Presentation on theme: "Guns Germs and Steel The Fates of Human Societies Jared Diamond Text extracted from Chapters 1-10."— Presentation transcript:
Guns Germs and Steel The Fates of Human Societies Jared Diamond Text extracted from Chapters 1-10
Human timeline Human evolution 1 million years –Homo sapiens 120,000 years ago –Paleolithic Old stone age Agricultural revolution –10,000 years ago –Neolithic New stone age Industrial revolution –1750 A.D.
After the Ice Age Human societies began to change 13,000 years ago –when the last ice age melted
After the Ice Age Different societies resulted: –Some literate industrial –Some illiterate agricultural –Some hunter gatherers retaining stone tools
Inequality and Extermination Historical inequalities – have cast long shadows on the modern world, because the literate societies with metal tools –have conquered or exterminated the other societies." pg
Yalis Question Yali, a New Guinea politician asked –"Why is it that you white people developed so much cargo and brought it to New Guinea, –but we black people had little cargo of our own?"
Distribution of Wealth To rephrase, Why did wealth and power –become distributed as they now are, –rather than in some other way? Distribution of World Wealth
Common explanations Racial or genetic superiority? –No objective evidence for this theory
Common explanations Cold climate stimulates inventiveness? –But Europeans inherited from warm climate peoples agriculture, wheels, writing, and metallurgy –Japan inherited Agriculture, metallurgy, writing Industrial Revolution and-servants-bringing-offerings-Tomb-of-Onsou-Egyptian-Art jpg
Answer: People in Eurasia had a geographical advantage –Not smarter, more inventive Best plants for domestication –5,000 years earlier than Americas Best animals for domestication East-West orientation –Climate similar –Crops spread easily Populations Cultures Technologies Eurasians easily conquered other continents
Cro Magnons Cro-Magnons moved into Europe 40,000 years ago. Technologies: –Tools, needles, fishhooks, harpoons, bows and arrows, sewn clothing, houses, carefully buried skeletons, art, hunting big prey. Displaced or killed off Neandertals lm-s1k6g/s1600-h/Lascaux-salle-des-taureaux.jpg Cave Paintings, Lascaux France
Spreading Out 40,000-30,000 years ago Technology: –water craft to cross from Asia to Indonesia to Australia and New Guinea. Time period correlates to –massive extinction of large game in those places.
Large Game in Eurasia Diamond's theory: –large game survived in Eurasia because –humans took a million years to develop tools become lethal predators of large game –Gave Eurasian game time to adapt.
Spreading to the Americas 20,000 years ago Technology –clothing and shelter to survive Siberia led to migration to Americas by 12,000 BC. It took 1,000 years for humans to get to S. America. Time period correlates to –massive extinction of large game in Americas: Horses, lions, elephants, cheetahs, camels, and giant ground sloths.
A Natural History Experiment 1835 –Chatham Islands discovered by British Seal Hunting ship –500 miles off coast of New Zealand –News told to native New Zealanders Chatham Islands: –Abundance of fish, food –Inhabitants numerous Dont know how to fight No weapons
Maori of New Zealand Nine hundred of the native Maori people of New Zealand, –armed with guns, arrived in the Chatham Islands –announced that the Chatham Islands people (the Moriori) were now their slaves, and killed those who objected. Maori Warrior
Moriori Slaughter An eyewitness account said –"The Maori commenced to kill us like sheep... –We were terrified, fled to the bush, –concealed ourselves in holes underground, and in any place to escape our enemies. –It was of no avail; we were discovered and killed –-- men, women, and children indiscriminately". Maori Warrior
Maori Explanation A Maori conqueror explained: –"We took possession...in accordance with our customs and we caught all the people. – Not one escaped. – Some ran away from us, these we killed, and others we killed -- but what of that? – It was in accordance with our custom". Maori Warrior
Natural History Experiment This is a natural history experiment. Both the Maori and Moriori –descended from the same Polynesian farmers who settled New Zealand.
Moriori When the the Moriori moved to the Chatham islands –hundreds of years earlier –could not farm due to the cold climate, and –became hunter/gatherers. They learned to live peacefully –because their resources were so limited.
Maori The New Zealand Maori –continued farming –dense populations –more complex technology and political organization – ferocious wars: The difference was – geography. Competing agricultural societies –are prone to warfare Maori Agriculture
Conquest of the New World "The biggest population shift of modern times has been the colonization of the new World by Europeans, and the resulting –conquest, –numerical reduction, –or complete disappearance of most groups of Native Americans".
