utilization of heat value of by-product gas Reduction in emissions Reduction in quantity of flue gas Disadvantages: High initial cost Increased operational and maintenance cost Retrofitting in existing system Installed at all steel plants and being installed with new BOFs at BSP, RSP and ISP under on-going modernisation cum expansion program of SAIL

34 Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Continuous Casting Features & Benefits: Energy saving Emission reduction Resource conservation Enhanced yield and quality Disadvantages: high initial cost Space and layout Retrofitting in existing system Installed at BSP, DSP, RSP and BSL, and being installed at ISP under on-going modernisation cum expansion program

35 Efforts towards Energy Conservation
Rolling Walking Beam Furnace Features & Benefits: Highly energy efficient Uniform heating Enhanced quality Disadvantages: High initial cost Retrofitting in existing system Installed at BSP and being installed at BSL under on-going modernization cum expansion program of SAIL

36 Efforts towards Pollution Control
SAIL has identified a two-pronged approach: Adoption of Clean Technologies and Implementation of Cleaning-up Technologies

37 Efforts towards Pollution Control
Clean Technology refers to the technology that is economically competitive & productive, uses less material and/or energy, generates less waste, and causes less environmental damage than the alternatives. Cleaning-up Technology refers to the technology that reduces environmental damage by retrofitting, modification and adding end-of pipe pollution abatement measures to an established plant and process.

38 Efforts towards Pollution Control
Coke Making Control of stack emission through latest technology like ceramic welding etc. Introduction of screw-feed charging cars with HPLA system Installation of water sealed AP caps, modern leak-proof doors Installation of Dry Fog Dust Suppression (DFDS) system at Coal Handling and Coke Handling Plant to arrest work-zone emission Installation of BOD Plant for efficient treatment of phenolic CO- BP effluent

39 Efforts towards Pollution Control
Raw Material Handling Dry Fog Dust Suppression (DFDS) systems at Wagon Tipplers Dust Extraction (DE) systems at transfer points Sinter Making Efficient de-dusting system for improved work-zone environment at Material Handling Area Process emission control and area de-dusting through installation of ESP

40 Efforts towards Pollution Control
Iron Making Gas Cleaning Plant with Belt filter Cast House De-dusting System Dry Fog Dust Suppression (DFDS) for control of work-zone emission at Highline/Stock House

41 Efforts towards Pollution Control
Steel Making Gas Cleaning Plant with Vacuum Drum filter Control of secondary emission through installation of Dog House Bag filters for work-zone emission control at Flux Handling Area

42 Efforts towards Pollution Control
Rolling Effluent Treatment Plant for treatment of effluent generated during rolling process Others Sewage Treatment Plant and utilization of treated effluent for industrial use Concord Blue Technology for treatment of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)

43 To sum up Adopting sustainable practices for iron & steel making is the only option to counteract the associated maladies at this juncture of growing demand. Along with the Industry, concerted efforts are needed from all the major players e.g. the Govt., Policy makers, Media, Consumers etc. Multidisciplinary research work is essential for exploring newer application and optimising use of existing technologies for a sustainable and environmentally sound management. SAIL is committed to Sustainable Development through progressive adoption of energy efficient technologies, resource conservation and pollution control.

44 Crude Steel Production
THANK YOU There’s a little bit of SAIL in everybody’s life

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