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Hardness Testing Indentation Hardness used for steel – as opposed to scratch or rebound hardness It is indicative of ultimate tensile strength – Atoms.

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Presentation on theme: "Hardness Testing Indentation Hardness used for steel – as opposed to scratch or rebound hardness It is indicative of ultimate tensile strength – Atoms."— Presentation transcript:

1 Hardness Testing Indentation Hardness used for steel – as opposed to scratch or rebound hardness It is indicative of ultimate tensile strength – Atoms move out of the way to create indentation Two main types: Brinell and Rockwell

2 Brinell Hardness

3 A spherical indenter (1 cm diameter) is shot with 29 kN force at the target Frequently the indenter is steel, but for harder materials it is replaced with a tungsten carbide sphere The diameter of the indentation is recorded The indentation diameter can be correlated with the volume of the indentation.

4 Brinell Hardness

5 ASTM and ISO use the HB value. It can be HBS (Hardness, Brinell, Steel) or the HBW (Hardness, Brinell, Tungsten) HBW = BHN Sometimes written as HBW 10/3000 (Tungsten, 10 mm diameter, 3,000 kg force)

6 Typical HB values MaterialHardness Softwood (e.g., pine)1.6 HBS 10/100 Hardwood2.6–7.0 HBS /100 Aluminum15 HB Copper35 HB Mild steel120 HB 18-8 (304) stainless steel annealed200 HB Glass1550 HB Hardened tool steel1500–1900 HB Rhenium diboride4600 HB

7 Rockwell Hardness


9 Rockwell Hardness Scales ScaleCodeLoadIndenterUse AHRA 60 kgf120° diamond cone Tungsten carbide BHRB 100 kgf1/16 in diameter steel sphere Al, brass, and soft steels CHRC 150 kgf120° diamond coneHarder steels DHRD 100 kgf120° diamond cone EHRE 100 kgf1/8 in diameter steel sphere FHRF 60 kgf1/16 in diameter steel sphere GHRG 150 kgf1/16 in diameter steel sphere

10 Conversion/Comparison HBW 10/3000HRA 60KGHRB 100KGHRC 150KG Tensile Strength (Approx) , , , , , , , , , ,000

11 Effect of Strain Rate


13 Effect of Temperature

14 Creep When a material is loaded below the yield stress point for a long period of time, it may incur plastic deformation. When the material is stretched below the yield point at increased temperatures creep will develop over several stages. The temperature level at which creep will initiate depends on the alloy – For aluminum, creep may start at approx. 200°C and for low alloying steel at approx. 370°C

15 Creep


17 Effects of Punching Holes/Shearing Holes and shearing cause cold work near the edges of the material. Cold work can lead to brittle failure/cracking

18 Drilling Holes The work hardening effect when drilling the austenitic stainless steel grades eg 304, 316 is the main cause of problems. – make sure that the steel is fully annealed when deep or small diameter holes are to be drilled. – Cold drawn bar products should be avoided. rigid machines and tooling should be used when drilling or reaming.

19 Drilling Center punching with conventional conical shaped punches can result in enough localized work hardening to make drill entry difficult. – drill tip can deflect or wander, glaze the surface or blunt the drill tip and result in drill breakages Where a punch mark is needed to help get the hole started, a light mark using a three- cornered pyramid tip punch is a better idea.

20 Drilling Essential to maintain feed rate to cut the work hardened layer generated as the metal is cut. – Dwell or rubbing must be avoided. – Entry and re-entry should be done at full speed and feed rate. When drilling through-holes, a backing plate should be used to help avoid drill breakages as the drill comes out of the blind side of the hole.

21 Drills The cutting angle should be around 135°. Larger angles produce thinner chips that should be easier to remove, which is important when drilling stainless steels. Lower angles of around 120° can be used for drilling free- machining grades

22 Reaming Cold working during drilling, punching or machining the preparation hole prior to reaming austenitic stainless steels must be minimized. Sufficient material must be left on the hole wall however to allow a positive reaming cut to be made to undercut the new work- hardened layer produced.

23 Reaming

24 Shearing Steel

25 If shear edges are to be left exposed, at least 1/16 inch of material should be trimmed – Usually by grinding or machining Note that rough machining (edge planers making a deep cut) can produce same effects

26 Effects of Welding Failures in service rarely occur in a properly made weld. – When failure occurs it is initiated at a notch defect – This could come from flaws in the weld metal Welding-arc strikes may cause embrittlement in the base metal Preheating before welding minimizes risk of brittle failure. – Less likelihood of cracking during cooling

27 Welding Rapid cooling of weld can have bad effects. – If there is an arc strike with no deposited metal, it will cool quicker than the rest and likely embrittle Welds are sometimes peened to prevent cracking and distortion. Some specs prohibit peening in first and last weld passes. – Peening reduces toughness and impact properties (work hardens the weld)

28 Single pass weld

29 Multipass weld

30 Defect

31 Thermal Cutting Oxyfuel, air carbon arc, plasma arc Similar problems with welding – Pre-heating is desired in many applications Roughness of cut surface depends on – Uniformity of pre-heat – Uniformity of the cutting velocity – Quality of steel

32 Thermal Cutting

33 Residual stress flame cut

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