Pizarro The Incas were conquered by the Spaniard Francisco Pizarro.
Pizarros Forces Pizarro had 168 soldiers. They were in unfamiliar territory, –ignorant of the local inhabitants, –were 1000 miles away from reinforcements, –and were and surrounded by the Incan empire with 80,000 soldiers led by Atahuallpa. Machu Picchu, Peru
Guns, Germs and Steel Pizarro had –steel armor –swords –horse mounted cavalry –guns a minor factor
Treachery Pizarro –ambushed and captured Atahuallpa –used religion to justify it. –collected a huge ransom in gold and silver, –killed him anyway. Inca Gold
Eyewitness Report sent to the King of Spain The prudence, fortitude, military discipline, labors, perilous navigations, and battles of the Spaniards – vassals of the most invincible Emperor of the Roman Catholic Empire, our natural King and Lord– will cause joy to the faithful and terror to the infidels. For this reason, and for the glory of God our Lord and for the service of the Catholic Imperial Majesty, it has seemed good for me to write this narrative, and to send it to Your Majesty that all may have a knowledge of what is here related... Charles V: Holy Roman Emperor, King of Spain
Eyewitness Report sent to the King of Spain It will be to the glory of God, because they have conquered and brought to our holy Catholic Faith so vast a number of heathens, aided by His holy guidance. It will be to the honor of our Emperor because, by reason of his great power and good fortune, such events happened in his time. It will give joy to the faithful that such battles have been won, such provinces discovered and conquered, such riches brought home for the King and for themselves; and that such terror has been spread among the infidels, such admiration excited in all mankind…
The booming of the guns, and the rattles on the horses threw the Indians into panicked confusion. The Spaniards fell upon them and began to cut them to pieces. The Indians were so filled with fear that they climbed on top of one another, formed mounds, and suffocated each other. Since they were unarmed, they were attacked without danger to any Christian. The cavalry rode them down killing and wounding, and following in pursuit… Eyewitness Report sent to the King of Spain
Government IdeologyEconomy Spanish Conquest Religious justification New World resources: gold, land King of Spain
Conquistadors In addition to horses and steel, conquistadors had: –Superior ocean going ships –Superior political organization of the European states Carried infectious diseases that wiped out 95% of Native Americans –smallpox, measles, influenza, typhus, bubonic plague Superior knowledge of human behavior – from thousands of years of written history. _6.jpg
Inca Empire Started as the Inca tribe –City-state of Cusco Expansion by conquest of neighboring regions –Began 1438 Successful conquest and assimilation –along coast of South America –Cusco was capitol Wealthy –Collected tribute from conquered parts of empire
Why not the other way? Why did Europeans have all of the advantages instead of the Incas? –Inca empire brutal, successful Why didn't the Incas –invent guns and steel swords, –have horses, –or bear deadly diseases? Answer: –Adopted agriculture 5,000 years later Population and technology behind –No horses in the new world –No large animal agriculture (only llama) Eurasian epidemic diseases originated in animal agriculture Inca Inca Warrior
Advantages of Agricultural Societies More food so more people –Technology development Metallurgy Tools, weapons Writing –Labor Agriculture Public works –Warriors Conquest –Land –Slaves –Resources
Agricultural Revolution Hunters & Gatherers Agriculture Population Growth Technology Conquest for land Food production Culture Expanding population & environmental destruction
Advantages of Agricultural Societies Domestic animals –Meat –Pull plows and carts –Transportation War and trade –Furs and fiber –Fertilizer –Deadly germs Transfer to humans Become epidemic diseases
Advantages of Agricultural Societies Sedentary Existence –Short birth intervals –higher population densities Grain Storage –Support specialists: Kings bureaucrats soldiers priests artisans.
Unequal Conflicts " Much of human history has consisted of unequal conflicts –between the haves and the have- nots: between peoples with farmer power and those without it, or between those who acquired it at different times."
