5William F. Newell, Jr. PE, IWE, Chair D10C RECOMMENDED PRACTICES FOR WELDING AUSTENITIC CHROMIUM-NICKEL STAINLESS STEEL PIPE AND TUBING
6AWS D10.4“…to provide information which may be used to avoid, or at least minimize, difficulties in welding austenitic stainless steel piping and tubing. …”
7AWS D10.4 - Uses Often overlooked…… Excellent resource for: Developing Corporate Procedures & SpecificationsTraining Engineers, Supervision and WeldersGeneral Reference Guide
8AWS D HistoryFirst published in August 1955 under the title, The Welding of Austenitic Chromium-Nickel Steel Piping and Tubing. A Committee Report and published as AWS D TAWS D T was revised in 1966
9AWS D HistoryIn 1979, a major updating of the document was completed and published as AWS D , Recommended Practices for Welding Austenitic Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Piping and Tubing. This version presented a detailed discussion of the role of delta ferrite in austenitic chromium-nickel steel welds.
10AWS D HistoryIn 1986, the document was expanded and given an Annex which gives recommendations for welding high-carbon stainless steel castings.In 1992 and 1999, the document was reaffirmed.
11AWS D HistoryThe current document, ANSI/AWS D10.4M/D10.4:199X, Guide for Welding Austenitic Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Piping and Tubing has extended safety and health information and provides information on super austenitic stainless steels and flux cored arc welding.Tables listing specific chemical composition ranges for base metal and weld metal that fall under the jurisdiction of other codes or documents have been omitted from this revision. Where helpful, however, comparison data is presented.
13AWS D10.4 – Base Metals Austenitic Super Austenitic High Carbon 300-seriesSuper Austenitic4% & 6% MoHigh Carbon“HX” Grades
14Coming !D10.18 (DRAFT)“Guide for Welding Ferritic/Austenitic Duplex Stainless Steel Piping and Tubing”
15Don Connell Welding Engineer Detroit Edison Company RECOMMENDED PRACTICES FOR GAS TUNGSTEN ARC WELDING OF TITANIUM PIPING AND TUBING
16Applications for Ti Pipe & Tube Where Ti is selected for its corrosion resistance rather than its high strength to weight ratioChemical processingPetrochemicalDesalinationPower generation plantsNavy to replace Cu-Ni in seawater piping
17Process-GTAWOther processes may be used to weld Ti but are not covered in this recommended practice
18Base Metals 6 grades commonly used for piping, all single phase alpha Ref: ASTM B337 (seamless & welded pipe) & B338 (seamless & welded tubing)Replaced by ASTM B861 and B862
19Critical Factors in Welding Cleanliness-proper means of mechanical and chemical cleaning using acids and solventsProtection from contaminants at elevated temperaturesTrailing shieldsRoot shieldingChamber welding
20Quality ControlSimple tests to check the process before welding & the finished weldmentDescribes how weld color is an indication of weld quality
26Many Base Alloys And Base Alloy Combinations Can Be Joined Using Several Different Filler Alloys Only one filler alloy may be optimum for a specific applicationWhen Choosing The Optimum Filler Alloy, the End Use Of The Weldment And Its Desired Performance Must Be The Prime Consideration.<>
27Filler Alloy Selection Primary Characteristics *Filler Alloy Selection Primary CharacteristicsWWeldability Or Freedom From CrackingStrength Of Weld - Tensile Or ShearDuctility Of WeldCorrosion ResistanceTemperature ServiceMatch in color after anodizingSDCTM*Post Weld Heat Treatment<>
28Hot Weld CrackingHot Cracking On Base Alloy Plate Adjacent To A Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) Welded Alloy Fillet<>
