Presentation on theme: "Steel Design BCN 3431 Rinker School of Building Construction University of Florida."— Presentation transcript:
Steel Design BCN 3431 Rinker School of Building Construction University of Florida
BCN Steel Design2 Why Structural Design Courses? zAnyone managing the construction process needs a basic understanding of the engineers environment and the basic understanding of how a structure behaves. Constructors must be able to address a number of technical questions at the project site including structural issues that sometimes are not addressed by the design professionals. Since the safety of construction workers as well as the strength and stability of structures during the construction phase is of paramount importance, construction mangers need this knowledge.
BCN Steel Design3 Structural Design zDefinition: Determination of overall proportions and dimensions of the supporting framework and the selection of individual members. zResponsibility:The structural engineer, within the constraints imposed by the architect (number of stories, floor plan,..) is responsible for structural design.
BCN Steel Design4 Important Factors in Design zSafety (the structure doesnt fall down) zServiceability (how well the structure performs in term of appearance and deflection) zEconomy (an efficient use of materials and labor)
BCN Steel Design5 Alternatives zSeveral alternative designs should be prepared and their costs compared.
BCN Steel Design6
9 Types of Load zDead Loads (permanent; including self- weight, floor covering, suspended ceiling, partitions,..) zLive Loads (not permanent; the location is not fixed; including furniture, equipment, and occupants of buildings) zWind Load (exerts a pressure or suction on the exterior of a building)
BCN Steel Design10 Types of Load Continued zEarthquake Loads (the effects of ground motion are simulated by a system of horizontal forces) zSnow Load (varies with geographical location and drift) zOther Loads (hydrostatic pressure, soil pressure)
BCN Steel Design11 Types of Load Continued zIf the load is applied suddenly, the effects of IMPACT must be accounted for. zIf the load is applied and removed many times over the life of the structure, FATIGUE stress must be accounted for
BCN Steel Design12 Building Code zA legal document containing requirements related to such things as structural safety, fire safety, plumbing, and ventilation. zIt has the force of law and is administered by a city, a county, or other governmental agencies. zIt does not provide design procedures, but it specifies the design requirements.
BCN Steel Design13 National Model Codes zMost of the municipalities adopt a model code and modify it to suit their particular needs. zThe BOCA National Building Code zThe Uniform Building Code zThe Standard Building Code yThe ASCE7-95, Minimum Design Loads for Building and Other Structures, is another nationally accepted document.
BCN Steel Design14 Design Specifications zProvide guidance for the design of structural members and their connections. zThey have no legal standing on their own, but they can easily be adopted, by reference, as part of a building code. zAmerican Concrete Institute (ACI ) Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete zNational Design Specifications for Wood Construction by American Forest and Paper Association.
BCN Steel Design15 Specifications for the Design of Structural Steel Buildings zAmerican Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction
BCN Steel Design16 Structural Steel zSteel is an alloy of primarily iron, carbon (1 to 2%) and small amount of other components (manganese, nickel, …) zCarbon contributes to strength but reduces ductility.
BCN Steel Design17 Steel Properties zThe important characteristics of steel for design purposes are: yyield stress (F y ) yultimate stress (F u ) ymodulus of elasticity (E) ypercent elongation ( ) ycoefficient of thermal expansion ( )
BCN Steel Design18 The Tension test
BCN Steel Design19 ASTM structural Steel Specifications zPlain carbon steel A36 (F y =36 ksi) zHigh Strength low alloy steel A572 (F y =42 to 65 ksi) zCorrosion resistant high-strength low-alloy steel A242, A588 (F y =42 to 50 ksi) zQuenched and tempered A852 (F y =70 ksi), A 514 (F y = ksi)
BCN Steel Design20 Standard Cross-Sectional Shapes
BCN Steel Design21 Standard Cross-Sectional Shapes
BCN Steel Design22 Standard Cross-Sectional Shapes
BCN Steel Design24 ASD zA member is selected such that the max stress due to working loads does not exceed an allowable stress. zIt is also called elastic design or working stress design. yallowable stress=yield stress/factor of safety yactual stress allowable stress
BCN Steel Design25 LRFD zA member is selected such that its factored strength is more than the factored loads. y (loads x L factors) resistance x R factor zEach load effect (DL, LL,..)has a different load factor which its value depends on the combination of loads under consideration.
BCN Steel Design26 Load Factors zThe values are based on extensive statistical studies yDL only 1.4D yDL+LL+SL (LL domin.)1.2D+1.6L+0.5S yDL+LL+SL (SL domin.)1.2D+0.5L+1.6S yIn each combination, one of the effects is considered to be at its lifetime max value and the others at their arbitrary point in time values.
BCN Steel Design27 Resistance Factor zThe resistance factors range in value from 0.75 to 1.0 depending on the type of resistance (tension, bending, compression,..) zThese factors account for uncertainties in material properties, design theory, and fabrication and construction practices.
BCN Steel Design28 History zASD has been the primary method used for steel design since the first AISC specifications was issued in zIn 1986, AISC issued the first specification for LRFD. zThe trend today is toward LRFD method, but ASD is still in use.
BCN Steel Design29 Advantages of LRFD zIt provides a more uniform reliability in all structures subjected to many types of loading conditions. It does not treat DL and LL as equivalent, thereby leading to a more rational approach. zIt provides better economy as the DL make up a greater percentage on a given structure. yBecause DLs are less variable by nature than live loads, a lower load factor is used. yThis may lead to a reduction in member size and therefore better economy.
BCN Steel Design30 Degree of Precision zThe accuracy of engineering data is less than 0.2 percent (504 lbs not lbs). zRepresent solutions numerically to an accuracy of three significant digits. yIf the number begins with 1, then use four significant digits. yExamples: 4.78, 728, 1.724, , 32.1, 88300, , 1056.