Independent Crop Domestication Middle East (8,000 BC) –Wheat, pea, olive Asia –Almond, apple, soybean China –Rice, common millet Mexico (3,000 BC) –Maize, squash, beans South America –Potato, Cassava, Peanut Africa –Sorghum, pearl millet USA –Sunflower Other people adopted these crops (and domesticated animals) later as a cultural package
Adoption by Hunter-Gatherers Sometimes domesticated plants and animals were adopted by hunters/gatherers –Native Americans in U.S. Sometimes hunters/gatherers were displaced by agriculturalists –European expansion in Australia, Tasmania Trugannini, last Remaining Tasmanian Aboriginal, 1868
Head Start " The peoples of areas with a head start on food production –thereby gained a head start on the path leading to: guns, germs and steel. –The result was a long series of collisions between the haves and have-nots of history."
Food Production Food production often led to: –poorer health –shorter lifespan –harder labor for the majority of people.
Early Plant Domestication Humans unknowingly selected for traits: –seed size, fiber length –lack of bitterness –early germination –Self pollination –dispersal mutations wheat that does not shatter seeds that stay in pods
Sowing by Broadcast Grains in Eurasia were sown by broadcast, later in animal plowed fields to give monoculture.
Digging Sticks In the new world, – planting done by digging stick –no domesticated plow animals Result: mixed gardens.
Major Domesticated Crops No new plants domesticated –in modern times Major crops –domesticated thousands of years ago. Need a suite of domesticated plants –to make agriculture work New plants were domesticated –where agriculture was already successful Rice
Fertile Crescent Tigris and Euphrates valley –Iraq Nile valley –Egypt Levant –Jordan –Palestine
Fertile Crescent Attributes Mediterranean climate. Wild stands of wheat Hunter/gatherers –settled down here before agriculture – living off grain High percentage of self pollinating plants –easiest to domesticate. 32 of 56 large seeded grass species of the world. Big animals for domestication: –goat, sheep, pig, cow
MesoAmerica (Mexico) Only two domesticated animals in Meso America –Turkey and dog Maize was slow to domesticate –5,000 years after domestication of wheat Mexican Maize
Big 5 Domesticated Animals Horse Cow Pig Sheep Goat All from Eurasia
Animal Domestication in Eurasia Dates for animal domestication BCE
Horse Domestication in Eurasia Kurgans: Battle-Axe People. 3,000 BCE
Large Animals Of 148 large herbivorous or omnivorous species in the world – Eurasia had 72 – Africa 51 – Americas 24 – Australia 1 Most cannot be domesticated
Why have 134 out of 148 big species not been domesticated? Diet too finicky –koala Growth rate too slow –elephants, gorillas Wont breed in captivity –cheetah, vicuna Nasty Disposition. –grizzly bear, African buffalo, onager, zebra, hippo, elk
Why have 134 out of 148 big species not been domesticated? Hard to herd (no dominance structure) –deer, antelope Tendency to panic. –deer, antelope, gazelles Solitary –only cats and ferrets domesticated Territorial –rhino
Easier to spread East-West It was easier for domestic plants and animals –later, technology like wheels, writing to spread East-West in Eurasia –than North- South in Americas, Africa Therefore large Eurasian population resulted –Dominant in technology Eurasian Climates
Evidence Most crops in Eurasia domesticated only once. Rapid spread East-West –preempted same or similar domestication. Fertile Crescent crops spread –to Egypt, –N. Africa, –Europe, –India –and eventually to China. East-West Eurasian Climate Zones
Spread of Chariots in E-W Eurasia Dates are BCE
Evidence Some crops domesticated independently –in both S. America and Meso- America –due to slow spread lima beans common beans chili peppers
Americas Distance between cool highlands of Mexico and Andes only 1,200 miles –but separated by low hot tropical region. Thus, no exchange of crops, animals, writing, wheel. –Only maize spread. America Climatic Zones
Americas It took 2,000 years for maize to cross 700 miles of desert –to reach U.S.A. It took another 1000 years –for maize to adapt to U.S.A. climate to be productive North America Climatic Zones
Africa East-West spread of plants, animals easier –due to same day-length, similar seasonal variations. Temperate N. Africa crops did not reach S. Africa until colonists brought them –Sahara –Tropics Tropical crops spread West to East in central Africa with Bantu culture and conquest –did not cross to S. Africa due to climate. African Climates Bantu
Not a Cultural Issue Some species independently domesticated in different parts of the world. –Cows, dogs, pigs –These animals were well suited for domestication. Modern attempts to domesticate: –eland, elk, moose, musk ox, zebra, American Bison –are only marginally successful. Distribution of domestic animals geographic –Not cultural superiority –Example: Native Americans easily adapted to horses Wild boar: easily domesticated