29Avoid Critical Chemistry Ranges Weld Cracking - HOTChoice Of Filler MetalLower Melting & Solidification Point - MoltenDuring Maximum Contraction StressesSmaller Freezing ZoneAvoid Critical Chemistry RangesSi 0.5% To 2.0%Example: % ( Electrode )% ( Base )Avoid Welding 5xxx Esp.. ( 5086, 5083, )With Or 4xxx. Mgsi Eutectic ProblemsAvoid Mg Range Up To 3.0% In Weld<>
30Alloy Content vs. Crack Sensitivity RELATIVE CRACK SENSITIVITYCOMPOSITION OF WELD - PERCENT ALLOYING ELEMENT<>
31Dilution Effect On Weld Composition Base Plate 6061Filler Metal 535620% Filler Metal80% Base Metal1.7% Mg60% Filler Metal40% Base Metal3.2% Mg<>
32Weld Strength - Groove Welds The Heat Of Welding Softens theAluminum Base Alloy Adjacent To The WeldIn Most Groove Weldsthe H.A.Z. of the Base Alloy Will Controlthe As-welded Tensile Strength of the Joint<>
33Heat Affected Zone Non Heat Treatable Heat Treatable < > A - Weld MetalAs Cast Structure Of Base & Filler MetalB - Fusion ZoneWhere Partial MeltingOf Base Metal OccursC - Anneal ZoneWhere Base Metal Is Fully Recrystallized - Full SoftD - Partial Anneal ZoneWhere Base Alloy Is Recovered And Partially SoftenedE - UnaffectedA - Weld ZoneB - Fusion ZoneC - Solid Solution ZoneWhere Alloy ElementsAre Solutioned & CooledTo Retain Solid SolutionD - Partially AnnealedOveraged ZoneWhere Heat Has CausedPrecipitation And/orCoalescence Of ParticlesOf Soluable ConstituentsE - UnaffectedWHAT WOULD YOU EXPECT THE STRUCTURE TO LOOK LIKE. IN EACH OF THE AREAS?<>
34Distance From Weld Interface Hardness Profiles of 6061-T6Made At Three Heat InputsHardness REWHICH WOULD BE BETTER. ONE PASS WITH LARGER DIAMETER WIRE OR MULTI PASS WITH SMALL DIAMETER WIRE-DEPENDS UPON WHAT IS EXPECTEC OF WELDDistance From Weld Interface<>
35Weld Strength - Fillet Welds The Shear Strength Of FilletWelds Is The Significant Factor AndIs Controlled By The Shear StrengthThrough The Weld Metal5356 Produces Greater FilletWeld Strength In The As WeldedCondition Compared To 4043<>
36TRANSVERSE Fillet Size (Inch) Shear StrengthLBS. Per Linear InchShear StrengthTRANSVERSE Fillet Size (Inch)<>
39Alloy 7075-T6 Welded With 5356 Filler Post Weld Heat Treated and Aged Corrosion Facts – As WeldedAlloy 7075-T6 Welded With 5356 Filler-849mv-876mv-900mv-810mvPost Weld Heat Treated and Aged-810mv-810mv-840mv-806mvNote: Fusion Zone Mechanical Properties Not Restored to PreWeld Properties<>
40M Color Match After Anodize Rating Scale: A - B Ratings Scale Measures Uniformity Of ColorComparing Base Alloy And Weld MetalAfter Anodizing.Either There Is A Good Or Reasonable MatchOr There Is Not.A Blank Space Indicates No Reasonable Match.<>
41Color Match After Clear Anodize Base Metal: 6061<>
42Post Weld Heat Treatment Filler Alloys Have Been DevelopedWhich Will Respond To PostweldHeat Treatment.4643 Was Developed For Welding The 6xxx Base Alloys, Has Additions Of Mg And Is Less Dependant On Dilution Of The Base Alloy To Achieve Desired Composition.Filler Alloys For Welding Castings Have Been Developed With Chemistries Which Will Respond To Post Weld Heat Treatment.<>
44William F. Newell, Jr. PE, IWE, Chair D10I RECOMMENDED PRACTICES FOR WELDING OF CHROMIUM-MOLYBDENUM STEEL PIPING AND TUBING
45AWS D10.8“… provide recommendations for welding chromium-molybdenum steel pipe and tubing to itself and to various other materials. Subjects covered in detail are filler metal selection, joint design, preheating, and postheating. …”
46AWS D10.8 - Uses Often overlooked…… Excellent resource for: Developing Corporate Procedures & SpecificationsTraining Engineers, Supervision and WeldersGeneral Reference Guide
47AWS D HistoryFirst presented in 1961 as a Committee Report by the AWS Committee on Piping and Tubing.Revised in 1978 and became a “Recommended Practice”Subsequent revisions/reaffirmations in 1986 and 1996
48AWS D10.8 - Content Base Metals Weld Filler Metals Joint Design & Preparation (purging)PreheatingPost Weld Heat TreatmentRepair/Maintenance of Service Exposed MaterialSafety
52Pending ! D10.08 (DRAFT) Removing information on 9CrMoV (P91) Removing References to Standard Welding Procedures
53Coming !D10.21 (DRAFT)“Guideline for Welding Advanced Chromium-Molybdenum Steel Piping and Tubing”P91, P911, P92, P122, T23…
54Dan Ciarlariello Mannings USA RECOMMENDED PRACTICES FOR LOCAL HEATING OF WELDS IN PIPING AND TUBING
55Definition of Heat Treatment Heat Treatment is generally defined as heating to a suitable temperature then cooling at a suitable rate of a solid metal or alloy in a way so as to obtain specific conditions and/or properties by changing the physical, chemical and/or mechanical properties of the steel, metal or alloy
61Reasons for Localized Heat Treating Bake OutPreheating and Inter-pass TemperaturesPost HeatingPost-weld Heat Treatment
62Comparison of Heating Processes Induction - ResistanceYes YesAttributeApplicability to bake-outApplicability to preheat/inter-passApplicability to postheatingApplicability to PWHT
63Advantages and disadvantages of heating processes Induction HeatingAdvantagesHigh heating ratesAbility to heat a narrow band adjacent to a region which hastemperature restrictionsDisadvantagesHigh initial equipment cost.Equipment large and less portable.Limited ability to create control zones around the circumference.
64Advantages and disadvantages of heating processes Electrical ResistanceAdvantagesAbility to continuously maintain heat from weldingoperation to PWHTGood ability to vary heat around the circumferenceDisadvantagesElements may be damaged during weldingQuantity of heaters required on thicker components
65High Frequency Induction heating Uniform product qualityIncreased surface wear-proof characteristicsIncreased material fatigue strengthMinimum strain due to local surface hardeningVery localized heating
66Why Preheat? Reduce the level of thermal stress. Compensate for high heat losses.Minimize the rate of weld hardening.Reduce porosity.Reduce hydrogen cracking.Improve the microstructure.
73AWS D10.11 Walter J. Sperko, P.E. Sperko Engineering Services, Inc. Guide forRoot Pass Weldingof Pipe Without Backing
74AWS D10.11 KeywordsRoot pass welding, pipe, gas purging, consumable insert, gas tungsten arc welding, gas metal arc welding, shielded metal arc welding
75AWS D10.11 IntroductionThis publication was intended to be a “how to” guide in the use of open root and consumable insert welding techniques for root pass welding of groove welds joining metal pipe.
76AWS D10.11 IntroductionJoint designs, fitting techniques, consumable insert configurations, filler and base metal combinations, purging, and welding processes are discussed. This publication made no provision for joints which include backing rings
77AWS D10.11 IntroductionThis standard is a “best practices” guide to making high-quality pipe butt welds where backing cannot be usedWelders should have excellent reasons for deviating from what this standard recommends
78AWS D10.11 What is “Root Pass Welding?” Let’s look at some “root passes”
79AWS D10.11A single-vee Butt weld between two pipes
82AWS D10.11All of these “Root Passes” are on backing
83AWS D10.11Take away the Backing Strip and you have a weld without backing
84Welding without Backing You now have a pool of liquid metal hanging in space suspended between the ends of two pipes. . .
85Welding without Backing TorchBlast the arc force through the root opening and melt the edges of the metal, then fill the opening with filler metal
86Welding without Backing ElectrodeBlast the arc force through the root opening and melt the edges of the metal, then fill the opening with filler metal
87Effect of Included Angle LARGE included angle makes it easy to get the electrode close to the root and easy to direct the arc into the root.
88Effect of Included Angle SMALL included angle holds the electrode away from the root and makes it difficult to direct the arc into the root.
89Full Root PenetrationContinuous metal surface from one member across the weld to the other member
90Longitudinal Section of a pipe joint Forces on the weld pool?Longitudinal Section of a pipe joint
91Longitudinal Section of a pipe joint Forces on the weld poolGravityLongitudinal Section of a pipe joint
92Surface Cohesion (wetting) between the weld pool and the solid metal Forces on the weld poolSurface Cohesion (wetting) between theweld pool and the solid metalLongitudinal Section of a pipe joint
93Longitudinal Section of a pipe joint Forces on the weld poolThe arc must melt both edges of the root face and the weld pool must fill the gap without becoming too largeLongitudinal Section of a pipe joint
94Longitudinal Section of a pipe joint Forces on the weld poolIf the weld pool becomes too large, the surface cohesion forces are overcome. The result is root concavity or drop-through.Longitudinal Section of a pipe joint
95Parts of a Groove Weld Joint Design Root Face (“Land”)
96Parts of a Groove Weld Joint Design Root Opening (“Root Gap”)
97Root Opening vs. Root Face Thick Root FaceThin Root FaceSmall Root opening Incomplete PenetrationProportional Root opening Complete PenetrationExcessive Root opening Root concavity or burn-through
98Root opening - Root face thickness relationship 1/8”3/32”Root Face Thickness1/16”1/16”3/32”1/8”Root Opening
134SummaryAWS D10.11 gives very specific recommendations about techniques that have proven successful in making pipe welds without backingRecommendations should be familiar to welder’s supervisionRecommendations should not be take lightly
135D10.12 RECOMMENDED PRACTICES FOR WELDING MILD STEEL PIPE Alan BeckettD10.12 RECOMMENDED PRACTICES FOR WELDINGMILD STEEL PIPE
136D10.12 Welding Mild Steel Pipe This document provides recommendations for the welding of mild steel pipe such as A106 type. This material is found in many scopes of work, and extensively in commercial building construction.A106 material is often used as a starting point for welder training.
138D10.12 A Document for All Reasons As with other D10 documents, you will find excellent attention to detail presented in a manner for all to understand.For these reasons D10.12 is a welcome addition to your library or a valuable resource for training.
139MICHAEL LANG AWS/CWI/CWE United Association of Plumbers & Pipefitters RECOMMENDED PRACTICES FOR BRAZING OF COPPER PIPE AND TUBING FOR MEDICAL GAS SYSTEMS
140What is Medical Gas Piping? There are many perceptions of Medical Gas Piping but the facts are:Cleanliness is entirely dependant on installation practicesPoor installation can produces conditions that harbor bacteria and diseasesThese systems are not cleanableThese are life critical systems
141PurposeThe governing document for all Medical Gas Piping is NPFA Code 99C which dictates the methods and installation practices that shall be used in system construction…However this document does not cover actual brazed joint construction or the tools and practices needed for system construction
142Important NotesD10.13 is a Recommended Practice developed to work with NFPA 99C.All recommendations have been used in actual jobsite conditions with a 100% success rateThe use of these practices have produced consistent profitable results
143Needed Equipment Use and Care Torch Selection Tube Cutting Purge Monitoring
144Consumables Pre Braze Joint Cleaning Pre Braze Chemical Cleaning Post Braze CleaningBCuP Brazing AlloysBag Brazing Alloys
145Something you will only find in D10.13 The only document that provides joint heating and filler metal application methods.These methods continually produce a 99% acceptance rate in accordance with ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code Section XI.
146And… Purging MethodsPurging is possibly the most important component to internal cleanliness. This document provides methods and parameters for the use of oxygen analyzers.We also provide purge timing matrix charts for estimating purge times for long runs of piping. These charts should be used in conjunction with an O2 analyzer.
147Proven Success You Can Trust D10.13RECOMMENDED PRACTICES FOR BRAZING OF COPPER PIPE AND TUBING FOR MEDICAL GAS SYSTEMS
148THANK YOU FOR ATTENDING BECOME A COMMITTEE MEMBER FOR DETAILS CONTACT Brian McGrath atTHANK YOU FOR ATTENDINGAND ENJOY THE AWS SHOW